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  1. Conservative Party (UK) The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, and also known colloquially as the Tories, Tory Party, or simply the Conservatives, is a political party in the United Kingdom. Ideologically, the Conservatives sit on the centre-right of the political spectrum. The Conservatives formed a fixed term ...

  2. Partido Conservador (Reino Unido) El Partido Conservador, oficialmente llamado Partido Conservador y Unionista (en inglés, Conservative and Unionist Party ), es un partido liberal-conservador del Reino Unido. Actualmente posee la mayoría de la Cámara de los Comunes, habiendo ganado 365 de los 650 asientos en la elección general de 2019.

    • 1834ᵇ (187 años)
    • Tory, Ultra-Tories, Scottish Unionist Party y Liberal Unionist Party
    • Party Policies
    • History
    • Party Support
    • Current Representation
    • Former Leaders

    Conservatives believe in the following things: 1. Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland should remain as part of the United Kingdom. 2. Marriage should be encouraged through the taxsystem. 3. Free markets and education should create an opportunity society. 4. Every child should have the best start in life and have access to good schools no matter their background. 5. Bold reforms to welfare and vocational skills are central to tackling social injustice. 6. Innovation, entrepreneurship, and free enterprise are vital in society. 7. The welfare state should be there for the sick and those in need.[source?] 8. Pensionsshould be tied to a person's average earnings. 9. There should be less immigrationto the United Kingdom. 10. There should be more support given to members of the British armed forcesand their families. 11. Britain should keep its nuclear weapons. 12. The monarchy should be preserved. 13. There should be no changes made to how electionsare held in Britain.

    19th century

    The party was founded in 1834 by Robert Peel out of the old Tory Party, which was founded in 1678. During the 1800s, the party was one of the two main political parties along with the Liberal Party. In 1846, the party split over the repeal of the 'Corn Laws', which was favoured by Robert Peel and most top Conservatives but was disliked by backbencher Conservative MPs. Following the repeal, the Peel government fell and Robert Peel and his followers went on to join the Liberal Party. Because of...

    Early and middle 20th century

    By 1906, the Conservatives had another split, this time about the issue of 'tariff reform' and as a result, the party was defeated in a landslide at the 1906 General Election by the Liberal Party. In 1912, the Conservative Party formally joined with the Liberal Unionist Party to create the modern-day Conservative and Unionist Party, however this is usually shortened to Conservative Party. The party was in a coalition with the Liberal Party from 1916 to 1922, and was mostly in power from 1922...

    Late 20th century

    Whilst Heath was in power, he took Britain into the European Union which later would deeply divide the Conservative Party. Direct rule had to be placed on Northern Ireland because of the violence that occurred because of The Troubles. After this, the Ulster Unionist Party stopped supporting the Conservative Party at Westminster. A miner's strike and rising inflationin 1973 caused Heath to start the three-day working week to ration power. The February 1974 General Election caused a hung parlia...

    Support for the party comes mainly from the South of England, Eastern England and rural areas, however, in recent years, support from the north of Englandhas increased.

    The Conservative Party has these seats: House of Commons(MPs) - House of Lords(Peers) - European Parliament(MEPs) - London Assembly(AMs) - Scottish Parliament(MSPs) - Welsh Assembly(AMs) - Local Government (Councillors) -

    Named below are all of the previous Conservative Party leaders since 1922. Their time as leader is placed in brackets. 1. Andrew Bonar Law(1922–1923) 2. Stanley Baldwin(1923–1937) 3. Neville Chamberlain(1937–1940) 4. Winston Churchill(1940–1955) 5. Anthony Eden(1955–1957) 6. Harold Macmillan(1957–1963) 7. Alec Douglas-Home(1963–1965) 8. Edward Heath(1965–1975) 9. Margaret Thatcher(1975–1990) 10. John Major(1990–1997) 11. William Hague(1997–2001) 12. Iain Duncan Smith(2001–2003) 13. Michael Howard(2003–2005) 14. David Cameron(2005–2016) 15. Theresa May(2016–2019)

    • History
    • The Nineteenth Century
    • The Unionist Ascendancy
    • Post War Recovery
    • The Heath Years: 1965–1975
    • The Thatcher Years, 1975–1990
    • The Major Years: 1990–1997
    • in Opposition
    • Return to Government
    • See Also

    Widening of the franchise in the 19th century led the party to popularise its approach, especially under Benjamin Disraeli, whose Reform Act of 1867 greatly increased the electorate. After 1886, the Conservatives allied with the part of the Liberal Party known as the Liberal Unionists who opposed their party's support for Irish Home Rule and together they held office for all but three of the following twenty years. Lord Salisbury's and Arthur Balfour's governments between 1895 and 1906 were given the name of "Unionist". The Conservative Party was also known as the Unionist Party in the early 20th century. In 1909, the Conservative Party was renamed the Conservative and Unionist Partyand in May 1912 it formally merged with the Liberal Unionists. The First World War saw the formation of an all-party coalition government and for four years after the armistice the Unionist Party remained in coalition with the Lloyd George Liberals. Eventually, grassroots pressure forced the breakup of t...

