The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods.
The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Western Asia (particularly Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine) and Turkey, Eastern Europe, the Balkans and the Caucasus (Georgia, Abkhazia, Ossetia etc.), with a growing presence in the Western world.
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Eastern Orthodox theology is the theology particular to the Eastern Orthodox Church. It is characterized by monotheistic Trinitarianism, belief in the Incarnation of the essentially divine Logos or only-begotten Son of God, a balancing of cataphatic theology with apophatic theology, a hermeneutic defined by a polyvalent Sacred Tradition, a concretely catholic ecclesiology, a robust theology of the person, and a principally recapitulative and therapeutic soteriology.
The Eastern Orthodox Church considers itself to be the one, holy, catholic and apostolic church established by Christ and his apostles. For the early years of the church, much of what was conveyed to its members was in the form of oral teachings. Within a very short period of tim
Eastern Orthodoxy interprets truth based on three witnesses: the consensus of the Holy Fathers of the Church; the ongoing teaching of the Holy Spirit guiding the life of the Church through the nous, or mind of the Church, which is believed to be the Mind of Christ; and the praxis
Many Protestant Christians approach the Bible and its interpretation as the sole authority to the establishment of their beliefs concerning the world and their salvation. From the Eastern Orthodox point of view, the Bible represents those texts approved by the church for the purp
Eastern Orthodox Christians believe in a single God who is both three and one; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, "one in essence and undivided". The Holy Trinity is three "unconfused" and distinct divine persons, who share one divine essence; uncreated, immaterial and eternal. The Father is the eternal source of the Godhead, from whom the Son is begotten eternally and also from whom the Holy Spirit proceeds eternally. The essence of God being that which is beyond human comprehension and cannot b
The Eastern Orthodox approach to sin, and how it is dealt with, shuns perceived Western "legalism." Following rules strictly without the heart "being in it" does not help a believer with his salvation. Sin is not fundamentally about transgressing a Divine law; rather, it stands for any behavior which "misses the mark," that is, fails to live up to the higher goal of conforming to God's nature, which is love. Thus, in the Eastern Orthodox tradition sin is not viewed primarily as a guilty stain on
Eastern Orthodox Christians hold that man was originally created in communion with God, but through acting in a manner contrary to his own nature, he disrupted that communion. Because of man's refusal to fulfill the "image and likeness of God" within him, corruption and the sickn
Prior to Christ's incarnation on Earth it was man's "fate", when he died, because of the fall of Adam, to be separated from God. Because man distorted his mode of existence through acting against what was natural to him - thus disobeying God - humanity placed itself in a terrible
The Resurrection of Christ is the central event in the liturgical year of the Orthodox Church and is understood in literal terms as a real historical event. Jesus Christ, the Son of God, was crucified and died, descended into Hades, rescued all the souls held there as a consequen
A great many traditions revolve around the Ever-Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, the Birth-giver in Incarnation of the preeternal Word of God. It is believed by Orthodox Christians that she was and remained a virgin before and after Christ's birth. Many of the Church's beliefs concerning the Virgin Mary are reflected in the apocryphal text "The Nativity of Mary", which was not included in scripture, but is considered to be accurate in its description of events. The child Mary was consecrated at the a
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Orthodoxy is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion. Orthodoxy within Christianity refers to acceptance of the doctrines defined by various creeds and ecumenical councils in Antiquity, but different Churches accept different creeds and councils. Such differences of opinion have developed for numerous reasons, including language and cultural barriers. The Eastern Orthodox Church adheres to the orthodoxy portrayed mainly in the first seven ecumenical councils, while the Or
The historical Buddha was known to denounce mere attachment to scriptures or dogmatic principles, as it was mentioned in the Kalama Sutta. Moreover, the Theravada school of Buddhism follows strict adherence to the Pāli Canon and the commentaries such as the Visuddhimagga. Hence,
In classical Christian use, the term orthodox refers to the set of doctrines which were believed by the early Christians. A series of ecumenical councils were held over a period of several centuries to try to formalize these doctrines. The most significant of these early decision
Orthodoxy does not exist in Hinduism, as the word Hindu itself collectively refers to the various beliefs of people who lived beyond the Sindhu river of the Indus Valley Civilization. It is a synthesis of the accepted teachings of each of thousands of gurus, who others equate to
Outside the context of religion, the term orthodoxy is often used to refer to any commonly held belief or set of beliefs in some field, in particular when these tenets, possibly referred to as "dogmas", are being challenged. In this sense, the term has a mildly pejorative connotation. Among various "orthodoxies" in distinctive fields, the most commonly used terms are: 1. Political orthodoxy 2. Social orthodoxy 3. Economic orthodoxy 4. Scientific orthodoxy 5. Artistic orthodoxy The terms orthodox
Orthodoxy is opposed to heterodoxy or heresy. People who deviate from orthodoxy by professing a doctrine considered to be false are called heretics, while those who, perhaps without professing heretical beliefs, break from the perceived main body of believers are called schismatics. The term employed sometimes depends on the aspect most in view: if one is addressing corporate unity, the emphasis may be on schism; if one is addressing doctrinal coherence, the emphasis may be on heresy. A deviatio
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In 395, the Roman Empire was split into a western part and an eastern part. The western part lasted to the 5th or 6th century. Τhe exact dates are a point of debate. The eastern part, which is commonly called Byzantine Empire, lasted until the 15th century. The split of the Roman Empire also affected the church, which developed differently in both parts. In 1054, there was the East–West Schism. The western part developed what is now the Roman Catholic Church, and the eastern part is now called Eastern Orthodox Church. In the west, there is the Patriarch of Rome, who is commonly called the Pope. In the east, there is the Patriarch of Constantinople. Because of historical developments, many Eastern Orthodox churches also have a local Patriarch. In the west, the Pope is an absoluteleader. The Patriarch of Constantinople is the "first among equals"; his power is not absolute, as seen when meeting with other Patriarchs. His power is the same of all bishops, which is what a patriarch is.
