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  1. Filial. Una filial de una compañía, empresa, corporación o sociedad de responsabilidad es una entidad controlada por otra entidad llamada matriz, holding o parent company (literalmente compañía madre o padre ). La razón de esta distinción es que una compañía por sí sola no puede ser filial de una organización. Solo una entidad ...

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › FilialFilial - Wikipedia

    Filial. Look up filial in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Filial church, a Roman Catholic church to which is annexed the cure of souls, but which remains dependent on another church. Filial piety, one of the virtues in Confucian thought. Filial hybrids, used in genetics (written as F1, F2, etc.)

    • Fútbol
    • Béisbol
    • Automovilismo

    España

    En España es muy común ver equipos filiales, en la gran mayoría llamados equipos B; comúnmente son conocidos como canteras, de los equipos profesionales en las diferentes categorías del fútbol español. Los más importantes debido al poderío económico de sus equipos principales y a los jugadores que han surgido de estos para el fútbol mundial son los equipos B del Real Madrid (caso Emilio Butragueño, Michel, Álvaro Arbeloa, Iker Casillas, Raúl, entre otros) y del Barcelona (caso Pep Guardiola,...

    Portugal

    En Portugal el caso es similar a las filiales españolas: Por orden de la UEFA, estos equipos filiales no pueden participar en torneos continentales ni en los torneos locales de Copa ni Copa de Liga. Igualmente, estas filiales no pueden ascender a Primera Divisiónmientras sus equipos principales permanezcan en ella.

    México

    El caso de México es especial ya que la política de franquicias que maneja la Liga Mexicana de Fútbolpermite a un mismo equipo profesional tener un equipo filial en las diferentes categorías del fútbol mexicano. Solo para mencionar como ejemplo los clubes más importantes de ese país: 1. Cruz Azul: Tiene equipos filiales en Segunda y Tercera División. 2. Club América: Tiene equipos filiales en Segunda y Tercera División. 3. Chivas de Guadalajara: Además de tener varias filiales en su país pose...

    En el béisbol todos los equipos de las Grandes Ligas manejan este sistema de equipos filiales o asociados, los cuales se encuentran distribuidos en las diferentes Ligas Menores esparcidas en los Estados Unidos, México, Venezuela y República Dominicana. Cada equipo de Grandes Ligas posee en promedio 4 o 5 equipos en las 19 Ligas Menores existentes en la actualidad.

    En el mundo de automovilismo son mìnimos los equipos filiales debido a que, comparado con otros deportes, el mantener una filial en el mundo del motor es muy costoso y como los dos equipos o escuderías, a diferencia de otros deportes, pueden competir en la misma categoría, el equipo filial no puede favorecer al equipo principal debiendo mantener cierto grado de independencia, para evitar así sanciones disciplinarias y económicas por parte de los organizadores de las competencias que participan. La escudería de Fórmula 1 Toro Rosso (basada en Italia) es filial de una de las escuderías más importantes en los últimos tiempos de esta categoría: la Red Bull Racing (con base en el Reino Unido), donde milita entre otros el cuatro (4) veces campeón de manera consecutiva Sebastian Vettel. Es de aclarar que las dos escuderías son propiedad de la marca austriaca de bebidas energizantes Red Bull. Durante tres (3) años el equipo de rally francés Citroën World Rally Team (donde militó coronándose...

  3. ast.wikipedia.org › wiki › FilialFilial - Wikipedia

    • Razones de por Que Una Compañía Tien Filiales
    • Control
    • Fiscalidá d'una Filial

    Organización: un conglomeráu demasiáu grande puede ser malo de xestionar por aciu una empresa única. Cuntar con subsidierias dexa encapsular los distintos negocios con mayor facilidá.

    La pallabra "control" usáu na definición del "subsidiario" tómase xeneralmente pa incluyir control práuticu y teóricu. Asina, la referencia a un cuerpu que "controle la composición" del órganu d'alministración d'otru cuerpu seya una referencia al control en principiu, ente que la referencia a ser puede echar más que la metá de los votos nuna xunta xeneral, si llegalmente ye ejecutorio o non, refier a enerxía teórica. El fechu de qu'una compañía tien un holding menor del 51% ye porque los holdings d'otres esvalíxense estensamente, da control eficaz nun ye bastante pa dar esa compañía'l "control" col fin de determinar si ye un subsidiario.

    En materia de fiscalidá, una filial rexir poles lleis del país onde mora; nesti ámbitu, les filiales qu'operen n'España tán sometíes al impuestu sobre sociedaes, colos beneficios propios pa empreses pequeñes. Agora bien, cuando la filial parta dividendos a los socios, que van ser sociedaes estranxeres, va tratar de dividendos llograos por sociedaes non residentes, que tendrán de pagar impuestos con calter xeneral vía retención.

  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Filial_pietyFilial piety - Wikipedia

    • Terminology
    • in Traditional Texts
    • in East Asian Languages and Cultures
    • in Behavioral Sciences
    • History
    • Developments in Modern Society
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    The western term filial piety was originally derived from studies of Western societies, based on Mediterranean cultures. However, filial piety among the ancient Romans, for example, was largely different from the Chinese in its logic and enactment. Filial piety is illustrated by the Chinese character xiao (孝). The character is a combination of the character lao (old) above the character zi (son), that is, an elder being carried by a son. This indicates that the older generation should be supported by the younger generation. In Korean Confucianism, the character 孝 is pronounced hyo (효). In Vietnamese, the character 孝 is written in the Vietnamese alphabet as hiếu. In Japanese, the term is generally rendered in spoken and written language as 親孝行, oyakōkō, adding the characters for parent and conductto the Chinese character to make the word more specific.

