Frederick III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm Nikolaus Karl; 18 October 1831 – 15 June 1888) was German Emperor and King of Prussia between March and June 1888, during the Year of the Three Emperors. Known informally as "Fritz",  he was the only son of Emperor Wilhelm I and was raised in his family's tradition of military service.
- Controversia historiográfica
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- Enlaces Externos
Primeros años y educación
El príncipe Federico Guillermo Nicolás Carlos de Hohenzollern nació en el Nuevo Palacio de Potsdam, Prusia, el 18 de octubre de 1831. Su padre, el príncipe Guillermo, era el segundo hijo del rey Federico Guillermo III y, por tanto, hermano menor del rey Federico Guillermo IV de Prusia. Tras haber sido educado en la más estricta tradición militar de los Hohenzollern, ejerció la regencia del reino desde 1858. La madre de Federico, por el contrario, había recibido una educación más liberal y más...
Matrimonio y familia
En el siglo xix, los matrimonios reales europeos eran concertados por la corte para crear y reforzar las relaciones entre los estados del continente. Desde 1851, la reina Victoria I del Reino Unido y su esposo, el príncipe Alberto, empezaron a hacer planes para casar a su hija mayor, la princesa Victoria, que acababa de cumplir 11 años, con Federico, el heredero al trono prusiano. En aquella época, la familia real británica era casi enteramente de origen germano: había muy poca sangre inglesa...
Heredero al trono de Prusia
Cuando su padre llegó al trono prusiano el 2 de enero de 1861, Federico se convirtió en el príncipe heredero (en alemán, kronprinz), con 29 años, y mantendría este título durante 27 años. Al principio de su reinado, Guillermo I era considerado un soberano políticamente neutral y Federico y los liberales alemanes esperaban que abriera una nueva era política. Esta esperanza parecía compartida con la población pues, en las elecciones, los liberales aumentaron el número de escaños en el parlament...
Durante toda su vida, Federico estuvo convencido de que un gobierno no debería actuar contra la voluntad de su pueblo. Muy liberal, admiraba a su suegro Alberto de Sajonia-Coburgo-Gotha y el régimen parlamentario británico. Antes de ascender al trono, tuvo la ocasión de debatir largo y tendido con la reina Victoria y otras personas sus ideas con respecto al gobierno. De acuerdo con su esposa, preveía reformar el Imperio alemán y poner a la cabeza de este a ministros más liberales. Cuando llegó al trono, Federico y Victoria intentaron limitar el papel del canciller imperial y reorganizar el sistema político alemán para añadirle más elementos del modelo liberal británico. Muchos historiadores, como William Harbutt Dawson o Erich Eyck, han considerado que la muerte repentina de Federico III obstaculizó el desarrollo del movimiento liberal en el interior del Imperio alemán. Estos piensan que si hubiera reinado más tiempo y con mejor salud, Federico hubi...Michael Balfour, The Kaiser and his Times, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1964 OCLC 807459(en inglés)Lamar Cecil, Wilhelm II: Prince and Emperor 1859-1900, Universidad of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1989 ISBN 9780807818282(en inglés)Egon Corti, English Empress: A Study in the Relations Between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, Empress Frederick of Germany, Kassel, Londres, 1957 OCLC 60222037(en inglés)Andreas Dorpalen, « Emperor Frederick III and the German Liberal Movement.» The American Historical Review, volume 54, octobre 1948, p. 1-31. (en inglés)Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Federico III de Alemania.
Frederick III, German Emperor. Frederick III (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen; 18 October 1831 – 15 Juin 1888) wis German Emperor an King o Proushie for 99 days in 1888, the Year o the Three Emperors .
- Early life
- Marriage and children
Frederick III was Holy Roman emperor from 1452 until his death. He was the fourth king and first emperor of the House of Habsburg. He was the penultimate emperor to be crowned by the pope, and the last to be crowned in Rome. Prior to his imperial coronation, he was duke of the Inner Austrian lands of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola from 1424, and also acted as regent over the Duchy of Austria from 1439. He was elected and crowned King of Germany in 1440. He was the longest-reigning German monarch
Born at the Tyrolean residence of Innsbruck in 1415, Frederick was the eldest son of the Inner Austrian duke Ernest the Iron, a member of the Leopoldian line of the Habsburg dynasty, and his second wife Cymburgis of Masovia. According to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, the Leopoldinian branch ruled over the duchies of Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, or what was referred to as Inner Austria. Only three of Frederick's eight siblings survived childhood: his younger brother Albert, and his sisters Marga
Frederick's style of rulership was marked by hesitation and a sluggish pace of decision making. The Italian humanist Enea Silvio Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, who at one time worked at Frederick's court, described the Emperor as a person who wanted to conquer the world while remaining seated. Although this was regarded as a character flaw in older academic research, his delaying tactics are now viewed as a means of coping with political challenges in far-flung territorial possessions. Frederi
Frederick's political initiatives were hardly bold, but they were still successful. Frederick III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1452, following the death of his father. His ascension to the role of emperor came with the stipulation that should the previous queen give birth to a male heir, Frederick would become his guardian. When the queen gave birth to Ladislaus the Posthumous, as according to the stipulations, Frederick took on his guardianship. This led to conflicts between Frederick and
Frederick had five children from his marriage with Eleanor of Portugal: 1. Christoph 2. Maximilian, Holy Roman Emperor, married 1477 Mary of Burgundy, daughter of Duke of Burgundy Charles the Bold 1494 Bianca Maria Sforza, daughter of Duke of Milan Galeazzo Maria Sforza Helene Kunigunde, married 1487 Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria Johannes For the last 10 years of Frederick's life, he and Maximilian ruled jointly.
