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  1. Proto-Norse was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE. It is the earliest stage of a characteristically North Germanic language, and the language attested in the oldest Scandinavian Elder Futhark inscriptions, spoken from around the 2nd to the 8th centuries CE. It evolved into the dialects of Old Norse at the beginning of the Viking Age around 800 CE, which later themselves ...

  2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. The main article for this category is Proto-Norse language.

    • Distinction?
    • Fleshing Out Article
    • Norse Languages
    • Phonology
    • Is Proto-Norse A Legitimate Classification?
    • Kragehul Absurdity
    • Z/-R
    • Primitive Norse
    • Title
    • Grammar

    The thing I'm unclear on here is: Is there a distinction between Proto-Norse and Proto-North Germanic? 1. Well, no there isn't. I'll add that name.--Wiglaf01:34, 10 Apr 2005 (UTC) 1. Though there is some (small) differences between P-N an Proto-Germanic --Asdfgl22:09, 16 May 2005 (UTC) 1. 1.1. You guys seem to forget that Proto-Germanic is in fact the name of an earlier stage of the language. It is the ancient common language of the Germanic peoples, as it were. The next stage of evolution, would be into North-West Germanic and East Germanic. East Germanic evolved into the now extinct language of the Goths, while all the other surviving Germanic languages of today descend from the other branch. So, there is little difference north-west Germanic and Proto-Scandinavian (except for the pronounciation of /z/ or /R/ and some changes in the pronounciation of diphthongs.). 1.2. Now, the term Proto-norse is actually a little off, in my opinion. I have never seen it used in academic literatu...

    I will flesh out this article some more once I've managed to get som sleep... --Asdfgl22:09, 16 May 2005 (UTC)

    From what I undestand, there are a group of languages called Norse languages, and 2 groups within Norse languages known as West Norse languages and East Norse languages. I'm not sure whether or not all North Germanic languages are Norse languages or not. 1. Pretty correct! North Germanic equals Norse - the term Norse seems to be treated approximately as the "Conscandinavian" (I invented that word now - don't use it as a term!) word Nordisk when referring to c:a 700-1100 AD. The common opinion of Nordic linguistics is that, there are two Norse languages in the linguist sense, East Nordic, and West Nordic. I was going to write an extensive explanation here, but it may suffice that I claim that this family tree of the Nordic Languages is what I've been taught and expericenced - with the exception: the distinction between the Sveamål and the Götamål has disolved so much that practically they're just pronunciation variants of the same dialect. Also the status of Gutnish in relation to Sw...

    So, were /w/ and /j/ also phonemes of the language? They show up, or at least and do, in the inscriptions they display. Are these realized differently than one might expect? In any case, the phonology section is apparently incomplete. -Branddobbe15:39, 24 March 2006 (UTC) 1. And on a different note, is really supposed to be IPA [χ] (voiceless uvular fricativ), or is this a leftover from other transcription systems that use chi for IPA [x] (voiceless velar fricativ)? --Tropylium14:26, 23 July 2006 (UTC) 1. 1.1. To start with the first question first. Yes, the phonology section is incomplete. I never got around cleaning that one up properly. So /w/ and /j/ should be added. Or rather, the /u/ and /i/ should be classified as semivowels. 1. 1.1. As for the second question. Yes, /h/ should be IPA [x]. 1.2. -Asdfgl 16:09, 29 August 2006 (UTC) "When the phoneme /z/, represented in runic writing by the *Algiz-rune, changed to a sound represented by ʀ is debated. Also it may be me...

    The term has traditionally been used to refer to the language of the early runic inscriptions, but it fails on two counts. First, a protolanguage is defined as a reconstruction from attested linguistic data. The language of the runic inscriptions, however, comes from actual attested data (obviously), and so is not a reconstruction and therefore not a protolangauge. The second failure of the term proto-Norse is that the language of the early runic inscriptions could just as easily have been ancestral to West Germanic languages as to North Germanic languages. It would be better to call the language of the early runic inscriptions Northwest Germanic and the language of the later runic inscriptions of Scandinavia and Scandinavian settlements Old Norse. (Note that good evidence in support of this suggestion can be found in the sources given in the article for Northwest Germanic.) Consider the problems caused by the classification Proto-Norse that are evident in the article itself: That's...

