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  1. Galileo Galilei es uno de los grandes científicos, la época de Galileo se marcó por la invención del telescopio. Además se debe tener en cuenta que Galileo defendió el heliocentrismo (teoría en la que se dice que el sol es el centro del universo) sin saber que acabaría elevando su figura a la condición de símbolo. Ed.

  2. Galileo Galilei 1636 portrait by Justus Sustermans Born Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (1564-02-15) 15 February 1564 Pisa, Duchy of Florence Died 8 January 1642 (1642-01-08) (aged 77) Arcetri, Grand Duchy of Tuscany Education University of Pisa Known for Analytical dynamics, heliocentrism, kinematics, observational astronomy Scientific career Fields Astronomy, physics, engineering ...

    • Astronomy
    • Physics
    • Publications
    • Trial For Heresy

    Some people[who?] believe that Galileo was the first person to build a telescope. This is not true, but he was the first person to publish his observations of astronomical objects through a telescope. He discovered that the Milky Way is made of many stars. He discovered that the Moon has hills. He found four moons around Jupiter. Those moons are now called the Galilean moons. He discovered sunspots, which are dark areas of the Sun. He saw that the planet Venus has light and dark phases just like the Moon. This helped people to know that the Sun is at the centre of the Solar System, as Nicolaus Copernicushad said.

    Galileo worked more at physics than at astronomy. He studied natural forces, and was one of the most important discoverers of the part of physics that is now called kinematics, including the discovery of the kinematic principle of relativity. However, he is often remembered now for things that either did not happen, or failed. A legend says that he climbed the Leaning Tower of Pisa, and dropped cannonballs of different weights, to see which would strike the ground first. Even though their weights were not the same, they hit the ground at the same time. Galileo found that objects fall to the ground at the same rate, unless things like wind resistance change the rate. This went against the views of Aristotle, an ancient philosopher whose theory was different. Galileo's findings were ignored by most people, and Aristotle's view was still accepted as correct until Isaac Newton proved Galileo was right. This also led to Newton creating his Law of Gravity. Galileo also tried to determine...

    The most important are: 1. Siderius nuncius (starry messenger). Venice 1610. Discovery of 'new worlds' with the telescope. 2. Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo, Tolemaico et Copernicano. Florence, 1632. The famous 'dialogue between two world systems, Ptolemaic and Copernican'. 3. Discorsi et demonstrazioni mathematiche, intorno a due nuove scienze. (discourses and mathematical demonstrations relating to two new sciences) Leiden 1638. This, on kinematics, a non controversial subject, was written when Galileo was under house arrest, and published in Holland, out of the Inquisition's territory.

    Galileo came to accept the findings of Copernicus, that the Sun was the center of the then-known universe, and not the Earth. Because he promoted this and other ideas, he came to the notice of the Committee of Propaganda, the dreaded Inquisition. The Church taught that the Earth stood still, while everything in the sky moved around it. The Inquisition ruled in 1616 that other theories could only be discussed as possibilities, not facts. Galileo said he would obey. He played a major part in the scientific revolution through this argument. Galileo later discussed the question in his most famous work, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, published in 1632 by permission of the Inquisition. His scientific writing was usually in Latin for hundreds of scientists around Europe, but this was one of the books he wrote in Italian so thousands of Italians could read it. The book was in the form of conversations between three men. The man representing the Church's point of view was c...

    • Initial Controversies
    • Bible Argument
    • First Meetings with Theological Authorities
    • Bellarmine's View
    • Francesco Ingoli
    • Inquisition and First Judgement, 1616
    • Dialogue
    • Trial and Second Judgment, 1633
    • Historiography
    • List of Artistic Treatments

    Galileo began his telescopic observations in the later part of 1609, and by March 1610 was able to publish a small book, The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius), describing some of his discoveries: mountains on the Moon, lesser moons in orbit around Jupiter, and the resolution of what had been thought to be very cloudy masses in the sky (nebulae) into collections of stars too faint to see individually without a telescope. Other observations followed, including the phases of Venus and the existence of sunspots. Galileo's contributions caused difficulties for theologians and natural philosophers of the time, as they contradicted scientific and philosophical ideas based on those of Aristotle and Ptolemy and closely associated with the Catholic Church. In particular, Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus, which showed it to circle the Sun, and the observation of moons orbiting Jupiter, contradicted the geocentric model of Ptolemy, which was backed and accepted by the Roman Catho...

