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The Seicento (/ s eɪ ˈ tʃ ɛ n t oʊ /, Italian: [ˌsɛiˈtʃɛnto]) is Italian history and culture during the 17th century.The Seicento saw the end of the Renaissance movement in Italy and the beginning of the Counter-Reformation and the Baroque era.
1. 艾薩克·牛頓 2. 宋應星 3. 約翰內斯·克卜勒 4. 伽利略·伽利萊 5. 笛卡爾 6. 布萊士·帕斯卡 7. 費馬 8. 徐光啟 9. 熊三拔P. Sabbathino de Ursis 10. 鄧玉函Johann Schreck 11. 方以智 12. 李之藻 13. 楊廷筠 14. 艾儒略Giulio Aleni 15. 虎克 16. 波以耳 17. 托里切利 18. 戈特弗里德·萊布尼茨
1. 林布蘭 2. 揚·維梅爾^ 376年前北京城大爆炸真相揭秘. 騰訊讀書. [2020-05-05]. （原始內容存檔於2010-08-18） （中文（中國大陸））.^ 恭厂大爆炸，明朝时中国已成功试爆原子弹？. 博客報-新軍事. [2020-05-05]. （原始內容存檔於2017-10-28） （中文（中國大陸））.^ 因为一只小小的老鼠 大明朝就没了_手机搜狐网. m.sohu.com. [2020-06-18]. （原始內容存檔於2020-10-14）.^ Express, Britain. The London Plague 1665. Britain Express. [2020-06-18]. （原始內容存檔於2020-11-19） （英語）.
17世紀は、14世紀とともに小氷期によりヨーロッパの気候が寒冷化し、ペストが大流行して飢饉が起こり 、英蘭戦争や三十年戦争をはじめとする戦乱の多発によって人口が激減したため、研究者によっては「危機の時代」あるいは「17世紀の危機」と呼ぶこと ...
- Changing Attitudes, Protestant and Catholic
- Roman Catholicism
- Spread of Christianity
- Eastern Orthodoxy
- Further Reading
At the beginning of the century James I of England opposed the papal deposing power in a series of controversial works, and the assassination of Henry IV of France caused an intense focus on the theological doctrines concerned with tyrannicide. Both Henry and James, in different ways, pursued a peaceful policy of religious conciliation, aimed at eventually healing the breach caused by the Protestant Reformation. While progress along these lines seemed more possible during the Twelve Years' Truce, conflicts after 1620 changed the picture; and the situation of Western and Central Europe after the Peace of Westphalialeft a more stable but entrenched polarisation of Protestant and Catholic territorial states, with religious minorities. The religious conflicts in Catholic France over Jansenism and Port-Royal produced the controversial work Lettres Provinciales by Blaise Pascal. In it he took aim at the prevailing climate of moral theology, a speciality of the Jesuit order and the attitud...
The Protestant lands at the beginning of the 17th century were concentrated in Northern Europe, with territories in Germany, Scandinavia, England, Scotland, and areas of France, the Low Countries, Switzerland, Kingdom of Hungary and Poland. Heavy fighting, in some cases a continuation of the religious conflicts of the previous centuries, was seen, particularly in the Low Countries and the Electorate of the Palatinate (which saw the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War). In Ireland there was a concerted attempt to create "plantations" of Protestant settlers in what was a predominantly Catholic country, and fighting with a religious dimension was serious in the 1640s and 1680s. In France the settlement proposed by the Edict of Nantes was whittled away, to the disadvantage of the Huguenotpopulation, and the edict was revoked in 1685. Protestant Europe was largely divided into Lutheran and Reformed (Calvinist) areas, with the Church of England maintaining a separate position. Efforts to un...
Devotions to Mary
Pope Paul V and Gregory XV ruled in 1617 and 1622 to be invalid to state that Mary was conceived non-immaculate. Alexander VII declared in 1661 that the soul of Mary was free from original sin. Popular Marian piety was even more colourful and varied than ever before: Numerous Marian pilgrimages, Marian Salve devotions, new Marian litanies, Marian theatre plays, Marian hymns, Marian processions. Marian fraternities, today mostly defunct, had millions of members.
Pope Innocent XI
Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI viewed the increasing Turkish attacks against Europe, which were supported by France, as the major threat for the Church. He built a Polish-Austrian coalition for the Turkish defeat at Vienna in 1683. Scholars have called him a saintly pope because he reformed abuses by the Church, including simony, nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a papal debt of 50,000,000 scudi. By eliminating certain hono...
France and Gallicanism
In 1685, gallicanist King Louis XIV of France issued the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, ending a century of religious toleration. France forced Catholic theologians to support conciliarism and deny Papal infallibility. The king threatened Pope Innocent XI with a Catholic Ecumenical Council and a military take-over of the Papal state. The absoluteFrench state used gallicanism to gain control of virtually all major Church appointments as well as many of the Church's properties.
The expansion of the Catholic Portuguese Empire and Spanish Empire, with a significant role played by the Roman Catholic Church, led to a Christianization of the indigenous peoples of the Americas such as the Aztecs and Incas. Later waves of colonial expansion such as the struggle for India, by the Dutch, England, France, Germany, Russia and Spanish led to Christianization beyond Asia, such as Philipines.
In a dispute with Patriarch Nicephorus of Alexandria, Ecumenical Patriarch Parthenius I of Constantinople sided with the hierarchs of the Church of Sinai by granting them permission to perform religious services in Cairo when Nicephorus was visiting Moldovlachia. After Nicephorus was back in Alexandria, his protests made Parthenius revoke his permission. Still, the tensions over this issue continued between the two Churches. In the year 1641 Parthenius summoned a synod at Constantinople, at which eight prelates and four dignitaries of the church were present. In this synod the term Transubstantiation is said to have been authorised. In the next year Parthenius organized the more important Synod of Iași. The purpose of this assembly was to counter certain Catholic and Protestant doctrinal errors which had infiltrated Orthodox theology and to offer a comprehensive Orthodox statement on the truth of faith. Including representatives of the Greek and Slavic Churches, it condemned the Cal...Esler, Philip F. The Early Christian World. Routledge (2004). ISBN 0-415-33312-1.White, L. Michael. From Jesus to Christianity. HarperCollins (2004). ISBN 0-06-052655-6.Freedman, David Noel (Ed). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing (2000). ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.Pelikan, Jaroslav Jan. The Christian Tradition: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100–600). University of Chicago Press (1975). ISBN 0-226-65371-4.
17世紀. 出自維基百科. 跳至導覽 跳至搜尋. 1601年 到 1700年 箇一段時間係17世紀。. << - 17世紀 （1601年——1700年） - >>. 1600年代 ：. 1601年. 1602年. 1603年.
17世紀係指1601年至1700年呢段時期。 17世紀係殖民主義發展嘅一個世紀。. 伏爾泰話17世紀係「路易十四嘅世紀」。 科學史上，懷特海話係「天才嘅世紀」。