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  1. The Horn of Africa consists of the internationally recognized countries of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, as well as the de facto country of Somaliland. Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out in fields such as Ethiopian studies and Somali studies. This peninsula has been known by various names.

    • 140,683,144 (2020 est.)
  2. Pirates are rampant along the coast of Somalia and present a hazard to all shipping there; as such, anti-piracy operations are a routine part of Operation Enduring Freedom: Horn of Africa. This is done primarily by the Combined Task Force 150 and in parallel to other independent anti-piracy operations conducted off the coast of Somalia by other countries such as China, India and Russia.

    • Ongoing, 21 high level Al-Shabaab leaders killed
    • Uniparental Lineages
    • Autosomal Ancestry
    • Y DNA
    • mtDNA
    • Autosomal DNA
    • Admixture Analysis

    Cushitic ethnic groups have a diverse set of uniparental lineages. Nevertheless, certain commonalities can be observed. Paternally, E-M35 (also known as E1b1b1, formerly E3b1) forms an important lineage in many Cushitic populations, other important paternal lineages in Cushitic populations include J-M267 (also known as J1), A-M13 (A1b1b2b, formerly A3b2), and T-M70(T1a, formerly K2). Many Cushitic populations can be paternally traced back to having ethnic origins in the Nile Valley (Egypt and Northern Sudan) through haplogroup E-M78 and the Red Sea region of the Horn of Africa through haplogroup E-V1515This coincides with anthropological and linguistic hypotheses placing the ethnogensis of the Cushitic language family in the aforementioned regions. Maternally, Cushitic populations are more diverse, yet share certain lineages in common such as various East African-origin Macro-haplogroup L lineages (various L0, L1, L5, L2, L6, L4, L3 lineages) and North African and/or Middle Eastern-...

    Cushitic populations have existed at the cross-roads of Africa and Eurasia since the Stone Age, with the Nile acting as a corridor between sub-Saharan Africa and Levant and North Africa thus Cushitic populations have multiple origins, like most other populations, that have become idiosyncratic of Cushitic populations. Cushitic populations tend to combine in their ancestries both, genetic components indigenous to East Africa, and non-African components of West Asian origin. According to an autosomal DNA study by Hodgson et al. (2014), the Afro-Asiatic languages were likely spread across Africa and the Near East by an ancestral population(s) carrying a newly identified non-African genetic component, which the researchers dub the “Ethio-Somali” or “Semitic-Cushitic” in another study. This Ethio-Somali component is today most common among Cushitic and Ethiosemitic populations in the Horn of Africa and reaches a frequency peak among ethnic Somalis, representing the majority of their ance...

    A Y-chromosome study by Wood et al. (2005) tested various populations in Africa for paternal lineages, including 26 Maasai and 9 Luo from Kenya, and 9 Alur from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The signature Nilotic paternal marker Haplogroup A3b2 was observed in 27% of the Maasai, 22% of the Alur, and 11% of the Luo. According to Gomes et al. (2010), Haplogroup B is another characteristically Nilotic paternal marker. It was found in 22% of Wood et al.’s Luo samples, 8% of studied Maasai and 50% of studied Nuer. The E1b1b haplogroup has been observed at overall frequencies of around 11% among Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups in the Great Lakes area, with this influence concentrated among the Maasai (50%). This is indicative of substantial historic gene flow from Cushitic-speaking males into these Nilo-Saharan-speaking populations. In addition, 67% of the Alur samples possessed the E2 haplogroup. A study by Hassan et al. (2008) analysed the Y-DNA of populations in the Sudan region, with...

    Unlike the paternal DNA of Nilotes, the maternal lineages of Nilotes in general show low-to-negligible amounts of Afro-Asiatic and other extraneous influences. An mtDNA study by Castri et al. (2008) examined the maternal ancestry of various Nilotic populations in Kenya, with Turkana, Samburu, Maasai and Luo individuals sampled. The mtDNA of almost all of the tested Nilotes belonged to various Sub-Saharan macro-haplogroup L sub-clades, including L0, L2, L3, L4 and L5. Low levels of maternal gene flow from North Africa and the Horn of Africa were observed in a few groups, mainly via the presence of mtDNA haplogroup M and haplogroup Ilineages in about 12.5% of the Maasai and 7% of the Samburu samples, respectively.

    The autosomal DNA of Nilotic peoples has been examined in a comprehensive study by Tishkoffet al. (2009) on the genetic clusters of various populations in Africa. According to the researchers, Nilotes generally form their own African genetic cluster. The authors also found that certain Nilotic populations in the eastern Great Lakes region, such as the Maasai, showed some additional Afro-Asiatic affinities due to repeated assimilation of Cushitic-speaking peoples over the past 5000 or so years.