    Definitions

    Confucian teachings about filial piety can be found in numerous texts, including the Four Books, that is the Great Learning (Chinese: 大学), the Doctrine of the Mean (Chinese: 中庸), Analects (Chinese: 论语) and the book Mencius, as well as the works Classic of Filial Piety (Chinese: 孝经) and the Book of Rites (Chinese: 礼记) . In the Classic of Filial Piety, Confucius (551–479 BCE) says that "filial piety is the root of virtue and the basis of philosophy" and modern philosopher Fung Yu-landescribes f...

    Detailed descriptions

    Confucian ethics does not regard filial piety as a choice, but rather as an unconditional obligation of the child. The relationship between parents and children is the most fundamental of the five cardinal relationships (Chinese: 五倫; pinyin: wǔlún) described by Confucius in his role ethics, and filial piety, together with fraternal love, underlies this system. It is the fundamental principle of Confucian morality: filial piety was seen as the basis for an orderly society, together with loyalt...

    Relation with society at large

    Filial piety is regarded as a principle that ordered society, without which chaos would prevail. It is described as "an inevitable fact of nature", as opposed to mere convention, and it is seen to follow naturally out of the father–son relationship. In the Chinese tradition of patriarchy, roles are upheld to maintain the harmony of the whole. According to the Neo-Confucian philosopher Cheng Hao(1032–1085 CE), relationships and their corresponding roles "belong to the eternal principle of the...

    Confucian teachings about filial piety have left their mark on East Asian languages and culture. In Chinese, there is a saying that "among hundreds of behaviors, filial piety is the most important one" (Chinese: 百善孝为先; pinyin: bǎi shàn xiào wéi xiān). In modern Chinese, filial piety is rendered with the words Xiào shùn (孝顺), meaning 'respect and obedience'. While China has always had a diversity of religious beliefs, filial piety has been common to almost all of them; historian Hugh D.R. Baker calls respect for the family the one element common to almost all Chinese people. Historian Ch'ü T'ung-tsu stated about the codification of patriarchy in Chinese law that "[i]t was all a question of filial piety". Filial piety also forms the basis for the veneration of the aged, for which the Chinese are known. However, filial piety among the Chinese has led them to be mostly focused on taking care of close kin, and be less interested in wider issues of more distant people:nevertheless, this s...

    Social scientists have done much research about filial piety and related concepts. It is a highly influential factor in studies about Asian families and intergenerational studies, as well as studies on socialization patterns. Filial piety has been defined by several scholars as the recognition by children of the aid and care their parents have given them, and the respect returned by those children. Psychologist K.S. Yang has defined it as a "specific, complex syndrome or set of cognition, affects, intentions, and behaviors concerning being good or nice to one's parents".As of 2006, psychologists measured filial piety in inconsistent ways, which has prevented much progress from being made. Filial piety is defined by behaviors such as daily maintenance, respect and sickness care offered to the elderly. Although in scholarly literature five forms of reverence have been described, multi-cultural researcher Kyu-taik Sunghas added eight more to that, to fully cover the traditional definit...

    Pre-Confucian history

    The origins of filial piety in East Asia lie in ancestor worship, and can already be found in the pre-Confucian period. Epigraphical findings such as oracle bones contain references to filial piety; texts such as the Classic of Changes(10th–4th century BCE) may contain early references to the idea of parallel conception of the filial son and the loyal minister.

    Early Confucianism

    In the T'ang dynasty (6th–10th century), not performing filial piety was declared illegal, and even earlier, during the Han dynasty (2nd century BCE–3rd century CE), this was already punished by beheading.Behavior regarded as unfilial such as mistreating or abandoning one's parents or grandparents, or refusing to complete the mourning period for them was punished by exile and beating, at best. From the Han Dynasty onward, the practice of mourning rites came to be seen as the cornerstone of fi...

    Introduction of Buddhism

    Filial piety is an important aspect of Buddhist ethics since early Buddhism, and was essential in the apologetics and texts of Chinese Buddhism. In the Early Buddhist Texts such as the Nikāyas and Āgamas, filial piety is prescribed and practiced in three ways: to repay the gratitude toward one's parents; as a good karma or merit; and as a way to contribute to and sustain the social order. In Buddhist scriptures, narratives are given of the Buddha and his disciples practicing filial piety towa...

    In 21st-century Chinese societies, filial piety expectations and practice have decreased. One cause for this is the rise of the nuclear family without much co-residence with parents. Families are becoming smaller because of family planning and housing shortages. Other causes of decrease in practice are individualism, the loss of status of elderly, emigration of young people to cities and the independence of young people and women.To amplify this trend, the number of elderly people has increased quickly. The relationship between husband and wife came to be more emphasized, and the extended family less and less. Kinship ties between the husband and wife's families have become more bi-lateral and equal.The way respect to elders is expressed is also changing. Communication with elders tends to become more reciprocal and less one-way, and kindness and courtesy is replacing obedience and subservience.

    Berezkin, Rostislav (21 February 2015), "Pictorial Versions of the Mulian Story in East Asia (Tenth–Seventeenth Centuries): On the Connections of Religious Painting and Storytelling", Fudan Journal...
    Traylor, K.L. (1988), Chinese Filial Piety, Eastern Press
    Xing, G. (2005), "Filial Piety in Early Buddhism", Journal of Buddhist Ethics(12): 82–106
    • hiếu
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