1933 Sanriku earthquake: A powerful earthquake and tsunami hit Honshū, Japan, killing approximately 3,000 people. March 4. Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) is sworn in as the 32nd President of the United States, beginning his "first 100 days".
Wally Hammond in 1933. January 28 – Choudhary Rahmat Ali chose the name Pakistan in his pamphlet for a Muslim state in northwest India. January 30 – Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg. February 17 – Newsweek magazine is published for the first time in the United States. March 3.
- Academy Awards
The following is an overview of 1933 in film, including significant events, a list of films released, and notable births and deaths.
The Film Daily Yearbook listed the following as the ten leading news events of the year in North America.
The 6th Academy Awards were held on March 16, 1934, at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles. They were hosted by Will Rogers and Rogers also presented all of the awards. This was the last time that the Oscars' eligibility period was spread over two different calendar years, creating the longest time frame for which films could be nominated: the seventeen months from August 1, 1932, to December 31, 1933. Most nominations: Cavalcade; A Farewell to Arms and Lady for a Day – 4 Major awards: 1 ...
- Events in Germany
President 1. Paul von Hindenburg(Non-partisan) Chancellor 1. Kurt von Schleicher (Non-partisan) to 28 January, then from 30 January Adolf Hitler (Nazi Party)30 January — Nazi leader Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany by President of GermanyPaul von Hindenburg.1 February – Adolf Hitler gives his "Proclamation to the German People" in Berlin.27 February – The Reichstag, Germany's parliament building in Berlin, is set on fire.28 February – The Reichstag Fire Decreeis passed in response to the Reichstag fire, nullifying many German civil liberties.20 March — Michael Pfleghar, German film director and screenwriter (died 1991)29 May — Helmuth Rilling, German choral conductor8 June — Ernst W. Hamburger, German-born Brazilian physicist (d. 2018)5 July — Michael Heltau, German actor and singerJanuary 3 — Wilhelm Cuno, German politician and former Chancellor of Germany (born 1876)11 October — Reinhold Tiling, German engineer (born 1893)
May 29 – Flying a Potez 53, George Detré wins the 1933 Coupe Deutsch de la Meurthe race, covering the 2,000-km (1,243-mile) two-stage closed-circuit course in 6 hours 11 minutes 45 seconds at an average speed of 322.81 km/hr (200.58 mph).
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- Sequel and Franchise
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In New York Harbor, filmmaker Carl Denham, known for wildlife films in remote and exotic locations, charters Captain Englehorn's ship, the Venture, for his new project. However, he is unable to secure an actress for a female role he has been reluctant to disclose. Searching in the streets of New York City, he finds Ann Darrow and promises her the adventure of a lifetime. The crew boards the Venture and sets off, during which the ship's first mate, Jack Driscoll, falls in love with Ann. Denham reveals to the crew that their destination is in fact Skull Island, an uncharted territory. He alludes to a monstrous creature named Kong, rumored to dwell on the island. The crew arrives and anchor offshore. They encounter a native village, separated from the rest of the island by an enormous stone wall with an large wooden gate. They witness a group of natives preparing to sacrifice a young woman termed the "bride of Kong". The intruders are spotted and the native chief stops the ceremony. Wh...Fay Wray as Ann Darrow: Canadian-born American actress Fay Wray played bit parts in Hollywood until cast as the lead in Erich von Stroheim's silent film, The Wedding March (1928). She met Kong co-d...Robert Armstrong as Carl Denham: Michigan native and veteran Broadway and silent film character actor Robert Armstrong played Wray's alcoholic brother in The Most Dangerous Game and, during filming...Bruce Cabot as John "Jack" Driscoll: New Mexico native Jacques De Bujac was signed by Selznick as a contract player, given the name Bruce Cabot, and met Cooper when auditioning for The Most Dangero...
Before King Kong entered production, a long tradition of jungle films existed, and, whether drama or documentary, such films (for example Stark Mad) generally adhered to a narrative pattern that followed an explorer or scientist into the jungle to test a theory only to discover some monstrous aberration in the undergrowth. In these films, scientific knowledge could be subverted at any time, and it was this that provided the genre with its vitality, appeal, and endurance. In the early 20th cen...
Merian C. Cooper's fascination with gorillas began with his boyhood reading of Paul Du Chaillu's Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa (1861) and was furthered in 1929 by studying a tribe of baboons in Africa while filming The Four Feathers. After reading W. Douglas Burden's The Dragon Lizards of Komodo, he fashioned a scenario depicting African gorillas battling Komodo dragons intercut with artificial stand-ins for joint shots. He then narrowed the dramatis personaeto one ferociou...