    In the Catholic world prior to Galileo's conflict with the Church, the majority of educated people subscribed to the Aristotelian geocentric view that the Earth was the centre of the universe and that all heavenly bodies revolved around the Earth, though Copernicantheories were used to reform the calendar in 1582. Geostaticism agreed with a literal interpretation of Scripture in several places, such as 1 Chronicles 16:30, Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, Psalm 104:5, Ecclesiastes 1:5 (but see varied interpretations of Job 26:7). Heliocentrism, the theory that the Earth was a planet, which along with all the others revolved around the Sun, contradicted both geocentrismand the prevailing theological support of the theory. One of the first suggestions of heresy that Galileo had to deal with came in 1613 from a professor of philosophy, poet and specialist in Greek literature, Cosimo Boscaglia. In conversation with Galileo's patron Cosimo II de' Medici and Cosimo's mother Christina of Lorraine,...

    In late 1614 or early 1615, one of Caccini's fellow Dominicans, Niccolò Lorini, acquired a copy of Galileo's letter to Castelli. Lorini and other Dominicans at the Convent of San Marco considered the letter of doubtful orthodoxy, in part because it may have violated the decrees of the Council of Trent: Lorini and his colleagues decided to bring Galileo's letter to the attention of the Inquisition. In February 1615 Lorini accordingly sent a copy to the Secretary of the Inquisition, Cardinal Paolo Emilio Sfondrati, with a covering letter critical of Galileo's supporters: On March 19, Caccini arrived at the Inquisition's offices in Rome to denounce Galileo for his Copernicanismand various other alleged heresies supposedly being spread by his pupils. Galileo soon heard reports that Lorini had obtained a copy of his letter to Castelli and was claiming that it contained many heresies. He also heard that Caccini had gone to Rome and suspected him of trying to stir up trouble with Lorini's...

    Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, one of the most respected Catholic theologians of the time, was called on to adjudicate the dispute between Galileo and his opponents. The question of heliocentrism had first been raised with Cardinal Bellarmine, in the case of Paolo Antonio Foscarini, a Carmelite father; Foscarini had published a book, Lettera ... sopra l'opinione ... del Copernico, which attempted to reconcile Copernicus with the biblical passages that seemed to be in contradiction. Bellarmine at first expressed the opinion that Copernicus's book would not be banned, but would at most require some editing so as to present the theory purely as a calculating device for "saving the appearances" (i.e. preserving the observable evidence). Foscarini sent a copy of his book to Bellarmine, who replied in a letter of April 12, 1615. Galileo is mentioned by name in the letter, and a copy was soon sent to him. After some preliminary salutations and acknowledgements, Bellarmine begins by telling Fo...

    In addition to Bellarmine, Monsignor Francesco Ingoli initiated a debate with Galileo, sending him in January 1616 an essay disputing the Copernican system. Galileo later stated that he believed this essay to have been instrumental in the action against Copernicanism that followed in February. According to Maurice Finocchiaro, Ingoli had probably been commissioned by the Inquisition to write an expert opinion on the controversy, and the essay provided the "chief direct basis" for the ban. The essay focused on eighteen physical and mathematical arguments against heliocentrism. It borrowed primarily from the arguments of Tycho Brahe, and it notedly mentioned Brahe's argument that heliocentrism required the stars to be much larger than the Sun. Ingoli wrote that the great distance to the stars in the heliocentric theory "clearly proves ... the fixed stars to be of such size, as they may surpass or equal the size of the orbit circle of the Earth itself." Ingoli included four theological...

    Deliberation

    On February 19, 1616, the Inquisition asked a commission of theologians, known as qualifiers, about the propositions of the heliocentric view of the universe. Historians of the Galileo affair have offered different accounts of why the matter was referred to the qualifiers at this time. Beretta points out that the Inquisition had taken a deposition from Gianozzi Attavanti in November 1615, as part of its investigation into the denunciations of Galileo by Lorini and Caccini. In this deposition,...

    Judgement

    On February 24 the Qualifiers delivered their unanimous report: the proposition that the Sun is stationary at the centre of the universe is "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture"; the proposition that the Earth moves and is not at the centre of the universe "receives the same judgement in philosophy; and ... in regard to theological truth it is at least erroneous in faith."The original report docume...

