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  1. Alejandro II de Rusia (en ruso: Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич; Moscú, 17 de abril jul. / 29 de abril de 1818 greg. - San Petersburgo, 1 de marzo jul. / 13 de marzo de 1881 greg.) fue emperador del Imperio ruso desde el 3 de marzo de 1855 hasta su asesinato en 1881. También fue gran duque de Finlandia y rey de Polonia hasta 1867.

    • Su Majestad Imperial
    • Nicolás I
    • Alejandro Nikoláyevich Románov (en ruso: Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Рома́нов)
    • Alejandro III
    • Early Life
    • Reign
    • Assassination
    • Aftermath
    • Marriages and Children
    • in Fiction
    • in Nonfiction
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    Born in Moscow, Alexander Nikolayevich was the eldest son of Nicholas I of Russia and Charlotte of Prussia (daughter of Frederick William III of Prussia and of Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz). His early life gave little indication of his ultimate potential; until the time of his accession in 1855, aged 37, few[quantify] imagined that posterity woul...

    Reforms

    Encouraged by public opinion, Alexander began a period of radical reforms, including an attempt not to depend on landed aristocracy controlling the poor, an effort to develop Russia's natural resources, and to reform all branches of the administration. Boris Chicherin(1828-1904) was a political philosopher who believed that Russia needed a strong, authoritative government by Alexander to make the reforms possible. He praised Alexander for the range of his fundamental reforms, arguing that the...

    Reaction after 1866

    Alexander maintained a generally liberal course. Radicals complained he did not go far enough, and he became a target for numerous assassination plots. He survived attempts that took place in 1866, 1879, and 1880. Finally 13 March [O.S. 1 March] 1881, assassins organized by the Narodnaya Volya (People's Will) party killed him with a bomb. The Emperor had earlier in the day signed the Loris-Melikov constitution, which would have created two legislative commissions made up of indirectly elected...

    Suppression of separatist movements

    After Alexander II became Emperor of Russia and King of Poland in 1855, he substantially relaxed the strict and repressive regime that had been imposed on Congress Poland after the November Uprisingof 1830–1831. However, in 1856, at the beginning of his reign, Alexander made a memorable speech to the deputies of the Polish nobility who inhabited Congress Poland, Western Ukraine, Lithuania, Livonia, and Belarus, in which he warned against further concessions with the words, "Gentlemen, let us...

    After the last assassination attempt in February 1880, Count Loris-Melikov was appointed the head of the Supreme Executive Commission and given extraordinary powers to fight the revolutionaries. Loris-Melikov's proposals called for some form of parliamentary body, and the Emperor seemed to agree; these plans were never realised.[citation needed] On...

    Alexander II's death caused a great setback for the reform movement. One of his last acts was the approval of Mikhail Loris-Melikov's constitutional reforms. Though the reforms were conservative in practice, their significance lay in the value Alexander II attributed to them: "I have given my approval, but I do not hide from myself the fact that it...

    First marriage

    In 1838–39, the young bachelor, Alexander made the Grand Tour of Europe which was standard for young men of his class at that time. One of the purposes of the tour was to select a suitable bride for himself. His father Nicholas I of Russia suggested Princess Alexandrine of Baden as a suitable choice, but he was prepared to allow Alexander to choose his own bride, as long as she was not Roman Catholic or a commoner. Alexander stayed for three days with the maiden Queen Victoria. The two got al...

    Second marriage

    On 18 July [O.S. 6 July] 1880, Alexander II married his mistress Catherine Dolgorukova morganatically in a secret ceremony at Tsarskoe Selo. The action scandalized both his family and the court. It violated Orthodox custom which required a minimum period of 40 days mourning between the death of a spouse and the remarriage of a surviving spouse, eliciting criticism in foreign courts.Alexander bestowed on Catherine the title of Princess Yurievskaya and legitimized their children. Before their m...

    Alexander II appears prominently in the opening two chapters of Jules Verne's Michael Strogoff(published in 1876 during Alexander's own lifetime). The Emperor sets the book's plot in motion and sends its eponymous protagonist on the dangerous and vital mission which would occupy the rest of the book. Verne presents Alexander II in a highly positive...

    Mark Twain describes a short visit with Alexander II in Chapter 37 of The Innocents Abroad, describing him as "very tall and spare, and a determined-looking man, though a very pleasant-looking one nevertheless. It is easy to see that he is kind and affectionate. There is something very noble in his expression when his cap is off."

    Portrait of Alexander II, 1856
    Portrait of Emperor Alexander II wearing the greatcoat and cap of the Imperial Horse-Guards Regiment. c. 1865
    Alexander II, by Sergei Lvovich Levitsky, 1860 (The Di Rocco Wieler Private Collection, Toronto, Canada)
    Alexander II, portrait by Konstantin Makovsky. 1881

    Sources

    1. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wallace, Donald Mackenzie (1911). "Alexander II.". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 559–561. 2. Richmond, Walter (2008). The Northwest Caucasus : past, present, future. London: Routledge. ISBN 9780415693219.

  2. Alejandro II - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre Alejandro II Esta página de desambiguación enumera artículos que tienen títulos similares. Se conocen varios personajes históricos bajo el nombre de Alejandro II : Alejandro II de Macedonia, 370 a 368 a. C. Alejandro II de Epiro (272 a. C.). Alejandro II, Papa entre 1061 y 1073.

  3. Alejandro II de Rusia (en ruso: Алекса́ндр II Никола́евич; Moscú, 17 de abril jul. / 29 de abril de 1818 greg. - San Petersburgo, 1 de marzo jul. / 13 de marzo de 1881 greg.) fue emperador del Imperio ruso desde el 3 de marzo de 1855 hasta su asesinato en 1881. También fue gran duque de Finlandia y rey de Polonia hasta 1867.

  4. wikipedia El emperador Alejandro II fue coronado hace 160 años, el 7 de septiembre de 1856. Pasó a la historia como el autor de grandes reformas, entre las que destaca la abolición de la...