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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine - Wikipedia

    Ukraine is the second-largest European country, after Russia. Lying between latitudes 44° and 53° N, and longitudes 22° and 41° E ., it is mostly in the East European Plain. Ukraine covers an area of 603,628 square kilometres (233,062 sq mi), with a coastline of 2,782 kilometres (1,729 mi).

  2. Ucrania (en ucraniano, Україна, tr. Ukraína o Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/ ( escuchar)) es un Estado soberano ubicado en Europa Oriental. Su forma de gobierno es la república que se rige por un sistema semipresidencial, con la separación de los poderes ejecutivo, legislativo y judicial.

    • Ancient Times
    • Kyivan Rus
    • Cossackian State
    • 20th Century
    • Modern Independence

    Many different tribes lived on the territory of modern Ukraine since pre-historical times. Most historians believe that the Great Steppe at the North of the Black Sea was a homeland of all Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. Some believe it was also the birthplace of the whole European population. Wends, Goths, Huns, Sclaveni, Avars, and othe...

    Kyivan Rus, is the medieval state of Eastern Slavs. Established by the Slavic with the help of the Varangian squads whose force was used to integrate separate tribes and their lands into one powerful state. Varangian princes, who ruled Rus from its first years were gradually assimilated by natives, but the dynastystarted by semy-legendary Ririk sur...

    At the end of the 15th century, the groups of warriors who called themselves Cossacks appeared on the territory between the borders of Lithuania, Muscovy, and the Crimea, in the "wild steppes" of Zaporizhia. From the 16th century, the Sich became their military centre. Zaporizhian Cossacks participated in the wars on the side of the Commonwealth: t...

    In 1917 an independent Ukrainian People's Republic was established. The Red Army captured it and made it into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Soviet Russia in the 1920s encouraged the Ukrainian language and Ukrainian culture. In the 1930s this policy changed to making the Ukrainians into Russians. There were mass repressions of Ukrainian p...

    President elections: 1 December 1991, July 1994, October-November 1999, October-December 2004, January 2010 Parliament elections: March 1994, March 1998, March 2002, March 2006, September 2007 (prematurely), October 2012 Constitution of Ukraine was adopted by Parliament (Verkhovna Rada) 28 July 1996 with changes 8 December 2004. The political demon...

    • Russian, Romanian, Polish, Slovak, Hungarian
    • 77.8% Ukrainians, 17.3% Russians, 4.9% others and unspecified
  3. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine - Wikipedia

    Ukraine ( Ukrainian: Україна, romanised: Ukrajina [ukrɑˈjinɑ] ), whiles cried the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastren Europe, mairchit bi Roushie tae the east an northeast; Belaroushie tae the northwast; Poland, Hungary, an Slovakie tae the wast; Romanie an Moldovae tae the soothwast; an the Black Sea an Sea o Azov tae the sooth ...

    • Prehistory
    • Middle Ages
    • Early Modern Period
    • Modern History
    • National Historiography
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • External Links

    Settlement in Ukraine by members of the genus Homo has been documented into distant prehistory. The Neanderthals are associated with the Molodova archaeological sites (45,000–43,000 BC) which include a mammoth bone dwelling. Gravettian settlements dating to 32,000 BC have been unearthed and studied in the Buran-Kaya cave site of the Crimean Mountai...

    Kievan Rus'

    According to Mykhailo Hrushevskyi, the city of Kyiv was established during the time when the area around the mid- and low-Dnieper was part of the Khazar state. He derived that information from local legends because no written chronicles from that period are left.[citation needed] In 882, Kyiv was conquered from the Khazars by the Varangian noble Oleh (Oleg), who started the long period of rule of the Rurikid princes. During this time, several Slavic tribes were native to Ukraine, including th...

    Christianity

    While Christianity had made headway into the territory of modern Ukraine before the first ecumenical council, the Council of Nicaea (325) (particularly along the Black Sea coast) and, in western Ukraine during the time of the Empire of Great Moravia, the formal governmental acceptance of Christianity in Rus' occurred in 988. The major promoter of the Christianization of Kievan Rus' was the Grand-Duke Vladimir the Great (Volodymyr). His Christian interest was midwifed by his grandmother, Princ...

    Galicia-Volhynia

    A successor state to the Kievan Rus' on part of the territory of today's Ukraine was the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia. Previously, Vladimir the Great had established the cities of Halych and Ladomir as regional capitals. This state was based upon the Dulebe, Tiverian and White Croattribes. The state was ruled by the descendants of Yaroslav the Wise and Vladimir Monomakh. For a brief period, the state was ruled by a Hungarian nobleman. Battles with the neighbouring states of Poland and Lit...

    Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

    After the Union of Lublin in 1569 and the formation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Ukraine fell under the Polish administration, becoming part of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. The period immediately following the creation of the Commonwealth saw a huge revitalisation in colonisation efforts. Many new cities and villages were founded & links between different Ukrainian regions, such as Galicia and Volynwere greatly extended. New schools spread the ideas of the Renaissance; Polish...

