England is part of the United Kingdom, a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. There has not been a government of England since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union, joined England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Inglaterra (en inglés, England) es una de las cuatro naciones constituyentes del Reino Unido. Su territorio está formado geográficamente por la parte sur y central de Gran Bretaña, isla que comparte junto a Escocia y Gales, y cerca de 100 islas más pequeñas como las islas Sorlingas y la isla de Wight.
England is the largest part of the island of Great Britain, and it is also the largest constituent country of the United Kingdom. Scotland and Wales are also part of Great Britain (and the UK), Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. To the east and south, and part of the west, England is bordered by sea. France is to the south, separated by the English Channel. The Channel Tunnel, (Chunnel) under the English Channel, connects England to northern France (and the rest of mainland Europe). Ireland is a large island to the west, divided into Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland. London is the largest city and the capital. The longest river in England is the River Severn. Other large rivers are the Thames (which runs through London), the Trent and the Humber. In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 mil...
England was named after a Germanic tribe called the "Angles", who settled in Central, Northern, and Eastern England in the 5th and 6th centuries. A related tribe called the "Saxons" settled in the south of England. That is why that period of English history is called "Anglo-Saxon". For most of this time, England did not exist as a united country. The Anglo-Saxonslived in many small kingdoms, which slowly united. The countries of England, Scotland and Wales correspond to boundaries of the earlier Roman Britain. It also corresponds with language differences, since the German tribes did not reach those areas, at least in any large numbers. The English language is derived from German languages of the time, whereas the native British languages of the time were Celtic languages. The English kingdoms fought both the Scots, who were also uniting into one kingdom, and Danish invaders. The Danes formed their own large region in the Northeast of England called Danelaw. Many villages and towns...
England has been central to many aspects of the modern world. Global exploration and trade, the British Empire, modern science, modern agriculture, railways, the Industrial Revolution, the development of modern representative democracy... In all these developments England was deeply involved. In some of them, such as the Industrial Revolution, England was the place that modern developments first occurred. The Royal Society is a society for science and scientists. It was founded in 1660 by Charles II. It is the oldest society of its kind still in existence.
The English language is a West Germanic language spoken in many countries around the world. With around 380 million native speakers, it is the second most spoken language in the world, as a native language. As many as a billion people speak it as a second language. English is an influence on, and has been influenced by, many different languages. William Shakespeare was an English playwright. He wrote plays in the late 16th century. Some of his plays were Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth. In the 19th century, Jane Austen and Charles Dickens were novelists. Twentieth century writers include the science fiction novelist H.G. Wells and J.R.R. Tolkien. The children's fantasy Harry Potter series was written by J.K. Rowling. Aldous Huxleywas also from the United Kingdom. English language literature is written by authors from many countries. Eight people from the United Kingdom have won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
All of Great Britain has an oceanic climate. There can be a temperature difference of 5–10°c between the north and the south (the north is generally colder), and there is often snow in the north before there is in the south. The prevailing wind for most of the year is from the Atlantic, to the west of England. Therefore, there is more rain on the western side of the country. The east is colder and drier than the west. The country usually has a mild climate because the Gulf Stream to the western side is warm water. The climate is warmer than it was 200 years ago, and now ice and snow are rare in the southern part of the country. Occasionally, air from the Arctic Circle comes down the eastern side of the country and the temperature can drop below 0oC.
As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system. It has a monarch (meaning a king or queen is the head of that country). The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is officially the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total. The English people are represented by members of Parliament, not ruled by monarchs. After the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector, and the monarchy was disbanded. Although the monarchy was restored after his death, the Crown slowly became the secondary power, and Parliament the first. Members of Parliament (called MPs) were elected, but until the early twentieth century, only men who owned property could vote. In the nineteenth century, mor...
England's economy is one of the largest and most dynamic in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £28,100 or $36,000. Usually regarded as a mixed market economy, it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in England is the pound sterling, whose ISO 4217 code is GBP. Taxation in Englandis quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe – as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount. The economy of England is the largest part of the UK's economy, which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace, the arms industry, and the manufacturing side of the software industry. London, home to the London Stock Exchange, the U...
State primary schools and secondary schools exist. These consist of academy schools, grammar schools, foundation schools, faith schools, free schools, studio schools and city technology academies. The most common specialist schools are performing arts schools, science schools, maths schools and technology schools. Independent public or prep schools also exist. Eton College and Harrow Schoolare the best known independent schools. The National Curriculumwas introduced in 1988, to give pupils a broad and balanced curriculum. The school curriculum aims to promote the spiritual, moral, cultural, mental and physical development of pupils. Its purpose is to prepare them for the opportunities, responsibilities and experiences of later life. Learning generally covers English literature, English language, maths, science, art and design, religious studies, geography, history, citizenship, computing, design and technology, drama, ancient and modern foreign languages, business studies, food tech...
