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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 11351135 - Wikipedia

    Year 1135 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar Events By place. Assassination of Al ...

  2. Category:1135. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jump to navigation Jump to search. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1135. Articles and events specifically related to the year AD 1135 . 1130. 1131. 1132.

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › The_AnarchyThe Anarchy - Wikipedia

    • Origins of The Conflict
    • Road to War
    • Warfare
    • Civil War
    • End of The War
    • Legacy

    White Ship

    The origins of the Anarchy lay in a succession crisis involving England and Normandy. In the 11th and 12th centuries, north-west France was controlled by a number of dukes and counts, frequently in conflict with one another for valuable territory. In 1066 one of these men, Duke William II of Normandy, mounted an invasion to conquer the rich Anglo-Saxon kingdom of England, pushing on into south Wales and northern England in the ensuing years. The division and control of these lands after Willi...

    Succession

    After Henry's death, the English throne was taken not by his daughter Matilda, but by Stephen of Blois, ultimately resulting in civil war. Stephen was the son of Stephen-Henry of Blois, one of the powerful counts of northern France, and Adela of Normandy, daughter of William the Conqueror. Stephen and Matilda were thus first cousins. His parents allied themselves with Henry, and Stephen, as a younger son without lands of his own, became Henry's client, travelling as part of his court and serv...

    New regime

    Stephen had to intervene in the north of England immediately after his coronation. David I of Scotland, brother of Henry I's first queen and maternal uncle of Matilda, invaded the north on the news of Henry's death, taking Carlisle, Newcastle and other key strongholds. Northern England was a disputed territory at this time, with the Scottish kings laying a traditional claim to Cumberland, and David also claiming Northumbria by virtue of his marriage to the daughter of the former Anglo-Saxon e...

    Early fighting

    Fighting broke out on several fronts during 1138. Firstly, Robert of Gloucester rebelled against the king, starting the descent into civil war in England. An illegitimate son of Henry I and the half-brother of the Empress Matilda, Robert was one of the most powerful Anglo-Norman barons, controlling estates in Normandy as well as the Earldom of Gloucester. In 1138, Robert renounced his fealty to Stephen and declared his support for Matilda, triggering a major regional rebellion in Kent and acr...

    Preparations for war

    By 1139, an invasion of England by Robert and Matilda appeared imminent. Geoffrey and Matilda had secured much of Normandy and, together with Robert, spent the beginning of the year mobilising forces ready for a cross-Channel expedition.Matilda also appealed to the papacy at the start of the year, putting forward her legal claim to the English throne; unsurprisingly, the pope declined to reverse his earlier support for Stephen, but from Matilda's perspective the case usefully established that...

    Technology and tactics

    Anglo-Norman warfare during the civil war was characterised by attritional military campaigns, in which commanders tried to raid enemy lands and seize castles in order to allow them to take control of their adversaries' territory, ultimately winning slow, strategic victories. Occasionally pitched battles were fought between armies but these were considered highly risky endeavours and were usually avoided by prudent commanders. Despite the use of feudal levies, Norman warfare traditionally dep...

    Leaders

    King Stephen was extremely wealthy, well-mannered, modest and liked by his peers; he was also considered a man capable of firm action. His personal qualities as a military leader focused on his skill in personal combat, his capabilities in siege warfare and a remarkable ability to move military forces quickly over relatively long distances. Rumours of his father's cowardice during the First Crusade continued to circulate, and a desire to avoid the same reputation may have influenced some of S...

    Initial phase of the war

    The Angevin invasion finally arrived in August. Baldwin de Redvers crossed over from Normandy to Wareham in an initial attempt to capture a port to receive the Empress Matilda's invading army, but Stephen's forces forced him to retreat into the south-west. The following month the Empress was invited by the Dowager Queen Adeliza to land at Arundel instead, and on 30 September Robert of Gloucester and the Empress arrived in England with 140 knights.[nb 10] Matilda stayed at Arundel Castle, whil...

    Stalemate

    The war between the two sides in England reached a stalemate in the mid-1140s, while Geoffrey of Anjou consolidated his hold on power in Normandy, being recognised as duke of Normandy after taking Rouen in 1144. 1143 started precariously for Stephen when he was besieged by Robert of Gloucester at Wilton Castle, an assembly point for royal forces in Herefordshire. Stephen attempted to break out and escape, resulting in the Battle of Wilton. Once again, the Angevin cavalry proved too strong, an...

    Final phases of the war

    The character of the conflict in England gradually began to shift; as historian Frank Barlow suggests, by the late 1140s "the civil war was over", barring the occasional outbreak of fighting. In 1147 Robert of Gloucester died peacefully, and the next year the Empress Matilda defused an argument with the Church over the ownership of Devizes Castle by returning to Normandy, contributing to reducing the tempo of the war. The Second Crusade was announced, and many Angevin supporters, including Wa...

    Peace negotiations

    Henry FitzEmpress returned to England again at the start of 1153 with a small army, supported in the north and east of England by Ranulf of Chester and Hugh Bigod. Stephen's castle at Malmesbury was besieged by Henry's forces and the king responded by marching west with an army to relieve it. Stephen unsuccessfully attempted to force Henry's smaller army to fight a decisive battle along the River Avon. In the face of the increasingly wintry weather, Stephen agreed to a temporary truce and ret...

    Transition and reconstruction

    Stephen's decision to recognise Henry as his heir was, at the time, not necessarily a final solution to the civil war. Despite the issuing of new currency and administrative reforms, Stephen might potentially have lived for many more years, whilst Henry's position on the continent was far from secure. Although Stephen's son William was young and unprepared to challenge Henry for the throne in 1153, the situation could well have shifted in subsequent years—there were widespread rumours during...

    Historiography

    Much of the modern history of the civil war of the Anarchy is based on accounts of chroniclers who lived in, or close to, the middle of the 12th century, forming a relatively rich account of the period. All of the main chronicler accounts carry significant regional biases in how they portray the disparate events. Several of the key chronicles were written in the south-west of England, including the Gesta Stephani, or "Acts of Stephen", and William of Malmesbury's Historia Novella, or "New His...

    Popular representations

    The civil war years of the Anarchy have been occasionally used in historical fiction. Stephen, Matilda and their supporters feature in Ellis Peters's historical detective series about Brother Cadfael, set between 1137 and 1145. Peters's depiction of the civil war is an essentially local narrative, focused on Shrewsbury and its environs. Peters paints Stephen as a tolerant man and a reasonable ruler, despite his execution of the Shrewsbury defenders after taking the town in 1138. In contrast,...

  4. Is the year 1135 in the Julian calendar? Year 1135 (MCXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. 1135 - Wikipedia

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AD_11371137 - Wikipedia

    October 30 – Battle of Rignano: Sergius VII, duke ( magister militum) of Naples, is defeated by the Sicilian forces under King Roger II of Sicily. Sergius is killed and Roger establishes direct control over Naples – nominating his 17-year-old son Alfonso of Capua as the new duke.

  6. Category:1135.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Jump to navigation Jump to search. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1135.Articles and events specifically related to the year AD 1135. 1130. 1131. 1132.

  7. Category:1135.From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.Jump to navigation Jump to search. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1135.Articles and events specifically related to the year AD 1135. 1130. 1131. 1132.

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