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  1. Scottish Gaelic ( Scottish Gaelic: Gàidhlig [ˈkaːlɪkʲ] ( listen) ), also known as Scots Gaelic and Gaelic, is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic branch of the Indo-European language family) native to the Gaels of Scotland. As a Goidelic language, Scottish Gaelic, as well as both Irish and Manx, developed out of Old Irish.

  2. Scottish Gaelic edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Scottish Gaelic Wikipedia ( Scottish Gaelic : Uicipeid , [ˈuçkʲɪpetʲ] ) is Scottish Gaelic version of Wikipedia . As of 13 January 2022, it contains 15,629 articles and has 24,733 editors.

    • Overview
    • Origins to zenith
    • The Eclipse of Gaelic in Scotland
    • Persecution, Retreat, and Dispersal
    • Modern era
    • Defunct dialects

    Scottish Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced especially by Gaelic-language placenames.

    The traditional view is that Gaelic was brought to Scotland, probably in the 4th-5th centuries, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll. This view is based mostly on early medieval writings such as the 7th century Irish Senchus fer n-Alban or the 8th century Anglo-Saxon Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. However, the lack of archaeological or place name evidence for a migration or invasion has caused this ...

    Many historians mark the reign of King Malcolm Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland. In either 1068 or 1070, the king married the exiled Princess Margaret of Wessex. This future Saint Margaret of Scotland was a member of the royal House of Wessex which had occupied the English throne from its founding until the Norman Conquest. Margaret was thoroughly Anglo-Saxon and is often credited for taking the first significant steps in anglicizing the Scottish court. She spoke no Gaeli

    The historian Charles Withers argues that the geographic retreat of Gaelic in Scotland is the context for the establishment of the country's signature divide between the ‘Lowlands’ and the ‘Highlands’. Before the late 1300s, there is no evidence that anyone thought of Scotland as divided into two geographic parts. From the 1380s onward, however, the country was increasingly understood to be the union of two distinct spaces and peoples: one inhabiting the low-lying south and the ...

    Scottish Gaelic has a rich oral and written tradition, having been the language of the bardic culture of the Highland clans for many years. The language preserves knowledge of and adherence to pre-feudal 'tribal' laws and customs. These attitudes were still evident in the complaints and claims of the Highland Land League of the late 19th century, which elected MPs to the Parliament of the United Kingdom. However, the language suffered under centralisation efforts by the Scottish and later Britis

    All surviving dialects are Highland and/or Hebridean dialects. Dialects of Lowland Gaelic have become defunct since the demise of Galwegian Gaelic, originally spoken in Galloway, which seems to have been the last Lowland dialect and which survived into the Modern Period. By the 18th century Lowland Gaelic had been largely replaced by Lowland Scots across much of Lowland Scotland. According to a reference in The Carrick Covenanters by James Crichton, the last place in the Lowlands where Scottish

    • Overview
    • History of the discipline
    • Vowels
    • Consonants
    • Stress
    • Epenthesis

    There is no standard variety of Scottish Gaelic; although statements below are about all or most dialects, the north-western dialects are discussed more than others as they represent the majority of speakers. Gaelic phonology is characterised by: a phoneme inventory particularly rich in sonorant coronal phonemes a contrasting set of palatalised and non-palatalised consonants strong initial word-stress and vowel reduction in unstressed syllables The presence of preaspiration of stops in certain c

    Descriptions of the language have largely focused on the phonology. Welsh naturalist Edward Lhuyd published the earliest major work on Scottish Gaelic after collecting data in the Scottish Highlands between 1699 and 1700, in particular data on Argyll Gaelic and the now obsolete dialects of north-east Inverness-shire. Following a significant gap, the middle to the end of the twentieth century saw a great flurry of dialect studies in particular by Scandinavian scholars, again focussing largely on

    The number of diphthongs in Scottish Gaelic depends to some extent on the dialect in question but most commonly, 9 or 10 are described: /ei, ɤi, ai, ui, iə, uə, ɛu, ɔu, au, ia/.

    Gaelic phonemes may have various allophones as well as dialectal or variations in pronunciation not shown in the chart above. The more common ones are: 1. /tʲʰ/ as or 2. /tʲ/ may also be affricated: Area 1 without affrication Area 2 with strong affrication Area 3 with ...

    Velarised /l̪ˠ/ has 6 main realisations as shown on the map: 1. Area 1, by far the most populous, has. The area includes most of the Outer Hebrides, the Highlands and areas south of central western areas such as Kintyre, Arran, Argyll and East Perthshire. 2. Area 2 ...

