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  1. 1 (del griego φθίσις, a través del latín phthisis ), es una infección bacteriana contagiosa que afecta a los pulmones, pero puede propagarse a otros órganos. La especie de bacteria más importante y representativa causante de la tuberculosis es Mycobacterium tuberculosis o bacilo de Koch, perteneciente al complejo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › TuberculosisTuberculosis - Wikipedia

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis.

    • Los Distintos Nombres Que recibe
    • La Tuberculosis en Las Sociedades Primitivas
    • Oriente
    • La Antigüedad Clásica
    • América Precolombina
    • Europa: Edad Media Y Renacimiento
    • Siglos XVII Y XVIII
    • El Siglo XIX
    • Robert Koch
    • Las Casas de Curación

    Tisis

    El término tisis/consunción aparece por primera vez en la literatura griega, alrededor del 460 a. C. Hipócrates (siglo V a. C. - siglo IV a. C.) identifica la tisis como la causa más frecuente de enfermedad de su tiempo. La describió entre la población de 18 a 35 años y casi siempre fatal,[3]​ llegando incluso a prevenir a los médicos de visitar a pacientes con tisis para salvaguardar su reputación. Aunque Aristóteles (384-322 a. C.) opinaba que la enfermedad era contagiosa, muchos autores gr...

    Peste blanca

    La epidemia de tuberculosis en Europa, probablemente iniciada a comienzos del siglo XVII y que continuó durante 200 años, fue conocida como la Gran Peste Blanca. La muerte por tuberculosis era considerada inevitable, siendo en 1650 la principal causa de muerte.[3]​ La alta densidad de población así como las pobres condiciones sanitarias que caracterizaban a las ciudades europeas y norteamericanas, eran el ambiente ideal para la propagación de la enfermedad.

    Una de las hipótesis más extendidas sobre el surgimiento del género Mycobacterium es la ofrecida por Mirko Grmeck en 1983.[4]​ Según su modelo, el antepasado común denominado Mycobacterium archaicum, germen libre, habría dado origen a los modernos Mycobacterium (incluidas las especies saprofitas). Durante el Neolítico, y en relación con la domestic...

    Las primeras referencias de esta enfermedad en las civilizaciones asiáticas las encontramos en los Vedas. En el más antiguo (el Rig-Veda, 1500 a. C.) a la tuberculosis se la denomina Yaksma. En el Athawa-Veda aparece con otro nombre: Balasa, y aparece por primera vez una descripción escrita de la escrófula (variante de la tuberculosis en la que los...

    El primer texto clásico en mencionar la enfermedad es de Heródoto. Este autor relata en el libro VII de su Historiae como uno de los generales de Jerjes abandona la campaña contra Greciadebido al agravamiento de su tisis. Hipócrates de Cos describe un cuadro clínico en el libro I de su "Tratado sobre las enfermedades" que denomina "tisis", caracter...

    En América del Sur, las primeras evidencias de la enfermedad se remontan a la Cultura Paracas, entre los años 750 a. C. y 100 d. C.,[14]​aunque el hallazgo más notable pertenece a la momia de un niño inca del año 900 d. C., en el que han podido aislarse muestras del bacilo. Varios estudios sobre esqueletos de Sonoma (California), Nazca (Perú) y Chá...

    Durante la Edad Media no se produjo ningún avance en el conocimiento de la tuberculosis. La medicina árabe (Rhazes, Avicena) seguía considerándola una enfermedad generalizada, contagiosa y de difícil tratamiento. Al médico hispano Maimónides se atribuye la primera descripción de esta enfermedad en animales. Arnau de Vilanovadescribe una teoría etio...

    Hay que destacar en este período la figura del anatomista Franciscus Sylvius (Silvio) (1614-1672), quien comenzó a encontrar asociaciones entre las diferentes formas de tuberculosis (pulmonar, ganglionar). Es el primero en describir el tubérculo con su proceso de reblandecimiento y afirma que "la tisis es la escrófula del pulmón".[22]​ Thomas Willi...

    La enfermedad romántica

    La tuberculosis fue bautizada durante este periodo como la peste blanca, "mal de vivir" o "mal du siècle". El ideal de belleza romántica lleva a muchas mujeres del siglo XIX a seguir estrictas dietas de vinagre y agua, con objeto de provocarse anemias hemolíticas que empalidezcan su semblante.[27]​ Se mitifica la enfermedad e incluso se propaga la creencia de que su padecimiento provoca "raptos" de creatividad o euforia denominados "Spes phtisica", más intensos a medida que la enfermedad avan...