    Tishkoff ‘’et al’’ in 2009 published the largest study done to characterise genetic variation and relationships among populations in Africa. They examined 121 African populations, 4 African American populations and 60 non-African populations. Their results indicated a high degree of mixed ancestry reflecting migration events. In East Africa, all population groups examined had elements of Nilotic, Cushitic and Bantu ancestry amongst others to varying degrees. They also found that by and large, genetic clusters were consistent with linguistic classification with notable exceptions including the Luo of Kenya. Despite being Nilo-Saharan speakers, the Luo cluster with the Niger-Kordofanian speakingpopulations that surround them. They suggest that this indicates a high degree of admixture occurred during the southward migration of Southern Luo. Kalenjin groups and Maasai groups were found to have less Bantu ancestry but significant Cushitic ancestry. David Reich, a geneticist known for hi...

    • Summary
    • Overview
    • History

    Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa is a joint task force of United States Africa Command. It originated under Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa as part of the United States response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.

    The mission of the CJTF-HOA is to conduct operations in the Combined Joint Operations Area to enhance partner nation capacity, promote regional security and stability, dissuade conflict, and protect U.S. and coalition interests. CJTF-HOA consists of about 2,000 servicemen and women from the United States military and allied countries. Currently, the task force has an assigned area of interest that includes Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Seychelles and Kenya. Outside this Combined J

    CJTF-HOA was established at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina on October 19, 2002. In November 2002, personnel embarked to the region aboard USS Mount Whitney and arrived at the Horn of Africa on December 8, 2002. CJTF-HOA operated from the Mount Whitney until May 13, 2003, when the mission moved ashore to Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti City, Djibouti. Since then, CJTF-HOA personnel have built schools, clinics and hospitals; conducted dozens of MEDCAPs, DENTCAPs and VETCAPs; drilled and refurbished more

    • October 19, 2002–present
    • Military operations and civil and military capacity building
    • Medieval and Early Modern
    • Early 20th Century
    • Cold War
    • Post-Cold War
    • See Also
    Ifat's conquest of Shewa (c.1285)
    Abyssinian-Adal War (1529–1559), between the Ethiopian Empire and the Adal Sultanate
    Ajuran – Portuguesewars (throughout the 16th and 17th century)
    Gobroon–BarderaWar (late 18th century)
    Dervish revolt against the United Kingdom(1899–1920), the Kingdom of Italy, the Ethiopian Empire, and other Somalis
    1922 Burao Tax Revolt (1922) between Habr Yunis tribesmen and the United Kingdom
    Eritrean War of Independence (1961–1991), between Eritrean liberation fronts (primarily the EPLF and early on also the ELF) and the Ethiopian Empire (1961–1974) and Marxist Derg-ruled Ethiopia (197...
    Ethiopian Civil War (1974–1991), between the Derg (ruling government of Ethiopia) and various rebel groups, as well as amongst the rebel groups, including the Marxist Ethiopian EPRP, MEISON, and TP...
    • Overview
    • Football program "Shoot To Score, Not To Kill"
    • Education programs

    The Horn Of Africa Development Initiative is a non-profit organisation based in Marsabit, Kenya. Founded by Fatuma Abdulkadir Adan in 2003, the organisation's mission is to champion justice and development in northern Kenya through advocacy, facilitation of education, community cohesion, and livelihood support programs.

    The organisation is known for its use of a program known as "Shoot To Score, Not To Kill" through which football is used as a voice in the advocacy for peace among members of different ethnicity in northern Kenya. The football program focuses on "disarming" the mind to accept those who are different, and promotes peaceful acts on the football field. The games have 3 halves, which allows the players to converse when not playing. Since 2008, this program has been helping to stop children from fall

    Through their education program, HODI empowers women and girls to have an active voice in their communities. This program trains women about alternative livelihoods. After graduation of the program, those women become role models in their communities, and continue to educate future generations. HODI also trains paralegals, to provide legal aid to less fortunate people that would otherwise not have those services.

  3. The Horn of Africa has experienced the effects of 14 North Indian Ocean tropical cyclones since 1984, resulting in at least 108 fatalities. All but two of the storms struck Somalia from the east. The other two – a storm in May 1984 and Cyclone Sagar in May 2018 – traversed the Gulf of Aden and struck northern Somalia. Sagar killed 78 people in Somalia, Somaliland, Djibouti, and Ethiopia. In November 2013, a deep depression struck Somalia and killed 162 people while also ...

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