Cooper assigned a recently hired RKO screenwriter and best-selling British mystery/adventure writer Edgar Wallace the job of writing a screenplay and a novel based on his gorilla fantasy. Cooper understood the commercial appeal of Wallace's work and planned to publicize the film as being "based on the novel by Edgar Wallace". Wallace conferred with Cooper and O'Brien (who contributed, among other things, the "Ann's dress" scene) and began work on January 1, 1932. He completed a rough draft ca...
After the RKO board approved the production of a test reel, Marcel Delgado constructed Kong (or the "Giant Terror Gorilla" as he was then known) per designs and directions from Cooper and O'Brien on a one-inch-equals-one-foot scale to simulate a gorilla 18 feet tall. Four models were built: two jointed 18-inch aluminum, foam rubber, latex, and rabbit fur models (to be rotated during filming), one jointed 24-inch model of the same materials for the New York scenes, and a small model of lead an...
King Kong is well known for its groundbreaking use of special effects, such as stop-motion animation, matte painting, rear projection and miniatures, all of which were conceived decades before the digital age. The numerous prehistoric creatures inhabiting Skull Island were brought to life through the use of stop-motion animation by Willis O'Brien and his assistant animator, Buzz Gibson. The stop-motion animation scenes were painstaking and difficult to achieve and complete after the special e...
King Kong was filmed in several stages over an eight-month period. Some actors had so much time between their Kong periods that they were able to fully complete work on other films. Cabot completed Road House and Wray appeared in the horror films Dr. X (1932) and Mystery of the Wax Museum (1933). She estimated she worked for ten weeks on Kong over its eight-month production. In May and June 1932, Cooper directed the first live-action Kong scenes on the jungle set built for Th...
King Kong opened at the 6,200-seat Radio City Music Hall in New York City and the 3,700-seat RKO Roxy across the street on Thursday, March 2, 1933. The film was preceded by a stage show called Jungle Rhythms. Crowds lined up around the block on opening day, tickets were priced at $.35 to $.75, and, in its first four days, every one of its ten-shows-a-day was sold out – setting an all-time attendance record for an indoor event. Over the four-day period, the film grossed $89,931. The film had i...
Censorship and restorations
The Production Code's stricter decency rules had been put into effect in Hollywood after its 1933 premiere and it was progressively censored further, with several scenes being either trimmed or excised altogether. These scenes were as follows: the Brontosaurus mauling crewmen in the water, chasing one up a tree and killing him; Kong undressing Ann Darrow and sniffing his fingers; Kong biting and stepping on natives when he attacks the village; Kong biting a man in New York; Kong mistaking a s...
In 1984, King Kong was one of the first films to be released on LaserDisc by the Criterion Collection, and was the very first movie to have an audio commentary track included. Criterion's audio commentary was by film historian Ron Haver; in 1985 Image Entertainment released another LaserDisc, this time with a commentary by film historian and soundtrack producer Paul Mandell. The Haver commentary was preserved in full on the FilmStruck streaming service. King Kong had numerous VHS and LaserDis...
The film was a box-office success making about $5 million in worldwide rentals on its initial release, with an opening weekend estimated at $90,000. Receipts fell by up to 50% in the second week of the film's release because of the national "bank holiday" called in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first days in office. During the film's first run it made a profit of $650,000. Prior to the 1952 re-release, the film is reported to have worldwide rentals of $2,847,000 including $1,070,000 from...
On Rotten Tomatoes, the film holds an approval rating of 98% based on 64 reviews, with an average rating of 9/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "King Kong explores the soul of a monster – making audiences scream and cry throughout the film – in large part due to Kong's breakthrough special effects." On Metacriticthe film has a weighted average score of 90 out of 100, based on 12 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". Variety thought the film was a powerful adventure. The New York Tim...
In the 19th and early 20th century, people of African descent were commonly visually represented as ape-like, a metaphor that fit racist stereotypes, further bolstered by the emergence of scientific racism. Early films frequently mirrored racial tensions. While King Kong is often compared to the story of Beauty and the Beast, many film scholars have argued that the film was a cautionary tale about interracial romance, in which the film's "carrier of blackness is not a human being, but an ape"...