    Los avances científicos

    Al margen de los movimientos culturales los avances científicos marcan la diferencia. Hay que esperar a los últimos años del siglo, pero los avances se suceden de manera explosiva en apenas dos o tres lustros: En 1866 Jean Antoine Villemin demuestra que puede contagiarse la enfermedad, tras inocular material purulento de humanos infectados a conejos de laboratorio;[31]​ y poco después, en 1882, se descubre el agente infeccioso que la provoca. Comienzan a proliferar los sanatorios para tubercu...

    Los experimentos de Villemin confirmando la contagiosidad de la enfermedad (tras inocular por vía subcutánea material purulento a conejos) obligan a la comunidad médica a plantearse el hecho de que la tuberculosis es una infección específica y que su agente etiológico es transmisible, lo que abre la veda para su captura.En 1882 un médico prusiano, ...

    Los avances en el conocimiento de la tuberculosis (su agente causante, el mecanismo de transmisión, los primeros estudios epidemiológicos que demuestran su menor incidencia en determinados climas) van determinando la aparición de unas instituciones peculiares denominadas genéricamente sanatorios para tuberculosos, situadas en regiones climatológica...

    • How It Spreads
    • Detection and Treatment
    • Symptoms
    • How Common Is TB?
    • Other Websites

    The bacteria can travel through the air and spread from one person to the next. This happens when infected people cough, sneeze, or spit. Of every 100 people with TB, between five and ten people show symptoms. In these people, the disease is called active. Tuberculosis kills more than half of the people who are infected if they do not get treatment...

    Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology. Doctors often look at an X-ray of the chest. In addition, they check body fluids. These fluids have microbes in them, which are grown in cell cultures. The cell cultures are then analysed to see if the person is infected with TB. If the patient has TB, but does not show symptoms, the disease is 'latent'. ...

    Tuberculosis can have many symptoms. The most common include: 1. A cough that does not go away, especially if the person is coughing up blood (this is called hemoptysis) 2. Chest pain 3. Not having any appetite 4. Weakness 5. Weight loss 6. Chills 7. Very pale skin 8. Listless eyes 9. Fever 10. Sweatinga lot at night 11. Difficulty breathing 12. Fe...

    Experts believe that one third of the world population is infected with M. tuberculosis. New infections occur at a rate of one per second. In 2007, about 13.7 million chronic cases were active globally. In 2010, about 8.8 million new cases developed and nearly 1.5 million people died from the disease, most of them in developing countries.The number...

    • Origins
    • Tuberculosis in Early Civilization
    • The East
    • Classical Antiquity
    • Pre-Columbian America
    • Europe: Middle Ages and Renaissance
    • Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
    • Nineteenth Century
    • Twentieth Century
    • See Also

    Scientific work investigating the evolutionary origins of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has concluded that the most recent common ancestor of the complex was a human-specific pathogen, which underwent a population bottleneck. Analysis of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units has allowed dating of the bottleneck to approximately 40,00...

    In 2008, evidence for tuberculosis infection was discovered in human remains from the Neolithic era dating from 9,000 years ago, in Atlit Yam, a settlement in the eastern Mediterranean.This finding was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods; to date it is the oldest evidence of tuberculosis infection in humans. Evidence of the infection i...

    Ancient India

    The first references to tuberculosis in non-European civilization is found in the Vedas. The oldest of them (Rigveda, 1500 BC) calls the disease yaksma. The Atharvaveda calls it balasa. It is in the Atharvaveda that the first description of scrofula is given. The Sushruta Samhita, written around 600 BC, recommends that the disease be treated with breast milk, various meats, alcohol and rest. The Yajurvedaadvises sufferers to move to higher altitudes.

    Ancient China

    The Classical Chinese word lào 癆 "consumption; tuberculosis" was the common name in traditional Chinese medicine and fèijiéhé 肺結核 (lit. "lung knot kernel") "pulmonary tuberculosis" is the modern medical term. Lao is compounded in names like xulao 虛癆 with "empty; void", láobìng 癆病 with "sickness", láozhài 癆瘵 with "[archaic] sickness", and feilao 肺癆 with "lungs". Zhang and Unschuld explain that the medical term xulao 虛癆 "depletion exhaustion" includes infectious and consumptive pathologies, suc...