    Origins

    The modern Conservative Party arose in the 1830s, emerging from the Tory party that had formed about 1812, a key moment of the transition coming with the Tamworth Manifesto of 1834. Political alignments in those centuries were much looser than now, with many individual groupings. From the 1780s until the 1820s the dominant grouping was those Whigs following William Pitt the Younger. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was commonly used for a new party called by the historian Robert Blake "the...

    Crisis over the Corn Laws

    In 1846 disaster struck the Conservatives when the party split over the repeal of the Corn Laws. Peel and most senior Conservatives favoured repeal, but they were opposed by backbench members representing farming and rural constituencies, led by Lord George Bentinck, Benjamin Disraeli, and Lord Stanley (later the Earl of Derby), who favoured protectionism. Following repeal, the Protectionists combined with the Whigs to overthrow Peel's government. It would be twenty-eight years before a Conse...

    Recovery and triumph under Derby and Disraeli

    The Conservatives survived as an independent party, even though they would not form another majority government until the 1870s. The modern Conservative Party descends from the Protectionists who broke with Peel in 1846, although they did not reintroduce Protection when they were returned to power. Under the leadership of Derby and Disraeli they consolidated their position and slowly rebuilt the strength of the party. Although Derby led several minority governments in the 1850s and 1860s, the...

    The Conservatives, now led by Lord Salisbury, remained in power for most of the next twenty years, at first passively supported by the Liberal Unionists and then, after 1895, in active coalition with them. From 1895, unofficially, and after 1912 officially, the Conservative-Liberal Unionist coalition was often simply called the "Unionists". In 1902 Salisbury retired, and his nephew Arthur Balfourbecame Prime Minister. The party then split on the issue of Tariff Reform. The controversy had been taken up by the Liberal Unionist cabinet minister Joseph Chamberlain, who was Colonial Secretary. Like the earlier schism over the Corn Laws in 1846, the result led to polarisation within the coalition between those who supported Chamberlain and Imperial Preference, and those who opposed him in defence of the status quo and Free Trade. The split went across both Unionist parties. With the beleaguered Balfour in the middle, the government struggled on for another two years and saw many Unionist...

    The party responded to its defeat of 1945 by accepting many of the Attlee government's welfare state reforms, while offering a distinctive Conservative edge, as set out in their policy statement Industrial Charter (1947). Until the 1970s the two parties largely agreed on foreign policy, with both supporting NATO (1949–present) and the Anglo-American alliance of the Cold War(1947–1989). Economic recovery was slow, however, and that provided the opening for a comeback.

    Following the 1964 defeat, the party formally installed a system for electing the leader. Douglas-Home stepped down in 1965 and the election to succeed him was won by Edward Heath over both Reginald Maudling and Enoch Powell. The party proceeded to lose the 1966 general election. Heath's leadership proved controversial, with frequent calls from many prominent party members and supporters for him to step down, but he persevered. To the shock of almost everyone bar Heath, the party won the 1970 general election. As with all British governments in this period, Heath's time in office was difficult. Furthermore, the Heath premiership remains one of the most controversial in the history of the party. Initial attempts to follow monetarist policies (later considered "Thatcherite") failed, with high inflation and unemployment blocking Heath's attempts at reforming the increasingly militant trade unions. The era of 1970s British industrial unrest had arrived. The Troubles in Northern Ireland...

    Heath remained leader of the party despite growing challenges to his mandate, and the fact that he had now lost three of his four general elections as party leader. At the time there was no system for challenging an incumbent leader but after renewed pressure and a second general election defeat a system was put in place and Heath agreed to holding a leadership election to allow him to renew his mandate. In spite of his track record as Conservative party leader, which had included defeat at three out of four general elections, few both inside and out of the party expected him to be seriously challenged, let alone defeated. However, Margaret Thatcher stood against Heath and in a shock result outpolled him on the first ballot, leading him to withdraw from the contest. Thatcher then faced off four other candidates to become the first woman to lead a major British political party. Thatcher had much support from the monetarists, led by Keith Joseph. The Conservatives would eventually cap...