In his last years Friedrich remained in the region on the Danube, in Vienna and in Linz. In 1492 he was elected Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece. Since February 1493, Frederick's health deteriorated increasingly. In the Lent of 1493, Friedrich's personal physicians diagnosed Kaiser in the left leg as a symptom, usually referred to as age-burning, in the research literature, which according to current medical terminology is considered to be the result of arteriosclerosis. On 8 June 1493 h
One of the things historians bring up is the length of his father's reign. Living to 90 is unusual for the time, even today it is not exactly common or expected. In the 1800s it was very long indeed. Many people expected him to die earlier, to be frank. So when he lived 17 years after becoming German Emperor it prevented Frederick from ruling.
- Personal Life
- Political Life
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Early life and education
Frederick William was born in the New Palace at Potsdam in Prussia on 18 October 1831. He was a scion of the House of Hohenzollern, rulers of Prussia, then the most powerful of the German states. Frederick's father, Prince William, was a younger brother of King Frederick William IV and, having been raised in the military traditions of the Hohenzollerns, developed into a strict disciplinarian. William fell in love with his cousin Elisa Radziwill, a Princess of the Polish nobility, but his pare...
Marriage and family
Royal marriages of the 19th century were arranged to secure alliances and to maintain blood ties among the European nations. As early as 1851, Queen Victoria of Great Britain and her consort Prince Albert were making plans to marry their eldest daughter, Victoria, Princess Royal, to Frederick. The royal dynasty in Britain was predominantly German; there was little British blood in Queen Victoria, and none in her husband. The monarchs desired to maintain their family's blood ties to Germany, a...
When his father succeeded to the Prussian throne as King William I on 2 January 1861, Frederick became the Crown Prince. Already twenty-nine years old, he would be Crown Prince for a further twenty-seven years. The new king was initially considered politically neutral; Frederick and Prussia's liberal elements hoped that he would usher in a new era of liberal policies. The liberals managed to greatly increase their majority in the Prussian Diet (Landtag), but William soon showed that he prefer...
German Empire and brief reign
In 1871, following Prussia's victories, the German states were united into the German Empire, with William as the Emperor and Frederick as heir-apparent to the new German monarchy. Although William thought the day when he became Emperor the saddest of his life, Frederick was excited to be witness to a great day in German history. Bismarck, now Chancellor, disliked Frederick and distrusted the liberal attitudes of the Crown Prince and Princess. Often at odds with his father's and Bismarck's po...
Frederick believed a state should not act against the popular opinion of its inhabitants. He had a long history of liberalism, and had discussed his ideas and intentions with Victoria and others before his reign. Admiring Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and the British parliamentary system, Frederick and his wife planned to rule as consorts and liberalize Germany through the appointment of more liberal ministers. They intended to severely limit the office of Chancellor, and reorganize Germany to include many elements of British liberalism. Many historians, including William Harbutt Dawson and Erich Eyck, consider that Frederick's early death put an end to the development of liberalism within the German empire. They believe that, given a longer reign and better health, Frederick might indeed have transformed Germany into a more liberal democratic country, and prevented its militaristic path toward war. Dr. J. McCullough claims that Frederick would have averted World War I—and by e...
Titles and styles
1. 18 October 1831 – 2 January 1861: His Royal HighnessPrince Frederick of Prussia 2. 2 January 1861 – 18 January 1871: His Royal HighnessThe Crown Prince of Prussia 3. 18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888: His Imperial and Royal HighnessThe German Crown Prince, Crown Prince of Prussia 4. 9 March 1888 – 15 June 1888: His Imperial and Royal MajestyThe German Emperor, King of Prussia
At the age of ten he was invested with the Order of the Black Eagle. Following his victory at the Battle of Königgrätz, he received the Order Pour le Méritefor his leadership during the battle.
"A Legend of Old Egypt"—an 1888 short story by Bolesław Prus, inspired by Frederick III's tragic premature death.John Van der Kiste John Van Der Kiste (2001). Dearest Vicky, Darling Fritz: Queen Victoria's eldest daughter and the German Emperor. Sutton Publishing, Stroud. ISBN 0-750-93052-7."Myths and Counter-Myths", Frank Lorenz Müller, Berfrois, 6 February 2012
Pakula, Hannah (1997) An Uncommon Woman: The Empress Frederick, Daughter of Queen Victoria, Wife of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Mother of Kaiser Wilhelm, Simon and Schuster, pp. 288−290 Autor Frederick III, German Emperor with his wife and their children
- Frederick III, German Emperor with his wife and their children
- agosto de 1875
- English: Frederick III, German Emperor with his wife and their children
- Pakula, Hannah (1997) An Uncommon Woman: The Empress Frederick, Daughter of Queen Victoria, Wife of the Crown Prince of Prussia, Mother of Kaiser Wilhelm, Simon and Schuster, pp. 288−290
- German Empire (1848–49)
- Full titles
The German Emperor was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire. A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918. The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512. Following the revolutio
In the wake of the revolutions of 1848 and during the German Empire, King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title "Emperor of the Germans" by the Frankfurt Parliament in 1849, but declined it as "not the Parliament's to give". Frederick William believed that only the German princes had the right to make such an offer, in accordance with the traditions of the Holy Roman Empire.
The title was carefully chosen by Otto von Bismarck, Minister President of Prussia and Chancellor of the North German Confederation, after discussion which continued until the proclamation of King William I of Prussia as emperor at the Palace of Versailles during the Siege of Paris. William accepted this title grudgingly on 18 January, having preferred "Emperor of Germany". However, that would have signaled a territorial sovereignty unacceptable to the South German monarchs, as well as a claim t
The German Emperors had an extensive list of titles and claims that reflected the geographic expanse and diversity of the lands ruled by the House of Hohenzollern.
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