    Hippocrates, in Book 1 of his Of the Epidemics, describes the characteristics of the disease: fever, colourless urine, cough resulting in a thick sputa, and loss of thirst and appetite. He notes that most of the sufferers became delirious before they succumbed to the disease. Hippocrates and many other at the time believed phthisis to be hereditary...

    In South America, reports of a study in August 2014 revealed that TB had likely been spread via seals that contracted it on beaches of Africa, from humans via domesticated animals, and carried it across the Atlantic. A team at the University of Tübingen analyzed tuberculosis DNA in 1,000-year-old skeletons of the Chiribaya culture in southern Peru;...

    During the Middle Ages, no significant advances were made regarding tuberculosis. Avicenna and Rhazes continued to consider to believe the disease was both contagious and difficult to treat. Arnaldus de Villa Novadescribed etiopathogenic theory directly related to that of Hippocrates, in which a cold humor dripped from the head into the lungs. In M...

    Franciscus Sylvius began differentiating between the various forms of tuberculosis (pulmonary, ganglion). He was the first person to recognize that the skin ulcers caused by scrofula resembled tubercles seen in phthisis, noting that "phthisis is the scrofula of the lung" in his book Opera Medica, published posthumously in 1679. Around the same time...

    Epidemic tuberculosis

    In the 18th and 19th century, tuberculosis (TB) had become epidemic in Europe, showing a seasonal pattern. In the 18th century, TB had a mortality rate as high as 900 deaths (800–1000) per 100,000 population per year in Western Europe, including in places like London, Stockholm and Hamburg. Similar death rate occurred in North America. In the United Kingdom, epidemic TB may have peaked around 1750, as suggested by mortality data. In the 19th century, TB killed about a quarter of the adult pop...

    A romantic disease

    It was during this century that tuberculosis was dubbed the White Plague, mal de vivre, and mal du siècle. It was seen as a "romantic disease". Suffering from tuberculosis was thought to bestow upon the sufferer heightened sensitivity. The slow progress of the disease allowed for a "good death" as sufferers could arrange their affairs. The disease began to represent spiritual purity and temporal wealth, leading many young, upper-class women to purposefully pale their skin to achieve the consu...

    Scientific advances

    Though removed from the cultural movement, the scientific understanding advanced considerably. By the end of the 19th century, several major breakthroughs gave hope that a cause and cure might be found. One of the most important physicians dedicated to the study of phthisiology was René Laennec, who died from the disease at the age of 45, after contracting tuberculosis while studying contagious patients and infected bodies. Laennec invented the stethoscope which he used to corroborate his aus...

    Containment

    At the beginning of the 20th century, tuberculosis was one of the UK's most urgent health problems. A royal commission was set up in 1901, The Royal Commission Appointed to Inquire into the Relations of Human and Animal Tuberculosis. Its remit was to find out whether tuberculosis in animals and humans was the same disease, and whether animals and humans could infect each other. By 1919, the Commission had evolved into the UK's Medical Research Council. In 1902, the International Conference on...

    Vaccines

    The first genuine success in immunizing against tuberculosis was developed from attenuated bovine-strain tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1906. It was called "BCG" (Bacille Calmette-Guérin). The BCG vaccine was first used on humans in 1921 in France, but it was not until after World War II that BCG received widespread acceptance in Great Britain, and Germany. In the early days of the British National Health ServiceX-ray examination for TB increased dramatically but rates...

    Treatments

    As the century progressed, some surgical interventions, including the pneumothorax or plombage technique—collapsing an infected lung to "rest" it and allow the lesions to heal—were used to treat tuberculosis. Pneumothorax was not a new technique by any means. In 1696, Giorgio Baglivi reported a general improvement in tuberculosis sufferers after they received sword wounds to the chest. F.H. Ramadge induced the first successful therapeutic pneumothorax in 1834, and reported subsequently the pa...

  3. M. tuberculosis es el agente causal de la tuberculosis, que corresponde a la mayor causa de muerte en el mundo debida a un único agente infeccioso. Distinguimos: Tuberculosis latente (90-85% de los casos): en huéspedes inmunocompetentes M. tuberculosis está contenida, vive en el cuerpo pero no crece en el. Las personas infectadas no muestran síntomas ni son contagiosas.

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