    Copernican books banned

    Following the Inquisition's injunction against Galileo, the papal Master of the Sacred Palace ordered that Foscarini's Letter be banned, and Copernicus' De revolutionibus suspended until corrected. The papal Congregation of the Indexpreferred a stricter prohibition, and so with the Pope's approval, on March 5 the Congregation banned all books advocating the Copernican system, which it called "the false Pythagorean doctrine, altogether contrary to Holy Scripture." Francesco Ingoli, a consultor...

    In 1623, Pope Gregory XV died and was succeeded by Pope Urban VIIIwho showed greater favor to Galileo, particularly after Galileo traveled to Rome to congratulate the new Pontiff. Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which was published in 1632 to great popularity, was an account of conversations between a Copernican scientist, Salviati, an impartial and witty scholar named Sagredo, and a ponderous Aristotelian named Simplicio, who employed stock arguments in support of geocentricity, and was depicted in the book as being an intellectually inept fool. Simplicio's arguments are systematically refuted and ridiculed by the other two characters with what Youngson calls "unassailable proof" for the Copernican theory (at least versus the theory of Ptolemy – as Finocchiaro points out, "the Copernican and Tychonic systems were observationally equivalent and the available evidence could be explained equally well by either"), which reduces Simplicio to baffled rage, and...

    With the loss of many of his defenders in Rome because of Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in 1633 Galileo was ordered to stand trial on suspicion of heresy "for holding as true the false doctrine taught by some that the sun is the center of the world" against the 1616 condemnation, since "it was decided at the Holy Congregation [...] on 25 Feb 1616 that [...] the Holy Office would give you an injunction to abandon this doctrine, not to teach it to others, not to defend it, and not to treat of it; and that if you did not acquiesce in this injunction, you should be imprisoned". Galileo was interrogated while threatened with physical torture. A panel of theologians, consisting of Melchior Inchofer, Agostino Oreggi and Zaccaria Pasqualigo, reported on the Dialogue. Their opinions were strongly argued in favour of the view that the Dialoguetaught the Copernican theory. Galileo was found guilty, and the sentence of the Inquisition, issued on 22 June 1633,was in three esse...

    There is some evidence that enemies of Galileo persuaded Urban that Simplicio was intended to be a caricature of him. Modern historians have dismissed it as most unlikely that this had been Galileo's intention. Dava Sobelargues that during this time, Urban had fallen under the influence of court intrigue and problems of state. His friendship with Galileo began to take second place to his feelings of persecution and fear for his own life. The problem of Galileo was presented to the pope by court insiders and enemies of Galileo, following claims by a Spanish cardinal that Urban was a poor defender of the church. This situation did not bode well for Galileo's defense of his book. Multiple authors - for example Paul Feyerabend (see below) - have argued that the Catholic Church, rather than Galileo, was scientifically justified in the dispute over the placement and rotation of the Sun and Earth, given available knowledge at the time. Referring to Bellarmine's letter to Foscarini, physici...

    In addition to the large non-fiction literature and the many documentary films about Galileo and the Galileo affair, there have also been several treatments in historical plays and films. The Museo Galileo has posted a listing of several of the plays.A listing centered on the films was presented in a 2010 article by Cristina Olivotto and Antonella Testa. 1. Galilée is a French play by François Ponsardfirst performed in 1867. 2. Galileo Galilei is a short Italian silent film by Luigi Maggithat was released in 1909. 3. Life of Galileo is a play by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht that exists in several versions, including a 1947 version in English written with Charles Laughton. The play has been called "Brecht's masterpiece" by Michael Billington of The Guardian British newspaper. Joseph Losey, who directed the first productions of the English language version in 1947, made a film based on the playthat was released in 1975. 4. Lamp at Midnight is a play by Barrie Stavis that was f...

  3. Galileo Galilei (ガリレオ・ガリレイ) was a Japanese indie rock band from Wakkanai, Hokkaido.. Galileo Galilei was formed in 2007 by singer and guitarist Yūki Ozaki, guitarist Sōhei Funaya, bassist Hitoshi Sakō, and drummer Kazuki Ozaki.