    Just want to criticize the interpretation of the Kragehul spear: it's not mine, but taken from "Runristningar - Från spjutspetsen i Stabu till Anna i Älvdalen - FABEL I KLASSIKER", ISBN 91-7842-1750Parameter error in {{ISBN}}: Invalid ISBN.. As not entirely unusual, a part of the translation is ridiculous: gagaga ginuga == ga-ga-ga, super-ga. Very informative, or: when ideas are lacking resort to some undeterminable magic we cannot reconstruct. I instead claim gagaga ginuga == gagangan, ginunga, some n:s forgotten or customary omitted. gagangan, ginunga == walked far. I.e.: I the eril of Asgisl, (have) walked far, .... This is original "research" however. If you find a doctor who interprets unlike what's in the current text, then the text can be rewritten - otherwise, I'm not a linguist. Twirling his moustaches, does: Rursus16:19, 9 February 2007 (UTC) 1. It is sadly a well established fact that runecarvers used single-rune abbreviations, magical ones usually repeated. One example i...

    I have a question for all the proto-norse experts out there.I've studied Old Norse in Norway, and in the process have had a rough introduction to proto-Norse. I am also very interested in Runes, and have therefore read a couple of books about runes. In all the Norwegian literature I have read, the letter which is in this article written z, is written R, and described as a retroflex r-sound. And, of course, it evolved into the r in Old Norse. Why is the R not used in this article? Is it a case of the Norwegian academic community disagreeing with the rest of the world? Or is it, simply, an omission?--Barend (talk) 09:00, 17 March 2008 (UTC) 1. The reason is that it is regarded in protogermanic as a retroflex voiced sibilant or the like that gradually converted to the sound you mentioned in the north germanic branch. There is little basis for assuming that the change would have happened at this time, but also little basis for assuming that it hadn't. The cautious approach is to use the...

    I see that the term primitive norse is used here. What is the reason for this term? As far as I understand proto-norse was even more grammatically advanced/complex than classical norse. --Oddeivind (talk) 16:19, 25 February 2009 (UTC) 1. Primitive is here used in the sense of "from which something is derived, primary", which is the original meaning of the word, and not in the sense of "simple, underdeveloped." –Holt (T•C) 16:58, 25 February 2009 (UTC) 1.1. Yes. It's common to call forms of a language older than the "Old" form "Primitive" if they're actually attested (and "Proto" if they're only reconstructed). Another example is Primitive Irish, which is older than Old Irish. —Angr 18:38, 25 February 2009 (UTC) 1.1.1. As Proto-Norse is partly reconstructed and partly attested, "Primitive" and "Proto-" can be used as seen fit. –Holt (T•C) 18:56, 25 February 2009 (UTC) Yes, and two aspects of the prefix ur- in urnordisk(a) are represented in English :).--Berig (talk) 19:15, 2...

    Article Proto-Norse language should be renamed in only Proto-Norse --MilanKovacevic (talk) 00:55, 18 January 2017 (UTC) 1. It's not Proto anything - there are runic inscriptions, so it's not a reconstruction of a hypothesized parent. --Pfold (talk) 19:35, 21 December 2017 (UTC) 2. Agreed. There's no other "Proto-Norse" thing to disambiguate the language from, as with Old Church Slavonic. — Eru·tuon19:16, 8 December 2019 (UTC) 3. Agree – Proto-Norse redirects here, and per WP:NCL this means that the disambiguator "language" is unnecessary. --Florian Blaschke (talk) 00:42, 9 December 2019 (UTC)

    This article goes quite deep when it comes phonology, but it says next to nothing about Proto-Norse grammar. Of course not much can be said with certainty since the language is so poorly attested, but I guess authors have elaborated on questions like "did Proto-Norse still have an instrumental case" or "did Proto-Norse preserve the mediopassive", questions that spring to mind when we compare proto-Norse to Gothic and the early West Germanic languages. Steinbach (talk) 10:43, 18 August 2018 (UTC) 1. From what I understand, the grammar is very similar to the reconstructed Proto-Germanic grammar, but I can't be entirely sure since most sources on Proto Norse are prohibitively expensive to buy and look into. Reboot01 (talk) 6:12, 7 December 2019 (UTC) 1. Krause doesn't mention any form that (he says) could be interpreted as an instrumental case (in fact, on p. 48f., Krause 1971 says explicitly that there is no case in the inscriptions where a noun in an instrumental case form would be s...

  3. 27/02/2021 · Proto-Norse (also called Ancient Nordic, Ancient Scandinavian, Ancient Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Proto-Scandinavian and Proto-North Germanic) was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic in the first centuries CE.

  4. › wiki › Old_NorseOld Norse - Wikipedia

    As Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse, in the 8th century, the effects of the umlauts seem to have been very much the same over the whole Old Norse area. But in later dialects of the language a split occurred mainly between west and east as the use of umlauts began to vary.

  5. This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article "Proto-Norse_language" ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA.

  6. ノルド祖語 (ノルドそご、Proto-Norse language)は、 スカンディナヴィア で話される インド・ヨーロッパ語族 の言語である。. 紀元後 1世紀 に ゲルマン祖語 の北方言になったと考えられる。. 北ゲルマン語群 の特徴をもつ最も初期の段階であり ...

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