Road traffic in the United Kingdom drives on the left hand side of the road (unlike the Americas and most of Europe), and the driver steers from the right hand side of the vehicle. The road network on the island of Great Britainis extensive, with most local and rural roads having evolved from Roman and Medieval times. The system of rail transport was invented in England, so it has the oldest railway network in the world. It was built mostly during the Victorian era. The British Rail network is part privatised, with privately owned train operating companies providing service along particular lines or regions, whilst the tracks, signals and stations are owned by a Government controlled company called Network Rail. The system of underground railways in London, known as the Tube, has been copied by many other cities around the globe. England is home to the largest airport and is one of the most important international hubsin the world.
The BBC is an organisation in the United Kingdom. It broadcasts in the United Kingdom and other countries on television, radio and the Internet. The BBC also sells its programmes to other broadcasting companies around world. The organisation is run by a group of twelve governors who have been given the job by the Queen, on the advice of government ministers. The BBC is established under a royal charter, which allows the BBC to broadcast.
England, which had subsumed Wales in the 16th century under Henry VIII, united with Scotland in 1707 to form a new sovereign state called Great Britain. Following the Industrial Revolution, which started in England, Great Britain ruled a colonial Empire, the largest in recorded history.
- Territorial divisions
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Kingdom of England was among the most powerful states in Europe during the medieval period. On 12 July 927, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan to form the Kingdom of England. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of...
The Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn, originally names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles. The name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglia or Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Engleterre. By the 14th century, England was also used in ...
The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, Kent, Essex, Sussex, and Wessex. The Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English
The peace lasted until the death of the childless Edward in January 1066. His brother-in-law was crowned King Harold, but his cousin William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, immediately claimed the throne for himself. William launched an invasion of England and landed in Sussex o
In 1092, William II led an invasion of Strathclyde, a Celtic kingdom in what is now southwest Scotland and Cumbria. In doing so, he annexed what is now the county of Cumbria to England. In 1124, Henry I ceded what is now southeast Scotland to the Kingdom of Scotland, in return fo
The counties of England were established for administration by the Normans, in most cases based on earlier shires established by the Anglo-Saxons. They ceased to be used for administration only with the creation of the administrative counties in 1889. Unlike the partly self-governing boroughs that covered urban areas, the counties of medieval England existed primarily as a means of enforcing central government power, enabling monarchs to exercise control over local areas through their chosen rep
The Acts of Union 1707 declared that the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has occasionally been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was simply "Great Britain".
- Plot summary
England, England First edition cover AuthorJulian Barnes Cover artistBill Gregory GenreSatire, farce PublisherJonathan Cape Publication date 27 August 1998 Media typeHardcover Pages272 ISBN0-224-05275-6 England, England is a satirical postmodern novel by Julian Barnes, published and shortlisted for the Booker Prize in 1998. While researchers have also pointed out the novel's characteristic dystopian and farcical elements, Barnes himself described the novel as a 'semi-farce'. England, England bro
Engis divided into three parts entitled "England", "England, England" and "Anglia". The first part focuses on the protagonist Martha Cochrane and her childhood memories. Growing up in the surrounding of the English countryside, her peaceful childhood is disrupted when her father leaves the land family. Martha's memories of her father are closely related to playing a Counties of England jigsaw puzzle with him. The second part, "England, England", is set in the near future. Martha is now in her fo
Beyond the basic twin plots surrounding Pitman and Cochrane, England, England is a novel of ideas – mainly ideas that correspond to the criticism of society voiced by French philosophers of the second half of the 20th century. The seminal work in this respect is Jean Baudrillard's L'échange symbolique et la mort, in which Baudrillard claims that in the course of the 20th century reality has been superseded by "simulacra", by representations of the original which – in a world where ...
- Anglo-Saxon England
- England During The Middle Ages
- Tudor England
- The Stuarts and The Civil War
- Other Websites
- Further Reading
Analysis of human bodies found at an ancient cemetery near Abingdon, England, shows that Saxon immigrants and native Britonslived side-by-side. The Romano-British population (the Britons) was assimilated. The settlement (or invasion) of England is called the Saxon Conquest, or the Anglo-Saxon or English Conquest. From the 4th century AD, many Britons left to cross the English Channel from Wales, Cornwall and southern Britain, and started to settle the western part of Gaul (Armorica), where they started a new nation: Brittany. The Britons gave their new country its name and the Breton language, Brezhoneg, a sister language to Welsh and Cornish. The name "Brittany" (from "Little Britain") arose at this time to tell the new Britain apart from "Great Britain". Brezhoneg is still spoken in Brittany today.
The defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 against Duke William II of Normandy, later called William I of England, and the following Norman conquest of England caused important changes in the history of Britain. William ordered the Domesday Book to be written. This was a survey of the entire population, and their lands and property, to help in collecting taxes. William also ruled Normandy, then a powerful duchy in France. William and his nobles spoke, and held court, in Anglo-Norman, in Normandy as well as in England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy was kept up for centuries, and had a great influence on the development of Old English into Middle English. In England, the Middle Ages was a time of war, civil war, rebellions from time to time, and many plots among the nobles and royalty. England had more than enough cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. The nation's international economy was based on the wool trade, where wool fro...
The Wars of the Roses ended with the victory of Henry Tudor, who became king Henry VII of England, at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, where the Yorkist king, Richard IIIwas killed. His son, Henry VIII split with the Roman Catholic Church over a question of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon. Though his religious position was not entirely Protestant, this led to the Church of England breaking from the Roman Catholic Church. There followed a time of great religious and political troubles, and the English Reformation. Henry VIII had three children, all of whom would wear the Crown. The first to reign was Edward VI of England. Although he was intelligent, he was only a boy of ten when he took the throne in 1547. When Edward VI died of tuberculosis in 1553 Mary I took the throne when crowds cheered for her in London, which people at the time said was the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch. Mary, a loyal Catholic who had been influenced greatly by the Catholic King of S...
Elizabeth died without children who could take the throne after her. Her closest male Protestant relative was the king of Scotland, James VI, of the house of Stuart, so he became James I of England, the first king of the entire island of Great Britain, although he ruled England and Scotland as separate countries. The English Civil War began in 1642, mainly because of conflicts between James' son, Charles I, and Parliament. The defeat of the Royalist army by the New Model Army of Parliament at the Battle of Naseby in June 1645 destroyed most of the King's forces. The capture and trial of Charles led to his beheading in January 1649 at Whitehall Gate in London. A republic was declared, and Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector in 1653. After he died, his son Richard Cromwell followed him in the office, but soon quit. The monarchy was returned in 1660, after England had a time of anarchy, with King Charles IIagain in London. In 1665, London was hit with the plague, and then, in 166...Full text of The History of England From the Norman Conquest to the Death of John (1066–1216) from Project Gutenberg.Timeline Archived 2015-08-31 at the Wayback Machineof England.A History of Britain: At the Edge of the World, 3500 BC – 1603 AD by Simon Schama, BBC/Miramax, 2000 ISBN 0-7868-6675-6A History of Britain, Volume 2: The Wars of the British 1603–1776 by Simon Schama, BBC/Miramax, 2001 ISBN 0-7868-6675-6A History of Britain - The Complete Collectionon DVD by Simon Schama, BBC 2002 ASIN B00006RCKIThe Isles, A History by Norman Davies, Oxford University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-19-513442-7
- Wirtschaft und Infrastruktur
- Kunst und Kultur
Der Name England leitet sich vom altenglischen Wort Engaland, was so viel wie Land der Angeln bedeutet. Die Angeln waren ein germanischer Stamm, der das Land im Frühmittelalter besiedelte. Laut dem Oxford English Dictionary war der erste schriftliche Nachweis des Namens als Engla lande im Jahr 1014. Die moderne Schreibweise England (in mittelalterlichen Texten auch Engelland) wurde erstmals für das Jahre 1658 nachgewiesen. Eine alternative Bezeichnung für England lautet Albion. Sie bezog sich ursprünglich auf die ganze Insel Großbritannien. Die Bezeichnung wird auch neuzeitlich vor allem dichterisch für England benutzt. Die nominell früheste Aufzeichnung dieses Namens war wohl im 4. Jahrhundert v. Chr. im Corpus Aristotelicum zu finden. Dort heißt es in etwa: „Jenseits der Säulen des Herakles gibt es zwei sehr große Inseln namens Britannia; diese sind Albion und Ierne“. Das Wort Albion (Ἀλβίων) ist möglicherweise auf das lateinische Wort albus(weiß) zurückzuführen, ein Verweis auf d...
England ist mit etwa 130.000 km² der flächenmäßig größte Teil von Großbritannien und bedeckt ca. zwei Drittel Großbritanniens. Als ein typisches Merkmal von England können die Küsten genannt werden. Neben den Küsten finden sich in England noch weitere vielfältige Naturräume. England besteht zum größten Teil aus Tiefebenen, die von Gebirgsketten durchzogen werden. Der höchste Berg in England ist der Scafell Pike in den Cumbrian Mountains mit 978 Metern. Der längste und bekannteste Fluss des Landes ist die Themse. Neben ihr fließen durch England der Severn, der Humber, der Trent und der Great Ouse.
Vor der Römerzeit
Die Geschichte des Landes beginnt im Grunde mit der Entstehung der Insel. Um 8500 v. Chr. stieg der Meeresspiegel während der letzten Eisschmelze an und machte Britannien ca. 7000 v. Chr. zur Insel. In der Jungsteinzeit, die auf der Insel erst um 4000 v. Chr. einsetzte, begannen Ackerbau und Viehzucht.