    • 2007–2016
    • Yuuki Ozaki, Hitoshi Sako, Kazuki Ozaki
    • Nacencia Y Infancia
    • L'enclín Científicu
    • Enantes Del Telescopiu
    • El Telescopiu Y Les SOS Consecuencies
    • pruebes Del Sistema Heliocéntricu Presentaes por Galileo
    • Los Enemigos de Galileo Y La Denuncia Ante'l Santu Oficiu
    • Enllaces Esternos

    Galileo, que nació en Pisa cuando ésta pertenecía al Gran Ducáu de Toscana, foi'l mayor de seyes hermanos y foi fíu d'un músicu y matemáticu florentín llamáu Vincenzo Galilei, que quería qu'estudiara melecina. Los Galilei, que yeren una familia de la baxa nobleza y se dedicaben al comerciu, encargáronse de la formación de Galileo hasta los 10 años, edá cola que pasó a cargu d'un vecín relixosu llamáu Jacopo Borghini, cuando los sos padres marcharen pa Florencia. Per aciu d'ésti, el pequeñu Galileo entró nel conventu de Santa María de Vallombrosa, que lu llevó a plantegase l'amecedura a la vida relixosa, dalgo qu'a so pá nun-y gustó. Poro, Vincenzo Galilei -un home abondu escépticu- aprovechó una infeición nel güeyu que tenía so fíu pa sacalu del conventu alegando «falta d'atenciones». En 1581 so padre inscribiólu na Universidá de Pisa, onde estudió melecina, filosofía y matemátiques.

    En1583 Galileo entama estudios de matemátiques gracies a Ostilio Ricci, un amigu de la familia y alumnu de Tartaglia. Ricci tenía'l vezu, estrañu na dómina, d'amestar la teoría a la práutica esperimental. Atrayó-y la obra d'Euclides, y, ensin interés pola melecina, y tovía menos poles reñes escolástiques y la filosofía aristotélica, Galileo empobina los sos estudios hacia les matemátiques. De magar entós, sigue a Pitágores, Platón y Arquímedes y opónse a les teoríes d'Aristóteles. Tamién descubre la llei de la isocronía de los péndulos, primer etapa de lo que pa elli será una nueva ciencia: la mecánica. Dientro de la corriente humanista, redauta un panfletu xabaz escontra los profesores de la so época. A lo llargo de la so vida, Galileo refugó que lu compararen colos profesores del so tiempu, lo que-y supunxo bien d'enemigos. Dos años más tarde torna a Florencia ensin diploma, pero con grandes conocimientos y con bién d'interés pola ciencia.

    De Florencia a Pisa

    Galileo escomienza a demostrar munchos teoremes sobre'l centru de gravedá de dalgunos sólidos dientro de Theoremata circa centrum gravitis solidum y anicia en 1586 la reconstitución de la balanza hidrostática d'Arquímedes o bilancetta. Al tiempu continúa los sos estudios sobro les oscilaciones del péndulu pesante y inventa'lpulsómetru. Esti aparatu val pa midir el pulsu y apurre una escala de tiempu, dalgo que nun esistía daquella. Tamién entama los sos estudios sobro la cayida de los cuerpos...

    La Universidá de Padua

    Nel añu 1592 treslladóse a la Universidá de Padua y exerció como profesor de xeometría, mecánica y astronomía hasta 1610. La marcha de Pisa desplícase por diferencies con ún de los fíos del gran duque Fernandu I de Medici. Padua pertenecía a la poderosa República de Venecia, lo que dio a Galileo una gran llibertá intelectual, pos la Inquisición nun tenía muncha influencia elli. Inclusive, magar los patricios de la república entregaran a Giordano Brunoa la institución eclesiástica, Galileo pod...

    L'añu 1604

    1604 foi un annus mirabilispa Galilwo: 1. En xunetu, probó la so bomba d'agua nun xardín de Padua. 2. N'ochobre descubrió la llei del movimientu uniforme aceleráu, qu'elli venceyó a una llei de velocidaes enquivocaes 3. N'avientu escomenzó les sos observaciones d'una nova conocida como poco dende'l 10 d'ochobre. Dedicó cinco lleiciones al tema nel mes siguiente, y en febreru de 1605 espublizó'l Dialogo de Cecco da Ronchitti da Bruzene in perpuosito de la stella Nova xunta Girolamo Spinelli. A...

    Invención del telescopiu

    En mayu de 1609 Galileo recibe de París una carta de Jacques Badovere, ún de los sos antiguos alumnos, que-y confirma una falancia insistente: la esistencia d'un telescopiu que permite ver los oxetos llonxanos. Fabricáu n'Holanda, esti telescopiu permitiría ver estrelles invisibles a simple vista. Namái con esta descripción, Galileo, que yá nun da cursos a Cosimo II de Medici, constrúi'l so primer telescopiu. Al contrario que'l telescopiu holandés, ésti nun deforma los oxetos y enántalos seye...

