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  1. George II (George Augustus; German: Georg August; 30 October / 9 November 1683 O.S./N.S. – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death in 1760.

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_IIIGeorge III - Wikipedia

    • Early Life
    • Marriage
    • Early Reign
    • American War of Independence
    • Constitutional Struggle and William Pitt
    • French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars
    • Final Years, Illnesses and Death
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
    • See Also

    George was born on 4 June 1738 in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square. He was a grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford.One month later, he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker. His godparents were King Frederick I of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), his uncle Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom Lord Carnarvon stood proxy), and his great-aunt Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwinstood proxy). George grew into a healthy, reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, a...

    In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions." Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother; Sophie married Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth, instead. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day.[d] A fortnight later on 22 September, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mis...

    George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain." He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke, to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain. Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties,[e] the first years of his reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War. George was also perceived as favouring Tory ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat. On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income; most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a civil listannuity for the support of his household and the expenses of civil government. Claims that he used the income to r...

    The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and political American Revolution resulting from the American Enlightenment. Thirteen British-American colonies ruled by Britain proved difficult to govern. Brought to a head over the lack of American representation in Parliament, which was seen as a denial of their rights as Englishmen and often popularly focused on direct taxes levied by Parliament on the colonies without their consent, the colonists resisted the imposition of direct rule after the Boston Tea Party. Creating self-governing provinces, they circumvented the British ruling apparatus in each colony by 1774. Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775. After petitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament were ignored, the rebel leaders were declared traitors by the Crown and a year of fighting ensued. Thomas Paine's published work Common Senseabrasively referred...

    With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition. Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively. The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his character; he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the Prince of Wales. George III was distressed at having to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the India Bill, which propos...

    After George's recovery, his popularity, and that of Pitt, continued to increase at the expense of Fox and the Prince of Wales. His humane and understanding treatment of two insane assailants, Margaret Nicholson in 1786 and John Frith in 1790, contributed to his popularity. James Hadfield's failed attempt to shoot the King in the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, on 15 May 1800 was not political in origin but motivated by the apocalyptic delusions of Hadfield and Bannister Truelock. George seemed unperturbed by the incident, so much so that he fell asleep in the interval. The French Revolution of 1789, in which the French monarchy had been overthrown, worried many British landowners. France declared war on Great Britain in 1793; in the war attempt, George allowed Pitt to increase taxes, raise armies, and suspend the right of habeas corpus. The First Coalition to oppose revolutionary France, which included Austria, Prussia, and Spain, broke up in 1795 when Prussia and Spain made separate pe...

    In late 1810, at the height of his popularity, already virtually blind with cataracts and in pain from rheumatism, George III's mental disorder returned, and he became dangerously ill. In his view, the malady had been triggered by stress over the death of his youngest and favourite daughter, Princess Amelia. The Princess's nurse reported that "the scenes of distress and crying every day ... were melancholy beyond description." He accepted the need for the Regency Act 1811, and the Prince of Wales (later George IV), acted as Regent for the remainder of George III's life. Despite signs of a recovery in May 1811, by the end of the year George had become permanently insane and lived in seclusion at Windsor Castle until his death. Prime Minister Spencer Perceval was assassinated in 1812 and was replaced by Lord Liverpool. Liverpool oversaw British victory in the Napoleonic Wars. The subsequent Congress of Vienna led to significant territorial gains for Hanover, which was upgraded from an...

    George was succeeded by two of his sons, George IV and William IV, who both died without surviving legitimate children, leaving the throne to Victoria, the only legitimate child of Prince Edward. George III lived for 81 years and 239 days and reigned for 59 years and 96 days: both his life and his reign were longer than those of any of his predecessors and subsequent kings. Only Queens Victoria and Elizabeth II lived and reigned longer. George III was dubbed "Farmer George" by satirists, at first to mock his interest in mundane matters rather than politics, but later to portray him as a man of the people, contrasting his homely thrift with his son's grandiosity. Under George III, the British Agricultural Revolution reached its peak and great advances were made in fields such as science and industry. There was unprecedented growth in the rural population, which in turn provided much of the workforce for the concurrent Industrial Revolution. George's collection of mathematical and sci...

    Titles and styles

    1. 4 June 1738 – 31 March 1751: His Royal HighnessPrince George 2. 31 March 1751 – 20 April 1751: His Royal HighnessThe Duke of Edinburgh 3. 20 April 1751 – 25 October 1760: His Royal HighnessThe Prince of Wales 4. 25 October 1760 – 29 January 1820: His MajestyThe King In Great Britain, George III used the official style "George the Third, by the Grace of God, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and so forth". In 1801, when Great Britain united with Ireland, he...

    Honours

    1. Great Britain: Royal Knight of the Garter, 22 June 1749 2. Ireland: Founder of the Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick, 5 February 1783

    Arms

    Before his succession, George was granted the royal arms differenced by a label of five points Azure, the centre point bearing a fleur-de-lis Or on 27 July 1749. Upon his father's death, and along with the dukedom of Edinburgh and the position of heir-apparent, he inherited his difference of a plain label of three points Argent. In an additional difference, the crown of Charlemagne was not usually depicted on the arms of the heir, only on the Sovereign's. From his succession until 1800, Georg...