The 1933 King Kong film and character-inspired imitations and installments. The Son of Kong, a direct sequel to the 1933 film was released nine months after the first film's release. In the early 1960s, RKO had licensed the King Kong character to Japanese studio Toho and produced two King Kong films, King Kong vs. Godzilla which was also the third film in Toho's long-running Godzilla series, and King Kong Escapes, both directed by Ishirō Honda. These films are mostly unrelated to the original and follow a very different style. In 1976, Italian producer Dino De Laurentiis released his version of King Kong, a modern remake of the 1933 film, following the same basic plot, but moving the setting to the present day and changing many details. The remake was followed by a sequel in 1986 titled King Kong Lives. In 1998, the film also saw a loosely-adapted direct-to-video animated remake, The Mighty Kong, directed by Art Scott and scored by the Sherman Brothers. In 2005, Universal Pictures r...
1. American Film Institute (June 17, 2008). "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres". Retrieved February 20, 2010. 2. Annette, Kuhn. (2007). 'King Kong'. In: Cook, Pam. (ed.) The Cinema Book. London: British Film Institute. P,41. and Robinson, D. (1983). 'King Kong'. In: Lloyd, A. (ed.) Movies of the Thirties. Orbis Publishing Ltd. 3. Bigelow, Joe (1933). "King Kong review". Variety. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 4. Doherty, Thomas Patrick (1999). Pre-Code Hollywood: Sex, Immorality, and...King Kong essay by Michael Price on the National Film RegistrywebsiteKing Kong at IMDbKing Kong at the TCM Movie DatabaseKing Kong at the American Film Institute Catalog
- Véase también
El 30 de enero de 1933, en la primera sesión de gabinete del nuevo gobierno de Adolf Hitler se trató el asunto de conseguir la mayoría parlamentaria necesaria para gobernar sin los decretos presidenciales del anciano Mariscal Paul von Hindenburg. Solamente los nacionalistas apoyaban a los nazis en el Parlamento, y luego de que Hermann Goering reportara una serie de demandas que los centristas exigían para apoyar a Hitler, Alfred Hugenberg sugirió suprimir el Partido Comunista, con el objetivo de eliminar a sus 99 asientos y obtener la mayoría. Hitler rechazó esta sugerencia y se reunió con el líder del Partido del Centro (ZP), el sacerdote católico Ludwig Kaas, quien le entregó una lista de concesiones que entraban en conflicto con los intereses de Hugenberg. Hitler engañó primero a su gabinete y luego al Presidente Hindenburg, reportando que las demandas centristas eran imposibles de cumplir, y solicitó la inmediata disolución del Parlamento y la convocación de nuevas elecc...
En esta campaña electoral, el Partido Nazi hizo uso de los recursos estatales. Joseph Goebbels escribió en su diario a inicios de febrero: Los nazis no sólo utilizaron recursos estatales en su campaña, el 20 de febrero el Canciller Hitler, Göring y Hjalmar Schacht se reunieron con unos veinte industriales, entre los que destacaban Gustav Krupp (Krupp), Carl Bosch (IG Farben), Georg von Schnitzler (IG Farben) y Albert Vogler (Vereinigte Stahlwerke AG). En esta reunión, Hitler prometió eliminar a los marxistas y reconstruir el Ejército. También les aseguró que sin importar el resultado de las elecciones, no entregaría el poder y que permanecería en el mismo utilizando "otros medios" y "otras armas". Göring, por su parte, solicitó un sacrificio monetario a los industriales, informándoles que después de estas elecciones pasarían diez años hasta las siguientes, o incluso hasta cien años. De esta reunión, el Dr. Schacht reportó haber obtenido 3 millones de marcos de la...
El 5 de marzo de 1933se realizaron las elecciones parlamentarias.
A pesar de la ventaja que el Partido Nazi hizo uso de los recursos del Estado, los nazis no lograron obtener la mayoría parlamentaria, y tuvieron que recurrir de nuevo a los nacionalistas de Hugenberg, que experimentaron un crecimiento decepcionante, para poder gobernar. Sin embargo, Hitler todavía no conseguía el apoyo del 66,6% del Parlamento, necesario para aprobar una ley habilitanteque acabaría con la democracia parlamentaria y lo convertiría en un dictador constitucional. Por otro lado, a pesar del hostigamiento que recibían del Estado, los movimientos perseguidos no salieron tan debilitados en las elecciones. El Partido del Centro llegó incluso a experimentar un crecimiento en sus votantes, y los socialdemócratas sólo perdieron 70 mil electores. El Partido Comunista si fue golpeado, ya que perdió un millón de votantes. El 15 de marzo se realizó otra reunión de gabinete donde se discutió la manera de obtener la mayoría de dos tercios necesarios para aprobar la Ley Habilita...