    Observancia de la Lluna

    A lo llargo de la seronda, Galileo continuó desenrollando'l so telescopiu, y en payares fabrica un instrumentu qu'aumenta vente vegaes. Emplega tiempu pa empobinar el telescopiu hacia'l cielu. Rápidamente, observando les fases de la Lluna, descubre qu'esti astru nun ye perfeutu, como cuntaba la teoría aristotélica. La física aristotélica, que tenía autoridá daquella, estremaba dos mundos: 1. El mundu «subllunar», que comprende la Tierra y tolo que s'afaya ente la Tierra y la Lluna. Nesti mund...

    Atalantando nes estrelles

    En poques selmanes descubre la naturaleza de la Vía Láctea, cunta les estrelles de la constelación d'Orión y comprueba que delles estrelles visibles a simple vista son, en verdá, cúmulos d'estrelles. Galileo observa los aniellos de Saturnu pero nun los identifica sinón como estraños «apéndices» (como dos ases). Tovía tendrá que pasar mediu sieglu pa que Huygens, emplegando telescopios más perfeutos, pueda observar la verdadera forma de los aniellos. Galileo tamién estudia les manches solares....

    Según Bertrand Russell, el conflictu ente Galileo y la Ilesia Católica foi un conflictu ente'l razonamientu inductivu y el razonamientu deductivu. La inducción vien de la observancia de la realidá, propia del métodu científicu que Galileo usó por primer vegada, ufriendo prebes esperimentales de les sos afirmaciones y espublizando los resultaos pa que pudieren ser asegundaes. Pela so parte, la deducción anicia argumentos basaos na autoridá, seya de filósofos como Aristóteles, o de les Sagraes Escritures. Poro, tocante a la so defensa de la teoría heliocentrica, Galileo siempres emplegó los datos estrayíos d'observaciones esperimentales que demostraben la validez de los sos argumentos. Un resume de les prebes de calter esperimental espublizaes por elli son: 1. Montes na Lluna. Foi'l primer descubrimientu de Galileo con gabitu del telescopiu, espublizáu nel Sidereus nunciusen 1610. Con él arreñega de la tesis aristotélica de que los cielos son perfeutos y la Lluna una esfera llampa y q...

    La oposición organízase

    Abulta que Galileo trunfa y convenz a tol mundu. Nesi sen, quienes son gustantes cola teoría xeocéntrica tórnanse n'enemigos encrespaos y los ataques escomienzan cola apaición del Sidereus nuncius. Ellos nun pueden perder l'afrenta y nun quieren que se dulde de la so ciencia. Arriendes d'ello, los métodos de Galileo, basaos na observancia y la esperiencia, y non na autoridá de Ptoloméu o Aristóteles, son opuestos dafechu a los suyos. La primer flecha vien de Martin Horky, discípulu del profes...

    Los ataques faense más violentos

    A Galileo, que yá s'afaya otra vuelta en Florencia, nun pueden atacalu na estaya de l'astronomía y los sos adversarios van entós a espelleyar la so teoría de los cuerpos flotantes. Galileo cuida que'l xelu flota porque ye más llixeru que l'agua, mientres los aristotélicos atalanten que flota porque ye la so ñatura flotar (física cuantitativa y matemática de Galileo escontra física cualitativa d'Aristóteles). L'ataque sedrá a lo llargo d'una xinta na mesa de Cosimo II de Medici nel mes de seti...

    La censura de les teoríes copernicanes

    El 24 de febreru de 1616, por pidimientu del Santu Oficiu, los teólogos respondieron a comuña que la propuesta «el Sol ye'l centru del mundu y dafechu inmóvil» yera «non senciosa y absurda en filosofía, y formalmente herética», pola mor de d'alversar bien de pasaxes de les Sagraes Escritures, arriendes de les opiniones de los Padres de la Ilesia; y que la propuesta «la Tierra nun ye'l centru del mundu, ni inmóvil, sinón que s'aballa» yera «censurable en filosofía; respeutive a la verdá teolóx...

  4. La vida de Galileo (Leben des Galilei en su título original) es una obra de teatro del dramaturgo alemán Bertolt Brecht escrita en 1939.En 1945-1947, el autor escribió una segunda versión en colaboración con Charles Laughton para adaptarla a los gustos de la audiencia estadounidense. [1]

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