Some holidays include Christmas and Easter. Orthodox believe in everything in the Nicene Creed: 1. I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth and of all things visible and invisible. 2. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages. 3. Light of Light, true God of true God, begotten not created, of one essence with the Father through whom all things were made. 4. For us men and for our salvation He came down from heaven and was incarnate with the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary and became man. 5. He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and He suffered and was buried. 6. On the third day He rose according to the Scriptures. 7. He ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. 8. He will come again in glory to judge the living and dead. His kingdom shall have no end. 9. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of life, who proceeds from the Father, who together with the F...
The many churches of the Orthodox Church are distinct in terms of administration and local culture, but for the most part exist in full communion with one another. Most of these churches are led by patriarchs. Most patriarchs recognise the Patriarch of Constantinopleas their spiritual leader. The following listing contains a selection of Eastern Orthodox Churches. Unless otherwise stated, they are in communion: 1. Mount Athos (a community of monasteries) 2. Albanian Orthodox Church 3. Antiochian Orthodox Church 4. Bulgarian Orthodox Church 5. Greek Orthodox Church 6. Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria 7. Church of Mount Sinai(one monastery) 8. Russian Orthodox Church 9. Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia 10. Romanian Orthodox Church In the 17th century a group of people split from the Eastern Orthodox Church because they did not agree with some changes that were introduced. These people are known as Old Believerstoday. There are two big groups of Old Believers and a few smaller...The Orthodox Church. Ware, Timothy. Pengiun Books, 1997. (ISBN 0-14-014656-3)The Orthodox Church; 455 Questions and Answers. Harakas, Stanley H. Light and Life Publishing Company, 1988. (ISBN 0-937032-56-5)
Eastern Christianity. Eastern Christianity means the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, East Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. That are especially five families of churches: the Assyrian Church of the East, the Eastern Orthodox ...
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Eastern Orthodoxy in North America represents adherents, religious communities, institutions and organizations of Eastern Orthodox Christianity in North America, including the United States, Canada, Mexico and other North American states. Estimates of the number of Eastern Orthodox adherents in North America vary considerably depending on methodology and generally fall in range from 3 million to 6 million. Most Eastern Orthodox Christians in North America are Russian Americans, Greek Americans,
Russian traders settled in Alaska during the 18th century. In 1740, a Divine Liturgy was celebrated on board a Russian ship off the Alaskan coast. In 1794, the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries—among them Saint Herman of Alaska – to establish a formal mission in Alaska. Their missionary endeavors contributed to the conversion of many Alaskan natives to the Orthodox faith. A diocese was established, whose first bishop was Saint Innocent of Alaska. The headquarters of this North ...
One of the effects of the persecution and administrative chaos wreaked on the Russian Orthodox Church by the Bolshevik Revolution was a flood of refugees from Russia to the United States, Canada, and Europe. The Revolution of 1917 severed large sections of the Russian church—dioceses in America, Japan, and Manchuria, as well as refugees in Europe—from regular contact with the mother church. In 1920 Patriarch Tikhon issued an ukase that dioceses of the Church of Russia that were cut off ...
Today there are many Orthodox churches in the United States and Canada that are still bound to the Ecumenical or Antiochian patriarchates, or other overseas jurisdictions; in some cases these different overseas jurisdictions will have churches in the same U.S. city. However, there are also many "pan-orthodox" activities and organizations, both formal and informal, among Orthodox believers of all jurisdictions. One such organization is the Assembly of Canonical Orthodox Bishops of the United Stat
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The term Eastern Protestant Christianity, as well as Oriental Protestant Christianity, encompasses a range of heterogeneous Protestant Christian denominations that developed outside of the Occident, from the latter half of the nineteenth century and yet keeps elements of Eastern Christianity, to varying degrees. Most of these denominations came into being when existing Protestant Churches adopted reformational variants of Orthodox Christian liturgy and worship; while others are the result of ref
The Byzantine Rite Lutheranism refers to Lutheran Churches, such as those of Ukraine and Slovenia, that use a form of the Byzantine Rite as their liturgy. It is unique in that it is based on the Eastern Christian rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church, while incorporating theology from the Divine Service contained in the Formula Missae, the base texts for Lutheran liturgies in the West.
The Mar Thoma church has its origins in a reformation movement in the Malankara Church, in the latter half of the nineteenth century. India was part of the British Empire at the time and the Malankara Church with its Oriental Orthodox traditions, in communion with the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch. Concurrently, Anglican missionaries from England arrived in South India, on a help mission for the Malankara Church. They became teachers at the Church's seminary and made the Bible availabl
The St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India is an Evangelical, Episcopal denomination based in Kerala, India. It derives from a schism in the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church in 1961. STECI holds that the Bible is the inspired, inerrant and infallible Word of God. Adherents believe that all that is necessary for salvation and living in righteousness is given in the Bible. The church is engaged in active evangelism. The headquarters of this church is at Tiruvalla, a town in the state of Kerala wh
Believers Eastern Church is a Christian denomination with roots in Pentecostalism, based in Kerala, India. It exists as a part of the Gospel for Asia. In 2003, this church acquired episcopacy, by getting Indian Anglican bishops ordain its founder K. P. Yohannan, as a bishop. Henceforth this denomination adopted several elements of Eastern Christian worship and practices like usage of anointed holy oils, yet keeping the principle of sola scriptura. Its name was officially changed to Believers Eas