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  1. The Council of State was appointed by Parliament on 14 and 15 February 1649, with further annual elections. The Council's duties were to act as the executive of the country's government in place of the King and the Privy Council. It was to direct domestic and foreign policy and to ensure the security of the English Commonwealth.

    • 30 April 1653 (first time), 28 May 1660 (second time)
    • Charles I (as King), Richard Cromwell (as Lord Protector)
    • 14 February 1649 (first time), 25 May 1659 (second time)
    • Oliver Cromwell (as Lord Protector), Charles II (as King)
  2. A Council of State is a governmental body in a country, or a subdivision of a country, with a function that varies by jurisdiction. It may be the formal name for the cabinet or it may refer to a non-executive advisory body associated with a head of state.

    • Geography
    • Lord President of The Council of State
    • References
    • Further Reading

    The Coun­cil of State was ap­pointed by Par­lia­ment on 14 and 15 Feb­ru­ary 1649, with fur­ther an­nual elec­tions. The Coun­cil's du­ties were to act as the ex­ec­u­tive of the coun­try's gov­ern­ment in place of the King and the Privy Coun­cil. It was to di­rect do­mes­tic and for­eign pol­icy and to en­sure the se­cu­rity of the Eng­lish Com­mon­wealth. Due to the dis­agree­ments be­tween the New Model Armyand the weak­ened Par­lia­ment, it was dom­i­nated by the Army. The Coun­cil held its first meet­ing on 17 Feb­ru­ary 1649 "with [Oliver] Cromwell in the chair". This meet­ing was quite rudi­men­tary, "some 14 mem­bers" at­tend­ing, barely more than the legal quo­rum of nine out of forty-one coun­cil­lors elected by Par­lia­ment. The first elected pres­i­dent of the coun­cil, ap­pointed on 12 March, was John Brad­shaw who had been the Pres­i­dent of the Court at the trial of Charles I and the first to sign the King's death war­rant. The mem­bers of the first coun­cil were the...

    The role of the Pres­i­dent of the Coun­cil of State (usu­ally ad­dressed as "Lord Pres­i­dent") was in­tended to sim­ply pre­side over the Coun­cil of State. John Brad­shaw, the first pres­i­dent, served in the of­fice longer than any other per­son to do so (serv­ing for two years and ten months total). The rea­son no other in­di­vid­ual served in the po­si­tion longer than Brad­shaw was due to a res­o­lu­tion passed by the Par­lia­ment on 26 No­vem­ber 1651 stat­ing that "That no Per­son of any Com­mit­tee of Par­lia­ment, or of the Coun­cil of State, shall be in the Chair of that Com­mit­tee, or Coun­cil, for any longer Time, at once, than one Month" (Com­mons Jour­nal, 7:43–44).Even dur­ing the Pro­tec­torate of Oliver and Richard Cromwell, the po­si­tion of Lord Pres­i­dent of the Coun­cil of State, known dur­ing this pe­riod as the Pro­tec­tor's Privy Coun­cil, re­mained in ex­is­tence until the re-es­tab­lish­ment of the monar­chy in 1660. The fol­low­ing is a list of those w...

    Emerich, John; Acton, Lord Edward Dalberg, eds. (1934), The Cambridge Modern History, 5, CUP Archive, p. 437
    Hume, David (1983) [1778], "Chapter: LX: The Commonwealth: Endnote [a]", The History of England from the Invasion of Julius Caesar to the Revolution in 1688, Foreword by William B. Todd, 6 vols., 6...
    Jenkins, Edward (1890), The Constitutional Experiments of the Commonwealth: A study of the Years 1649–1660, Cambridge Historical Essays, III, CUP Archive, p. 67
    Schultz, Oleg, ed. (13 March 2010), "Commonwealth of England: Council of State: 1649–1660", Archontology, retrieved September 2013 Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
    Firth, C. H.; Rait, R. S., eds. (1911), "13 February 1649: An Act of this Present Parliament for Constituting a Counsell of State for the Comonwealth [sic] of England", Acts and Ordinances of the I...
    House of Commons (1802), "House of Commons Journal: 14 February 1649", Journal of the House of Commons (1648–1651), 6, pp. 140–141, retrieved 13 September2013
    Plant, David, Council of State, British Civil Wars website
  3. The Council of State (Dutch: Raad van State (help · info)) is a constitutionally established advisory body in the Netherlands to the government and States General that officially consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic or military experience.

    Vice-president
    Appointed
    Party
    Background
    Thom de Graaf (born 1957)
    1 November 2018 (2 years, 253 days)
    Politician (MP · Minister · Mayor) Jurist ...
    Sylvia Wortmann (born 1956)
    1 March 2004 (17 years, 133 days)
    Jurist (Researcher · Law professor)
    Dr. Hanna Sevenster (born 1963)
    1 June 2007 (14 years, 41 days)
    Jurist (Lawyer · Law professor) Civil ...
    Ben Vermeulen (born 1957)
    1 February 2008 (13 years, 161 days)
    Jurist (Law professor)
  4. Council of State (Ireland) For Éamon de Valera's 1922–1923 Council of State, see Irish republican legitimatism. The Council of State ( Irish: an Chomhairle Stáit) is a body established by the Constitution of Ireland to advise the President of Ireland in the exercise of many of their discretionary, reserve powers.

    Date Of Meeting
    Bill (section)
    President
    Outcome
    29 December 2015
    Signed without referral
    29 July 2013
    Signed without referral
    21 December 2010
    Signed without referral
    22 July 2009 (b)
    Signed without referral