    Cossack era

    The 1648 Ukrainian Cossack (Kozak) rebellion or Khmelnytsky Uprising, which started an era known as the Ruin (in Polish history as The Deluge), undermined the foundations and stability of the Commonwealth. The nascent Cossack state, the Cossack Hetmanate, usually viewed as precursor of Ukraine, found itself in a three-sided military and diplomatic rivalry with the Ottoman Turks, who controlled the Tatars to the south, the Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania, and the Tsardom of Muscovyto the...

    Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary

    During subsequent decades, Tsarist rule over central Ukraine gradually replaced 'protection'. Sporadic Cossack uprisings were now aimed at the Russian authorities, but eventually petered out by the late 18th century, following the destruction of entire Cossack hosts. After the Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793 and 1795, the extreme west of Ukraine fell under the control of the Austrians, with the rest becoming a part of the Russian Empire. As a result of the Russo-Turkish Wars, the Ottoman E...

    17th and 18th-century Ukraine

    Ukraine emerges as the concept of a nation, and the Ukrainians as a nationality, with the Ukrainian National Revival in the mid-18th century, in the wake of the peasant revolt of 1768/1769 and the eventual partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Galicia fell to the Austrian Empire, and the rest of Ukraine to the Russian Empire. While right-bank Ukraine belonged to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until late 1793, left-bank Ukraine had been incorporated into Tsardom of Russia in 166...

    Ukraine and the world wars

    Ukraine, which included Crimea, the Kuban, and portions of Don Cossack landswith large Ukrainian populations (along with ethnic Russians, and Jews), tried to break free from Russia after the February 1917 revolution in St. Petersburg. Historian Paul Kubicek states: 1. Between 1917 and 1920, several entities that aspired to be independent Ukrainian states came into existence. This period, however, was extremely chaotic, characterized by revolution, international and civil war, and lack of stro...

    Independence

    With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state, formalised with a referendum in December 1991. On 21 January 1990, over 300,000 Ukrainians organized a human chain for Ukrainian independence between Kyiv and Lviv. Ukraine officially declared itself an independent country on 24 August 1991, when the communist Supreme Soviet (parliament) of Ukraine proclaimed that Ukraine would no longer follow the laws of USSR and only the laws of the Ukrainian SSR, de facto...

    The scholarly study of Ukraine's history emerged from romantic impulses in the late 19th century. The outstanding leaders were Volodymyr Antonovych (1834–1908), based in Kyiv, and his student Mykhailo Hrushevsky (1866–1934). For the first time full-scale scholarly studies based on archival sources, modern research techniques, and modern historical ...

    Surveys and reference

    1. Encyclopedia of Ukraine (University of Toronto Press, 1984–93) 5 vol; from Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, partly online as the Internet Encyclopedia of Ukraine. 2. Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. ed by Volodymyr Kubijovyč; University of Toronto Press. 1963; 1188pp[ISBN missing] 3. Bilinsky, Yaroslav The Second Soviet Republic: The Ukraine after World War II (Rutgers UP, 1964)[ISBN missing] 4. Hrushevsky, Mykhailo. A History of Ukraine(1986 [1941]). 5. Hrushevsky, Mykhailo. Histo...

    Topical studies

    1. Kononenko, Konstantyn. Ukraine and Russia: A History of the Economic Relations between Ukraine and Russia, 1654–1917 (Marquette University Press 1958)[ISBN missing] 2. Luckyj, George S. Towards an Intellectual History of Ukraine: An Anthology of Ukrainian Thought from 1710 to 1995.(1996) 3. Shkandrij, Myroslav. Ukrainian Nationalism: Politics, Ideology, and Literature, 1929–1956 (Yale University Press; 2014) 331 pages; Studies the ideology and legacy of the Organization of Ukrainian Nation...

    1930s, World War II

    1. Applebaum, Anne. Red Famine: Stalin's War on Ukraine (2017); 496 pp online review 2. Boshyk, Yuri (1986). Ukraine During World War II: History and Its Aftermath. Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. ISBN 0-920862-37-3. 3. Berkhoff, Karel C., Harvest of Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine Under Nazi Rule.Harvard U. Press, 2004. 448 pp. 4. Brandon, Ray, and Wendy Lower, eds. The Shoah in Ukraine: History, Testimony, Memorialization. (2008). 378 pp. online review 5. Conquest, Robert. The H...

    Media related to History of Ukraineat Wikimedia Commons
    Ukrainian history overview published in Den'.
    The Holocaust by Bullets in Ukraine Archived 3 September 2017 at the Wayback MachineYahad In Unum
  4. L' Ukraine ( /y.kʁɛn/ ; en ukrainien : Україна, Oukraïna /ukrɑˈjinɑ/) est un État d' Europe orientale, le deuxième d' Europe par sa superficie et le premier entièrement européen.

  5. de.wikipedia.org › wiki › UkraineUkraine – Wikipedia

    Übersichtskarte der Ukraine mit allen Städten über 100.000 Einwohnern Die Ukraine ( [ ukʁaˈiːnə] oder [ uˈkʁaɪ̯nə ]; ukrainisch Україна Ukrajina [ ukrɑˈjinɑ ]) ist ein Staat in Osteuropa mit mehr als 40 Millionen Einwohnern.