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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Low_GermanLow German - Wikipedia

    Low German-speaking area before the expulsion of almost all German-speakers from east of the Oder–Neisse line in 1945. Low German-speaking provinces of Germany east of the Oder, before 1945, were Pomerania with its capital Stettin (now Szczecin, Poland), where east of the Oder East Pomeranian dialects were spoken, and East Prussia with its capital Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia), where ...

  2. Low German is a Germanic language spoken mainly in Northern Germany and in Northeastern Netherlands. East Low German, a group of dialects spoken in north-eastern Germany and northern Poland. Mennonite Low German, a language or group of dialects spoken by Mennonites. Middle Low German, a language spoken from about 1100 to 1600.

  3. West Low German, also known as Low Saxon in a strict sense (German: Westniederdeutsch, literally West Low German, or Niedersächsisch (in a stricter sense), literally: Low Saxon, Nether-Saxon; Low German: Nedersassisch, Nedersaksies; Dutch: Nedersaksisch) is a group of Low German (also Low Saxon; German: Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch, Dutch: Nederduits) dialects spoken in parts of the ...

    • Subdivisions
    • Features
    • Orthography
    • Substantives
    • Adjectives
    • Verbs
    Lake Constance Alemannic (de)
    Upper Rhenish Alemannic (de)

    The feature that distinguishes Low Alemannic from High Alemannic is the retention of Germanic /k/, for instance kalt 'cold' vs. High Alemannic chalt. The feature that distinguishes Low Alemannic from Swabian is the retention of the Middle High German monophthongs, for instance Huus 'house' vs. Swabian Hous or Ziit 'time' vs. Swabian Zejt.

    (All of the below is specific to the dialects spoken near Freiburg im Breisgau) Vowels: Consonants: Are as in Standard German, with the following notes: 1. kh is an aspirated [kʰ] 2. ng is a velar nasal [ŋ] 3. ngg is a velar nasal followed by a velar plosive [ŋɡ] 4. ph is an aspirated [pʰ] 5. th is an aspirated [tʰ] 6. z represents [dz] as opposed to Standard German [ts]

    Plurals 1. Class I: Plural = Singular (e.g. Ääber → Ääber) 2. Class II: Plural = Singular + Umlaut (e.g. Baum → Baim; Vader → Väder) 3. Class IIIa: Plural = Singular + -e (e.g. Man → Mane; Ags → Agse) 4. Class IIIb: Plural = Singular + -̈e (e.g. Frosch → Fresche) 5. Class IVa: Plural = Singular + -er (e.g. Lyyb → Lyyber; Schùg → Schùger) 6. Class IVb: Plural = Singular + -̈er (e.g. Wald → Wälder; Blad → Bleder) 7. Class V: No Plural (e.g. Chees; Zemänd) 8. Class VI: No Singular (Plural Only) (e.g. Bilger; Fèèrine) Diminutives 1. Standard ending is -li (e.g. Aimer → Aimerli) 2. If the word ends in -l, then the ending is -eli (e.g. Dääl → Dääleli) 3. If the word ends in -el, then the ending is -i (e.g. Degel → Degeli) 4. If the word ends in -e, remove the -e and add -li (e.g. Bèère → Bèèrli) 5. The rules for this can be quite complex and depend on the region. Sometimes diminutives require umlaut, other times not.

    Weak Declension Strong Declension Comparative 1. Standard ending -er (e.g. fèin --> fèiner) Superlative 1. Standard ending -(e)schd (e.g. fèin --> fèinschd) Irregular

    1. Infinitive Infinitive ends in -e 1. Some monosyllabic verbs do not have this ending (e.g. chùù, döe, goo, gschää, haa, loo, nee, sää, schdoo, schlaa, syy, zie, etc.) 2. Participle 2.1 Prefix 1. The prefix for g- or ge- 2. Before b, d, g, bf, dsch, and z is merged into the word and not visible (e.g. broochd, glaubd, etc.) 2.2 Suffix 1. Strong Verbs end in -e (e.g. gäse, glofe) 2. Weak Verbs end in -d or -ed (e.g. bùzd, gchaufd) 2.3 Types 2.3.1 Infinitive and Present Sg y/èi/ai - Participle i 2.3.1.1 y > i (e.g. abwyyse > abgwiise) 2.3.1.2 èi > i (e.g. verzèie > verziie) 2.3.1.3 ai > i (e.g. schaide > gschiide) 2.3.2 Infinitive and Present Sg ie/u/au/èi/i - Participle o/öu/öe 2.3.2.1 ie > o (e.g. biede > bode) 2.3.2.2 u > o (e.g. sufe > gsofe) 2.3.2.3 au > o (e.g. laufe > glofe) 2.3.2.4 èi > öu (e.g. rèie > gröue) 2.3.2.5 ie > öe (e.g. riefe > gröefe) 2.3.2.5 i > o (e.g. wiige > gwooge) 2.3.3 Infinitive and Present Sg i - Participle ù 2.3.3.1 i > u (e.g. binde > bùnde) 2.3.4 Infini...

  4. Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (autonym: Sassisch, i.e. " Saxon ", Standard High German: Mittelniederdeutsch, Modern Dutch: Middelnederduits) is a developmental stage of Low German. It developed from the Old Saxon language in the Middle Ages and has been documented in writing since about 1225/34 ( Sachsenspiegel ).

  5. The Low German house had a wide distribution across an area almost 1,000 km long which roughly corresponds to the Low German language area. In the west it stretched into parts of the Netherlands where the height of gable and loft are usually lower, mirroring its development over time from self-sufficiency to market-oriented farming.

  6. Low German grammar resembles High German, as the syntax and morphology is nearly the same as High German's. Over the years, Plautdietsch has lost some inflection. It is, however, still moderately inflectional, having two numbers, three genders, two cases, two tenses, three persons, two moods, two voices, and two degrees of comparison.

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