    Major introduced a replacement for the Community Charge, the Council Tax, and continued with the privatisations, and went on to narrowly win the 1992 electionwith a majority of 21. Major's government was beset by scandals, crisis, and missteps. Many of the scandals were about the personal lives of politicians which the media construed as hypocrisy, but the Cash for Questions affair and the divisions over EU were substantive. In 1995, Major resigned as Leader of the Conservative Party in order to trigger a leadership election which he hoped would give him a renewed mandate, and quieten the Maastricht rebels (e.g. Iain Duncan Smith, Bill Cash, Bernard Jenkin). John Redwood, then Secretary of State for Wales, stood against Major and gained around a fifth of the leadership vote. He was one of the people whom Major inadvertently referred to as 'bastards' during a television interview. Major was pleased that Michael Heseltine had not stood against him and gave him the position of Deputy P...

    William Hague: 1997–2001

    The ensuing leadership election was contested by five candidates. The electorate for the contest consisted solely of the 165 Conservative MPs who had been returned to the House of Commons. The candidates were Kenneth Clarke, William Hague, John Redwood, Peter Lilley and Michael Howard, with Stephen Dorrell launching an initial bid but withdrawing before polling began, citing limited support, and backing Clarke. Clarke was the favoured candidate of the Europhile left of the party, while the th...

    Iain Duncan Smith: 2001–2003

    The 2001 leadership election was conducted under a new leadership electoral system designed by Hague. This resulted in five candidates competing for the job: Michael Portillo, Iain Duncan Smith, Kenneth Clarke, David Davis and Michael Ancram. The drawn-out and at times acrimonious election saw Conservative MPs select Iain Duncan Smith and Ken Clarke to be put forward for a vote by party members. As Conservative Party members are characteristically Eurosceptic, Iain Duncan Smith was elected, e...

    Michael Howard: 2003–2005

    Duncan Smith remained as caretaker leader until Michael Howard, MP for Folkestone and Hythe, was elected to the post of leader(as the only candidate) on 6 November 2003. Howard announced radical changes to the way the Shadow Cabinet would work. He slashed the number of members by half, with Theresa May and Tim Yeo each shadowing two government departments. Minor departments still have shadows but have been removed from the cabinet, and the post of Shadow Leader of the House of Commons was abo...

    David Cameron: 2005–2016

    David Cameron won the subsequent leadership campaign on 6 December 2005. Cameron beat his closest rival David Davis by a margin of more than two to one, taking 134,446 votes to 64,398, and announced his intention to reform and realign the Conservative Party in a manner similar to that achieved by the Labour Party in opposition under Tony Blair. As part of this he distanced from himself from the much hated Conservative Party of the past, for example apologising for Section 28, and focused in o...

    Theresa May: 2016–2019

    In July 2016 Theresa May succeeded David Cameron as Tory Leader and Prime Minister following Andrea Leadsom's withdrawal from the leadership contest. She was the second woman to lead the party and subsequently the second female Prime Minister, following Margaret Thatcher. With the support of 199/320 Conservative MPs, May was seen as the most experienced figure who could unite the party after a bitter campaign in which Michael Gove, a supporter and running mate of Boris Johnson, publicly decla...

    Boris Johnson: 2019–present

    Boris Johnson became Prime Minister in July 2019. He won a landslide victory at the 2019 general election which saw the collapse of the Red wallwith the Tories winning Labour held seats for the first time in decades.

    • Leaders of The Party
    • House of Lords and Commons Leaders
    • See Also

    Living former party leaders

    There are six living former party leaders. From oldest to youngest:

    Leaders in the House of Lords

    Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party. 1. The Duke of Wellington: 1834–1846 2. The Lord Stanley (14th Earl of Derby from 1851): 9 March 1846 – 27 February 1868*, elected at a party meeting (see § House of Lords, below) 3. The Earl of Malmesbury: 1868–1869, appointed by Prime Minister Disraeli 4. The Lord Cairns: 1869–1870, elected at a party meeting (see House of Lords) 5. The Duke of Richmond: 1870 – 21 August 1876, elected at a party meeting (see House of Lords) 6...

    Leaders in the House of Commons

    Those asterisked were considered the overall leader of the party. 1. Sir Robert Peel: 18 December 1834[a]– 1846* 2. Lord George Bentinck: 1846–1847 3. The Marquess of Granby: 9 February 1848 – 4 March 1848, elected at a party meeting (see § House of Commons, below) 4. None:1848–1849 5. Jointly Benjamin Disraeli, the Marquess of Granby, and John Charles Herries: 1849–1852,[c] elected at a party meeting (see House of Commons) 6. Benjamin Disraeli: 1852 – 21 August 1876 (overall leader from 27 F...

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