Römerzeit und Christianisierung
Die Römer siedelten unter der Führung Caesars erstmals 55 und 54 v. Chr. in England, zunächst jedoch nicht als Eroberer.Erst ein knappes Jahrhundert später wurde England von den Römern besetzt. In das nach dem Rückzug der Römer um 410 n. Chr. entstehende Machtvakuum drangen immer wieder schottische Völkergruppen ein. In der Folgezeit wanderten Gruppen von Angeln, Jüten und Sachsen ein. Damit begann in Britannien das Frühmittelalter. Die angelsächsischen Völker brachten ihre germanische Religi...
Die dänischen Wikinger segelten schließlich Ende des 8. Jahrhunderts nach England. Zunächst führten sie nur Raubzüge durch, aber später richteten sie sich ein, forderten auch Tributzahlungen und errichteten eigene Dörfer. 878 schlug Alfred ein großes dänisches Heer bei Edington. Daraufhin ließ sich der dänische König Guthrum, der bereits zuvor in Kontakt mit dem Christentum gekommen war, mit 30 seiner Männer taufen. Anschließend zogen sie sich in ihr Kerngebiet in East Anglia (Danelag) zurück...
Mit über 55 Millionen Einwohnern ist England das mit Abstand bevölkerungsreichste Land des Vereinigten Königreichs. Fast 85 % der Bevölkerung des Vereinigten Königreichesentfällt auf England. Die Dichte von 417 Personen pro Quadratkilometer ist ebenfalls sehr hoch. Hierbei ist aber zu berücksichtigen, dass 8,3 Mio. der 55,3 Mio. Einwohner in Greater London auf nur 1,3 Prozent der Gesamtfläche leben. Im Rest des Landes liegt die Bevölkerungsdichte bei lediglich 357 Personen pro Quadratkilometer.
Die Regierung des Königreichs hat, ebenso wie die königliche Familie, ihren Sitz in der britischen Hauptstadt London. England hat – im Gegensatz zu Schottland, Wales oder Nordirland – weder ein Landesparlament noch eine Landesregierung. Deren Aufgaben werden vom Parlament und der Regierung des Vereinigten Königreiches wahrgenommen. Jedoch gibt es, insbesondere nach der gescheiterten Unabhängigkeitsabstimmung in Schottland, Diskussionen, wie auch England im Rahmen der Devolution besser berücksichtigt werden kann. Diskutiert werden beispielsweise Regionalparlamente in England, ein englisches Landesparlamentoder die Beibehaltung der bisherigen Zuständigkeit des britischen Unterhauses unter künftigem Ausschluss nicht-englischer Parlamentarier bei nur England betreffenden Fragestellungen.
England zählt zu den am stärksten deregulierten Volkswirtschaften der Welt, mit einem durchschnittlichen Pro-Kopf-Einkommen von 22.907 €. England praktiziert den Freien Markt, hat eine fortschrittliche Infrastruktur und gehört in Bezug auf Inflation, Zinsniveau und Arbeitslosigkeit zu den stärksten Regionen Europas. Die offizielle Währung Englands ist das Pfund Sterling. Es wird von vielen Staaten als Währungsreserve gehalten und gilt nach dem US-Dollar und dem Euro als eine der wichtigsten k...
Prominente englische Namen aus dem Bereich Wissenschaft und Mathematik sind Sir Isaac Newton, Michael Faraday, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Joseph Priestley, Charles Darwin, Alan Turing, Francis Crick, Andrew Wiles, Stephen Hawking und Richard Dawkins (usw.).Als Geburtsort der industriellen Revolution war England die Heimat von vielen bedeutenden Erfinder in den späten 18. und frühen 19. Jahrhundert. Berühmte Erfindungen und Entdeckungen von Engländern sind die ersten Computer, das World Wide...
Das Autobahnen- und Fernstraßennetz in England ist sehr weit ausgebaut. Eine typische Fernstraße ist die A1 Great North Road, die durch Ostengland, von London nach Newcastle upon Tyne, verläuft. Der Bustransport ist ebenfalls im ganzen Land verbreitet, Großunternehmen sind: National Express, Arriva und Go-Ahead. Die roten Doppeldeckerbusse in London sind ein berühmtes Symbol Englands. Der Schienenverkehr von England zählt zu den ältesten der Welt, Passagierbahnen in England entstanden im Jahr...
Die englische Kunst ist geprägt von der Architektur, Malerei, Kunsthandwerk und der Plastik. England gilt als das „Mutterland des Fußballs“, und die Englische Kücheverfügt über landestypische Besonderheiten.↑ Mid 2018 Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland↑ England Oxford English Dictionary↑ England