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  1. ja.wikipedia.org › wiki › 19世紀19世紀 - Wikipedia

    19世紀のイギリスは工業化による生産力の増大により得た、圧倒的な経済力と軍事力で世界の覇権を握った。 イギリスは時には武力をも用いて世界各国に自由貿易を認めさせ、イギリスを中心とした国際経済体制に世界を組み込んでいった(パクス・ブリタニカ)。

  2. 19世纪. 1801年 1月1日 至 1900年 12月31日 的这一段期间被称为 19世纪 。. 該世紀屬於「 不列顛治世 」初期與全盛時期,這段期間最顯著的是 英國 、 西歐 與 北美 因 1840年工業革命 促成的技術與經濟上的進步。. 英國 是19世紀遙遙領先的世界大國和海上霸主,有着 ...

  3. 19世紀(1801年——1900年)->> 1800年代: : 1801年: 1802年: 1803年: 1804年: 1805年: 1806年: 1807年: 1808年: 1809年: 1810年代: : 1810年: 1811 ...

  4. 19世紀係1801年至1900年嗰一百年嘅世紀。 呢段期間最顯著嘅係 西歐 同 北美 因 工業革命 促成嘅 技術 同 經濟 上嘅進步。 << - 19世紀 (1800年——1899年) - >>

    • Modernism in Christian Theology
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    As the more radical implications of the scientific and cultural influences of the Enlightenment began to be felt in the Protestant churches, especially in the 19th century, Liberal Christianity, exemplified especially by numerous theologians in Germany in the 19th century, sought to bring the churches alongside of the broad revolution that modernism represented. In doing so, new critical approaches to the Biblewere developed, new attitudes became evident about the role of religion in society, and a new openness to questioning the nearly universally accepted definitions of Christian orthodoxy began to become obvious. In reaction to these developments, Christian fundamentalism was a movement to reject the radical influences of philosophical humanism, as this was affecting the Christian religion. Especially targeting critical approaches to the interpretation of the Bible and trying to blockade the inroads made into their churches by atheistic scientific assumptions, the fundamentalists...

    Historian Kenneth Scott Latourette argues that the outlook for Protestantism at the start of the 19th century was discouraging. It was a regional religion based in northwestern Europe, with an outpost in the sparsely settled United States. It was closely allied with government, as in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Prussia, and especially Great Britain. The alliance came at the expense of independence, as the government made the basic policy decisions, down to such details as the salaries of ministers and location of new churches. The dominant intellectual currents of the Enlightenment promoted rationalism, and most Protestant leaders preached a sort of deism. Intellectually, the new methods of historical and anthropological study undermine automatic acceptance of biblical stories, as did the sciences of geology and biology. Industrialization was a strongly negative factor, as workers who moved to the city seldom joined churches. The gap between the church and the unchurched grew rapi...

    The main trends in Protestantism included the rapid growth of Methodist and Baptists denominations, and the steady growth among Presbyterians, Congregationalists and Anglicans. After 1830 German Lutherans arrived in large numbers; after 1860 Scandinavian Lutherans arrived. The Pennsylvania Dutch Protestant sects (and Lutherans) grew through high birth rates.

    France

    The Catholic Church lost all its lands and buildings during the French Revolution, and these were sold off or came under the control of local governments. The more radical elements of the Revolution tried to suppress the church, but Napoleon came to a compromise with the pope in the Concordat of 1801that restored much of its status. The bishop still ruled his diocese (which was aligned with the new department boundaries), but could only communicate with the pope through the government in Pari...

    Germany

    Among Catholics there was a sharp increase in popular pilgrimages. In 1844 alone, half a million pilgrims made a pilgrimage to the city of Trier in the Rhineland to view the Seamless robe of Jesus, said to be the robe that Jesus wore on the way to his crucifixion. Catholic bishops in Germany had historically been largely independent Of Rome, but now the Vatican exerted increasing control, a new "ultramontanism" of Catholics highly loyal to Rome.A sharp controversy broke out in 1837–38 in the...

    First Vatican Council

    On February 7, 1862, Pope Pius IX issued the papal constitution Ad Universalis Ecclesiae, dealing with the conditions for admission to Catholic religious orders of men in which solemn vowswere prescribed. The doctrine of papal primacy was further developed in 1870 at the First Vatican Council, which declared that "in the disposition of God the Roman church holds the preeminence of ordinary power over all the other churches". This council also affirmed the dogma of papal infallibility, (declar...

    Greece

    Even several decades before the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453, most of Greece had come under Ottoman rule. During this time, there were several revolt attempts by Greeks to gain independence from Ottoman control. In 1821, The Greek revolution was officially declared and by the end of the month, the Peloponnese was in open revolt against the Turks. The Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinoplehad issued statements condemning and even anathematizing the revolutionaries so...

    Serbia

    The Serbian Orthodox Church in the Principality of Serbia gained its autonomy in 1831, and was organized as the Metropolitanate of Belgrade, remaining under the supreme ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. Principality of Serbia gained full political independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878, and soon after that negotiations were initiated with the Ecumenical Patriarchate, resulting in canonical recognition of full ecclesiastical independence (autoc...

    Romania

    The Orthodox hierarchy in the territory of modern Romania had existed within the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople until 1865 when the Churches in the Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia embarked on the path of ecclesiastical independence by nominating Nifon Rusailă, Metropolitan of Ungro-Wallachia, as the first Romanian primate. Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza, who had in 1863 carried out a mass confiscation of monastic estatesin the face o...

    The position of Copts began to improve early in the 19th century under the stability and tolerance of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit. In 1855 the jizya tax was abolished by Sa'id Pasha.Shortly thereafter, the Copts started to serve in the Egyptian army. Towards the end of the 19th century, the Coptic Church underwent phases of new development. In 1853, Coptic Pope Cyril IV established the first modern Coptic schools, including the first Egyptian school for girls. He also founded a printing press, which was only the second national press in the country. Coptic Pope established very friendly relations with other denominations, to the extent that when the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandriahad to absent himself from the country for a long period of time, he left his Church under the guidance of the Coptic Patriarch. The Theological College of the School of Alexandria was reestablished in 1893. It began its...

    Burleigh, Michael. Earthly Powers: Religion and Politics in Europe from the Enlightenment to the Great War(2007)
    Clark, Christopher and Wolfram Kaiser, eds. Culture Wars: Secular-Catholic Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Europe (Cambridge UP, 2003) online
    Gilley, Sheridan, and Brian Stanley, eds. The Cambridge History of Christianity: Volume 8, World Christianities c.1815-c.1914 (2006) excerpt
    González, Justo L. (1985). The Story of Christianity, Vol. 2: The Reformation to the Present Day. San Francisco: Harper. ISBN 0-06-063316-6.
    Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Christianity in History
    Phillips, Walter Alison (1911). "Church History" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 6(11th ed.). pp. 330–345.
  5. Category:19世紀. 19世紀 に関する カテゴリ 。. 1801年 から 1900年 までを収める。. ウィキメディア・コモンズに関連カテゴリがあります。.