Jerusalem (/ dʒ ə ˈ r uː s əl ə m /; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds) is a city in Western Asia.Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
- 754 m (2,474 ft)
- Arab States
la ciudad de jerusalén fue renombrada como aelia capitolina y reconstruida al estilo de una ciudad romana, y a los judíos se les prohibió el acceso a la ciudad so pena de muerte, con la excepción de un día al año, el tisha b'av. estas medidas, que se aplicaron también a los judíos cristianos, tendieron a secularizar la ciudad y se mantuvieron …
- Religious Significance
- Twin Towns and Sister Cities
- Other Websites
Jerusalem is a very old city. It has great importance for three religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Bible says King David, the second king of Israel, took this city from pagans and settled his palace there. King Solomon, David's son and the next king, built the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. Later, as capital of Judah, Jerusalem was de...
Jerusalem has been sacred to Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity for around 2000 years, and to Islam for approximately 1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount...
Jerusalem's architecture is a mixture of old and new. The Old City contains architectural examples from each major period in the city's history. Many ancient historical sites and places of worship stand near modern shopping centers and industrial zones. Architecture from the late 1800s and early 1900s shows European influences. Usefulness rather th...New York City, United States (since 1993)Prague, Czech RepublicJerusalemp3 Archived 2015-08-01 at the Wayback Machine, offers free virtual tours in mp3 format from the Jerusalem MunicipalityJerusalem at the Open Directory Project
- Ancient Period
- Classical Antiquity
- Early Muslim Period
- Crusader/Ayyubid Period
- Mamluk Period
- Ottoman Period
- Modern Period
- See Also
- Further Reading
- External Links
Archaeological evidence suggests that the first settlement was established near Gihon Spring between 4500 and 3500 BCE. The first known mention of the city was in c. 2000 BCE in the Middle Kingdom Egyptian Execration Texts in which the city was recorded as Rusalimum. The root S-L-M in the name is thought to refer to either "peace" (compare with modern Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.
Canaanite and New Kingdom Egyptian period
Archaeological evidence suggests that by the 17th century BCE, the Canaanites had built massive walls (4 and 5 ton boulders, 26 feet high) on the eastern side of Jerusalem to protect their ancient water system.[better source needed] By c. 1550–1400 BCE, Jerusalem had become a vassal to Egypt after the Egyptian New Kingdom under Ahmose I and Thutmose I had reunited Egypt and expanded into the Levant. The Amarna letters contain correspondence from Abdi-Heba, headman of Urusalim and his suzerain...
Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period
According to the Bible, the Israelite history of the city began in c. 1000 BCE, with King David's sack of Jerusalem, following which Jerusalem became the City of David and capital of the United Kingdom of Israel. According to the Books of Samuel, the Jebusites managed to resist attempts by the Israelites to capture the city, and by the time of King David were mocking such attempts, claiming that even the blind and lame could defeat the Israelite army. Nevertheless, the masoretic text for the...
In 37 BCE, Herod the Great captured Jerusalem after a forty-day siege, ending Hasmonean rule. Herod ruled the Province of Judea as a client-king of the Romans, rebuilt the Second Temple, upgraded the surrounding complex, and expanded the minting of coins to many denominations. Pliny the Elder, writing of Herod's achievements, called Jerusalem "the most famous by far of the Eastern cities and not only the cities of Judea." The Talmud comments that "He who has not seen the Temple of Herod has n...
Roman Aelia Capitolina
What is today known as the "Old City" was laid out by the Roman Emperor Hadrian in the 2nd century, when he began to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city. In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem remaining after the First Jewish-Roman War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina in 135 CE. Hadrian placed the city's main Roman Forum at the junction of the main Cardo and Decumanus, now the location of the (smaller) Muristan. Hadrian built a large temple to Jupiter Capitoli...
Early Byzantine period
The Emperor Constantine, however, rebuilt Jerusalem as a Christian center of worship, building the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335. Jerusalem had received special recognition in Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea in 325. Constantine's mother, Helena, made a pilgrimage to the city and claimed to have recovered the cross of Christ. Jews were still banned from the city throughout the remainder of its time as a Roman province, except during a brief period of Persian rulefrom 614 to 629.
Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates
Although the Qur'an does not mention the name "Jerusalem", the hadith assert that it was from Jerusalem that Muhammad ascended to heaven in the Night Journey, or Isra and Miraj. The city was one of the Arab Caliphate's first conquests in 638 CE; according to Arab historians of the time, the Rashidun Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab personally went to the city to receive its submission, cleaning out and praying at the Temple Mount in the process. Sixty years later the Dome of the Ro...
The early Arab period was also one of religious tolerance. However, in the early 11th century, the Egyptian Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah ordered the destruction of all churches. In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The Fatimid caliph Ali az-Zahir rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 1034 and 1036. The number of naves was drastically reduced from fifteen to seven. Az-Zahir built the four arcades of the central hall...
Under Az-Zahir's successor al-Mustansir Billah, the Fatimid Caliphate entered a period of instability and decline, as factions fought for power in Cairo. In 1071, Jerusalem was captured by the Turkish warlord Atsiz ibn Uvaq, who seized most of Syria and Palestine as part of the expansion of the Seljuk Turksthroughout the Middle East. As the Turks were staunch Sunnis, they were opposed not only to the Fatimids, but also to the numerous Shia Muslims, who saw themselves removed from dominance af...
First Crusader kingdom
Fatimid control of Jerusalem ended when it was captured by Crusaders in July 1099. The capture was accompanied by a massacre of almost all of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Jerusalem became the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon, was elected Lord of Jerusalem on 22 July 1099, but did not assume the royal crown and died a year later. Barons offered the lordship of Jerusalem to Godfrey's brother Baldwin, Count of Edessa, who had himself crowned by the Patriarch Daimber...
The Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted until 1291; however, Jerusalem itself was recaptured by Saladin in 1187 (see Siege of Jerusalem (1187)), who permitted worship of all religions. According to Rabbi Elijah of Chelm, German Jews lived in Jerusalem during the 11th century. The story is told that a German-speaking Jew saved the life of a young German man surnamed Dolberger. Thus when the knights of the First Crusade came to besiege Jerusalem, one of Dolberger's family members rescued Jews in Palest...
In 1250 a crisis within the Ayyubid state led to the rise of the Mamluks to power and a transition to the Mamluk Sultanate, which is divided between the Bahri and Burji periods. The Ayyubids tried to hold on to power in Syria, but the Mongol invasion of 1260 put an end to this. A Mamluk army defeated the Mongol incursion and in the aftermath Baybar...
Early Ottoman period
In 1516, Jerusalem was taken over by the Ottoman Empire along with all of Greater Syria and enjoyed a period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent, including the construction of the walls, which define until today what is now known as the Old City of Jerusalem. The outline of the walls largely follows that of different older fortifications. The rule of Suleiman and subsequent Ottoman Sultans brought an age of "religious peace"; Jew, Christian and Muslim enjoyed freedom of religi...
Late Ottoman period
In the mid-19th century, with the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the city was a backwater, with a population that did not exceed 8,000. Nevertheless, it was, even then, an extremely heterogeneous city because of its significance to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The population was divided into four major communities – Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian – and the first three of these could be further divided into countless subgroups, based on precise religious affiliation or country of...
British Mandate period
The British were victorious over the Ottomans in the Middle East during World War I and victory in Palestine was a step towards dismemberment of that empire. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, entered Jerusalem on foot out of respect for the Holy City, on 11 December 1917. By the time General Allenby took Jerusalem from the Ottomans in 1917, the new city was a patchwork of neighborhoods and communities, each with a distinct ethnic character. Th...