    • Primeiros Anos
    • Casamento
    • Príncipe de Gales
    • Primeiros Anos de Reinado
    • Problemas Familiares
    • Guerra E Rebelião
    • Últimos Anos
    • Legado
    • títulos, Estilos E Brasões
    • Descendência

    Jorge nasceu na cidade de Hanôver, na Alemanha, filho de Jorge Luís, Príncipe-Herdeiro de Brunsvique-Luneburgo (depois rei Jorge I da Grã-Bretanha) e da sua esposa, a duquesa Sofia Doroteia de Celle. Ambos os pais de Jorge cometeram adultério e, em 1694, o casamento foi dissolvido sob o pretexto de que Sofia tinha abandonado o marido.[1] A duquesa foi presa na Casa Ahlden e foi-lhe negado o acesso aos seus dois filhos, Jorge e a irmã Sofia Doroteia de Hanôver, que provavelmente nunca mais voltaram a ver a mãe.[2] Jorge falou apenas francês, a língua da diplomacia e da corte, até aos quatro anos de idade, quando um dos seus tutores, Johann Hilmar Holstein, lhe começou a ensinar alemão.[3] Além de alemão e francês, também aprendeu inglês e italiano, ao ponto de falar as quatro línguas fluentemente. Estudou geologia, história militar e tácticas de batalha com especial dedicação.[4] A prima em segundo-grau de Jorge, a rainha Ana, herdou os tronos unificados de Inglaterra, Escócia e Irla...

    O pai de Jorge não queria que o filho contraísse um casamento sem amor tal como lhe tinha acontecido. Queria dar-lhe a oportunidade de conhecer a noiva antes de se estabelecer algum compromisso oficial.[7] Em 1702 iniciaram-se negociações para o casamento com a princesa Edviges Sofia da Suécia, duquesa-viúva e regente de Holstein-Gottorp que nunca foram concluídas.[8] Em junho de 1705, utilizando o nome falso de "Monsieur de Busch", Jorge visitou a corte de Ansbach anonimamente na sua residência de verão em Triesdorf para investigar outra perspectiva de casamento: Carolina de Ansbach, a antiga pupila da sua tia, a rainha Sofia Carlota da Prússia. O enviado inglês a Hanôver, Edmund Poley, referiu que Jorge ficou tão impressionado com "o bom carácter dela que não conseguia pensar em mais ninguém".[9] No final de julho foi concluído o contracto de casamento.[10] A 22 de agosto ou 2 de setembro (de acordo com o novo calendário), Carolina chegou a Hanôver para o seu casamento, que se rea...

    Desavença com o Rei

    Jorge e o pai partiram para Inglaterra da Haia a 16/27 de setembro e chegaram a Greenwich dois dias depois.[19] No dia seguinte, entraram formalmente em Londres numa procissão cerimonial.[20] Jorge recebeu o título de Príncipe de Gales. Carolina foi com o marido e as suas filhas para Inglaterra enquanto Frederico ficou em Hanôver para ser criado por tutores privados.[21] Londres era diferente de tudo o que Jorge tinha visto até então: era cinquenta vezes maior do que Hanôver (Hanôver tinha ce...

    Oposição política

    Expulso do palácio e ignorado pelo seu próprio pai, durante os anos que se seguiram, Jorge foi identificado como opositor das políticas de Jorge I,[36] que incluíam medidas para aumentar a liberdade religiosa na Grã-Bretanha e aumentar os territórios alemães de Hanôver a custo da Suécia.[37] A sua nova residência em Londres, a Casa Leicester, tornou-se um ponto de encontro frequente dos opositores políticos do seu pai, incluindo sir Robert Walpole e o Visconde Townshend, que tinha deixado o g...

    Jorge I morreu a 11/22 de junho de 1727 durante uma das suas visitas a Hanôver e Jorge II sucedeu-o como rei e príncipe-eleitor aos 43 anos de idade. O novo rei decidiu não viajar até à Germânia para assistir ao funeral do pai, uma atitude que não foi criticada, mas sim elogiada pelos ingleses que a viram como uma prova do carinho que o rei tinha pela Inglaterra.[47] Decidiu não cumprir o testamento do pai uma vez que tentava dividir a sucessão de Hanôver entre os futuros netos de Jorge II em vez de garantir todos os domínios (britânicos e germânicos) numa única pessoa. Tanto os ministros britânicos como os de Hanôver consideraram que o testamento não cumpria a lei, uma vez que Jorge I não tinha poder legal para determinar a sucessão pessoalmente.[48] Os críticos desconfiaram que Jorge escondeu o testamento para evitar pagar os legados do pai.[49] Jorge II foi coroado na Abadia de Westminster a 11/22 de outubro de 1727.[47] O compositor George Frideric Handel foi contratado para esc...