    The fortis stops /pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ, kʲʰ, kʰ/ are voiceless and aspirated; this aspiration occurs as postaspiration in initial position and, in most dialects, as preaspiration in medial position after stressed vowels. Similar to the manifestation of aspiration, the ...

    Stress is usually on the first syllable: for example drochaid.

    A distinctive characteristic of Gaelic pronunciation (also present in Scots and Scottish English dialects (cf. girl and film ) is the insertion of epenthetic vowels between certain adjacent consonants. This affects orthographic l n r when followed by orthographic b bh ch g gh m mh; and orthographic m followed by l r s ch. 1. tarbh ('bull') — 2. Alba ('Scotland') —.

    • Overview
    • Grammar overview
    • Nouns
    • Adjectives

    This article describes the grammar of the Scottish Gaelic language.

    Gaelic shares with other Celtic languages a number of interesting typological features: 1. Verb–subject–object basic word order in simple sentences with non-periphrastic verbal constructions, a typological characteristic relatively uncommon among the world's languages. 2. conjugated prepositions: complex forms historically derived from the fusion of a preposition + pronoun sequence 3. prepositional constructions for expressing possession and ownership: 1. Tha taigh agam — "I have a ...

    Nouns and pronouns in Gaelic have four cases: nominative, vocative, genitive, and dative case. There is no distinct accusative case form; the nominative is used for both subjects and objects. Nouns can be classified into a number of major declension classes, with a small number o

    Gaelic has no indefinite article. Cù may mean either "dog" or "a dog", and coin may mean either "dogs" or "some dogs."

    Adjectives in Gaelic inflect according to gender and case in the singular. In the plural, a single form is used for both masculine and feminine genders, in all cases.

    • Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Era
    • Eighteenth Century
    • Nineteenth Century
    • Twentieth Century
    • 21St-Century
    • See Also
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • External Links

    Early Middle Ages

    In early Middle Ages what is now Scotland was culturally and politically divided. In the West were the Gaelic-speaking people of Dál Riata, who had close links with Ireland, from where they brought with them the name Scots. Very few works of Gaelic poetry survive from the early Medieval period, and most of these are in Irish manuscripts. There are religious works that can be identified as Scottish, including the Elegy for St Columba by Dallan Forgaill (c. 597) and "In Praise of St Columba" by...

    High Middle Ages

    At least from the accession of David I (r. 1124–53), as part of a Davidian Revolution that introduced French culture and political systems, Gaelic ceased to be the main language of the royal court and was probably replaced by French. After this "de-gallicisation" of the Scottish court, a less highly regarded order of bards took over the functions of the filidh, and they would continue to act in a similar role in the Highlands and Islands into the eighteenth century. They often trained in bard...

    Late Middle Ages

    In the late Middle Ages, Middle Scots, often simply called English, became the dominant language of the country. It was derived largely from Old English, with the addition of elements from Gaelic and Norman French. Although resembling the language spoken in northern England, it became a distinct dialect from the late fourteenth century onwards. As the ruling elite gradually abandoned Norman French, they began to adopt Middle Scots, and by the fifteenth century it was the language of governmen...

    By the early modern era Gaelic had been in geographical decline for three centuries and had begun to be a second class language, confined to the Highlands and Islands. The tradition of Classical Gaelic poetry survived longer in Scotland than in Ireland, with the last fully competent member of the MacMhuirich dynasty, who were hereditary poets to the Lords of the Isles and then the Captains of Clanranald, still working in the early eighteenth century. Nevertheless, interest in the sponsorship of panegyric Gaelic poetry was declining among the clan leaders. Gaelic was gradually being overtaken by Middle Scots, which became the language of both the Scottish nobility and the majority population. Middle Scots was derived substantially from Old English, with Gaelic and French influences. It was usually called Inglyshe and was very close to the language spoken in northern England, Unlike many of his predecessors, James VI actively despised Gaelic culture. As the tradition of classical Gael...

    The use of Scottish Gaelic suffered when Highlanders were persecuted after the Battle of Culloden in 1746, and during the Highland Clearances. In the song Là Sliabh an t-Siorraim, Sìleas na Ceapaich, the daughter of the 15th Chief of Clan MacDonald of Keppoch, sings of the joy upon the arrival of Prince James Francis Edward Stuart, the indecisive Battle of Sheriffmuir and the state of uneasy anticipation between the battle and the end of the Jacobite rising of 1715. Sìleas is also known for her 1723 lament for the Chief of Clan MacDonald of Glengarry, Alasdair a Gleanna Garadh, which hearkens back to the mythological poetry attributed to Amergin Glúingel. Norman MacLeod, the 22nd Chief of Clan MacLeod and who is known in Scottish Gaelic as, An Droch Dhuine ("The Wicked Man"), inspired the Bard Roderick Morison to compose, Òran do MhacLeoid Dhunbheagain ("A Song to MacLeod of Dunvegan"). The song was meant to rebuke MacLeod for not fulfilling, "the obligations of his office". Instead...