Division between Jordan and Israel
The United Nations proposed, in its 1947 plan for the partition of Palestine, for Jerusalem to be a city under international administration. The city was to be completely surrounded by the Arab state, with only a highway to connect international Jerusalem to the Jewish state. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem was divided. The Western half of the New City became part of the newly formed state of Israel, while the eastern half, along with the Old City, was occupied by Jordan.Accord...Avci, Yasemin, Vincent Lemire, and Falestin Naili. "Publishing Jerusalem's ottoman municipal archives (1892-1917): a turning point for the city's historiography." Jerusalem Quarterly 60 (2014): 110...Emerson, Charles. 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War(2013) compares Jerusalem to 20 major world cities; pp 325–46.Lemire, Vincent. Jerusalem 1900: The Holy City in the Age of Possibilities(U of Chicago Press, 2017).Mazza, Roberto. Jerusalem from the Ottomans to the British( 2009)Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Jerusalem (Before 71 CE)" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- Delimitación Administrativa
- Acuerdos, Cumbres, Reclamaciones Y Resoluciones
- Véase también
El término «Jerusalén Este» se refiere a dos áreas distintas según el período histórico contemplado: 1. Puede aplicarse únicamente al municipio jordano anterior a 1967, que cubría un área de 6,4 km². En aquellos años, la expresión «Jerusalén Oeste» se refería al municipio israelí que cubría la parte occidental de la ciudad. 2. Desde la gue...
Durante la Guerra de independencia de Israel, la parte occidental de Jerusalén se mantuvo en poder de Israel, mientras que Jerusalén Este (incluyendo la Ciudad Vieja) era controlada por la Legión Árabe de Transjordania. El final de la contienda llegó a su fin con la firma de los Acuerdos de Armisticio de 1949. Nada más tomar la ciudad, los 2000 habitantes del Barrio Judío de la Ciudad Vieja fueron expulsados en masa cuando la Legión Árabe la ocupó el 28 de mayo de 1948. Dos días después,...
Cuando Israel atacó a la alianza egipcio-siria en la Guerra de los Seis Días en junio de 1967, Israel estableció contactos con Jordania a través de las Naciones Unidas, dejando claro que si Jordania se abstenía de atacar a Israel, Israel no atacaría a Jordania. Sin embargo, los jordanos hicieron valer su alianza con Egipto y Siria, atacaron al oeste de Jerusalén y ocuparon el edificio del ex Alto Comisionado. Después de intensos combates, el ejército israelí recuperó el complejo y expulso al...
Capital de Palestina
En 1988 el Consejo Nacional Palestino adoptó la Declaración de independencia de Palestina, en la cual proclamó «el establecimiento del Estado de Palestina en la tierra de Palestina con su capital en Jerusalén». La misma decisión fue tomada también por el Consejo Legislativo Palestino en mayo de 2002 cuando aprobó la ley básica de la Autoridad Nacional Palestina, la cual sostiene sin ambigüedad que «Jerusalén es la capital de Palestina». La comunidad internacional no reconoce esta pr...
En 1967, un censo de población llevado a cabo por las autoridades israelíes registró 66.000 residentes palestinos (44.000 en la zona conocida como Jerusalén Este antes de la guerra de 1967; y 22.000 en la parte perteneciente a Cisjordania que fue anexionada después de la guerra de 1967). Solo unos centenares de judíos residían en Jerusalén Este en ...Tras la conquista israelí, la OLP y luego la Autoridad Nacional Palestinahan reivindicado Jerusalén Este como capital del futuro Estado palestino.En noviembre de 1967, se aprobó la Resolución 242 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Naciones Unidas, por la que se exigía a Israel "retirarse de los territorios ocupados en el reciente conflicto".En 1980, la Ley de Jerusalén, que declaraba que "Jerusalén, completa y unida, es la capital de Israel", fue declarada "nula e inválida" por la Resolución 478 del Consejo de Seguridad de las Nacione...Los Acuerdos de Oslo, firmados el 13 de septiembre de 1993, aplazaron la decisión acerca del estatus permanente de Jerusalén para las etapas finales de las negociaciones entre Israel y los palestinos.
Jerusalem liegt 60 km östlich von Tel Aviv und dem Mittelmeer. Im Osten der Stadt, etwa 35 km entfernt, liegt das Tote Meer. Weitere Städte und Siedlungen in der näheren Umgebung sind Bethlehem und Bait Dschala im Süden, Abu Dis und Maʿale Adummim im Osten, sowie Ramallah und Givʿat Seev im Norden.