    The Highland Clearancesand widespread emigration significantly weakened Gaelic language and culture and had a profound impact on the nature of Gaelic poetry. The best poetry in this vein contained a strong element of protest. In Sutherland, Eòghainn MacDhonnchaidh (Ewan Robertson, 1842–95) of Tongue was called "the Bard of the Clearances"; is most famous for his song Mo mhallachd aig na caoraich mhòr ("My curses upon the Border sheep") mocking, among others, the Duchess of Sutherland and Patrick Sellar. The song has been recorded by notable singers Julie Fowlis and Kathleen MacInnes. There is a monument to Robertson in Tongue. A similar poem in Gaelic attacks James Gillanders of Highfield Cottage near Dingwall, who was the Factor for the estate of Major Charles Robertson of Kincardine. As his employer was then serving with the British Army in Australia, Gillanders was the person most responsible for the mass evictions staged at Glencalvie, Ross-shire in 1845. The Gaelic-language poe...

    The first novel in Scottish Gaelic was John MacCormick's Dùn-Àluinn, no an t-Oighre 'na Dhìobarach, which was serialised in the People's Journal in 1910, before publication in book form in 1912. The publication of a second Scottish Gaelic novel, An t-Ogha Mòrby Angus Robertson, followed within a year.

    With regard to Gaelic poetry this includes the Great Book of Gaelic, An Leabhar Mòr, a Scottish Gaelic, English and Irish language collaboration featuring the work of 150 poets, visual artists and calligraphers. Established contemporary poets in Scottish Gaelic include Meg Bateman, Maoilios Caimbeul, Rody Gorman, Aonghas MacNeacail and Angus Peter Campbell. Marcas Mac an Tuairneir, an award-winning poet cemented the place of second-language Gaelic learners and gay people in his 2014 collection, Deò. According to Natasha Sumner, the current revival of Canadian Gaelic in Nova Scotia was largely instigated by Kenneth E. Nilsen (1941-2012), an American linguist with a specialty in Celtic languages. During his employment as Professor of Gaelic Studies at St. Francis Xavier University in Antigonish, Nilsen was known for his contagious enthusiasm for the distinctive Nova Scotia dialect of the Gaelic-language, it's folklore, and it's oral literature. Several important figures in the recent...

    Clancy, Thomas Owen (2006). "Scottish Gaelic literature (to c. 1200)". In Koch, John T. (ed.). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. 4. Santa Barbara, Denver, and Oxford: ABC-CLIO. pp. 1276–7.

    Black, Ronald I.M. (ed.). An Lasair: an anthology of 18th-century Scottish Gaelic verse. Edinburgh, 2001.
    Black, Ronald I.M. (ed.). An Tuil: an anthology of 20th-century Scottish Gaelic verse. Edinburgh, 1999.
    Bruford, Alan. Gaelic folktales and medieval romances: a study of the early modern Irish romantic tales and their oral derivatives. Dublin, 1969.
    Campbell, J.F. (ed.). Leabhar na Féinne: heroic Gaelic ballads collected in Scotland chiefly from 1512 to 1871. London, 1872. PDF available from the Internet Archive
    Digitised version of Leabhar a Theagasc Ainminnin, 1741 at National Library of Scotland
    Digitised version of Ais-Eiridh na Sean Chánoin Albannaich / The resurrection of the ancient Scottish language, 1751 at National Library of Scotland
  3. Help:IPA/Scottish Gaelic. This is the pronunciation key for IPA transcriptions of Scottish Gaelic on Wikipedia. It provides a set of symbols to represent the pronunciation of Scottish Gaelic in Wikipedia articles, and example words that illustrate the sounds that correspond to them. Integrity must be maintained between the key and the ...

    Broad(ipa)
    Broad(examples)
    Slender(ipa)
    Slender(examples)
    f ad, f ead, ph oll, ph eann
    f ad, f ead, ph oll, ph eann
    f ad, f ead, ph oll, ph eann
    dh à, deirea dh, gh aol, dra gh
    dh ' iarr, dh ' innis, gh eall, ghin
    th onn, th ig, sh ùil, sh eòl
    th onn, th ig, sh ùil, sh eòl
    th onn, th ig, sh ùil, sh eòl
    e ala, b e ò, th e àrn, i olaire, p i ...
    e ala, b e ò, th e àrn, i olaire, p i ...
    e ala, b e ò, th e àrn, i olaire, p i ...
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