    A relação de Jorge II com o seu filho e herdeiro aparente, Frederico, Príncipe de Gales, piorou durante a década de 1730. Frederico tinha sido deixado na Germânia quando os seus pais foram para Inglaterra e não os viu durante catorze anos. Em 1728, foi levado para Inglaterra e lentamente tornou-se a figura central da oposição política.[60] Quando Jorge visitou Hanôver durante os verões de 1729, 1732 e 1732, deixou a sua esposa e não o filho na liderança do conselho de regência da Grã-Bretanha.[61] Entretanto, a rivalidade entre Jorge II e o seu cunhado Frederico Guilherme I da Prússia conduziu a tensões na fronteira da Prússia com Hanôver que acabaram por culminar na mobilização de tropas nesta zona e em rumores de que os dois reis se enfrentariam num duelo. As negociações de casamento entre o príncipe de Gales e a filha de Frederico Guilherme, Guilhermina, arrastaram-se durante vários anos uma vez que nenhum dos lados desejava fazer concessões para o outro e a ideia acabou por ser...

    Contra a vontade de Walpole, mas para grande alegria de Jorge, a Grã-Bretanha voltou novamente a entrar em guerra quando rebentou a Guerra da Orelha de Jenkins contra Espanha em 1739.[76] A guerra da Grã-Bretanha com a Espanha tornou-se uma parte da Guerra de Sucessão Austríaca quando rebentou uma grande guerra europeia após a morte do sacro-imperador Carlos VI em 1740. A disputa tinha como objectivo colocar a filha de Carlos, Maria Teresa no trono austríaco.[77] Jorge passou o verão de 1740 e 1741 em Hanôver, onde podia intervir mais directamente nos assuntos diplomáticos europeus como príncipe-eleitor.[78] O príncipe Frederico esteve em campanha activa em favor da oposição durante as eleições gerais britânicas em 1741 e Walpole não conseguiu garantir uma maioria estável. Walpole tentou comprar o príncipe com a promessa de aumentar o seu rendimento e ofereceu-se para pagar as suas dívidas, mas Frederico recusou a proposta.[79] Com o seu apoio desgastado, Walpole reformou-se em 1742...

    Nas eleições de 1747, o Príncipe de Gales voltou a fazer campanha activamente pela oposição, mas o partido de Pelham venceu facilmente.[96] Tal como o seu pai tinha feito antes, o príncipe recebia figuras da oposição em sua casa na Praça Leicester.[97] Quando Frederico morreu inesperadamente em 1751, o seu filho mais velho, príncipe Jorge, tornou-se herdeiro aparente. O rei lamentou a morte do filho juntamente com a Viúva Princesa de Gales e chorou com ela.[98] Como Jorge apenas se tornaria maior de idade em 1756, um novo Decreto de Regência Britânico nomeou-a regente com a ajuda de um conselho liderado pelo Duque de Cumberland, caso Jorge II morresse antes.[99] O rei também fez um novo testamento que nomeava o Duque de Cumberland como o único regente em Hanôver.[100] Após a morte da sua filha Luísa no final do ano, Jorge lamentou-se: "Este tem sido um ano fatal para a minha família. Perdi o meu filho mais velho - mas fico contente por isso (...) Agora [a Luísa] morreu. Sei que não...

    Jorge doou a biblioteca real ao Museu Britânico em 1757, quatro anos depois da abertura do museu.[117] O rei não se interessava pela leitura,[118] nem pelas artes e pela ciência e preferia passar o seu tempo livre a caçar a cavalo ou a jogar às cartas.[119] Em 1737, abriu a Universidade Jorge Augusto em Gotinga, a primeira universidade do eleitorado de Hanôver, e visitou-a em 1748.[120] A universidade deu o nome de 359 Georgia a um asteróide em 1902 em sua honra. Foi chanceler da Trinity College, em Dublin, entre 1716 e 1727 e, em 1754, deu autorização para a criação do King's College em Nova Iorque que se tornaria mais tarde a Universidade de Columbia. O estado da Geórgia, fundado por carta real em 1732, recebeu o nome em sua honra.[121] Durante o reinado de Jorge II, os interesses britânicos expandiram-se por todo o mundo, o desafio Jacobita para a dinastia de Hanôver acabou e o poder dos ministros no Parlamento britânico ficou bem estabelecido. Apesar de tudo, nas memórias de con...

    Títulos e estilos

    Na Grã-Bretanha: 1. 9 de novembro de 1709 – 1 de agosto de 1714: "Sua Alteza, o Duque de Cambridge"[133] 2. 1 de agosto de 1714 – 27 de setembro de 1714: "Sua Alteza Real, o Duque da Cornualha e Duque de Rothesay" 3. 27 de setembro de 1714 – 11 de junho de 1727: "Sua Alteza Real, o Príncipe de Gales" 4. 11 de junho de 1727 – 25 de outubro de 1760: "Sua Majestade, o Rei" Seu título completo como rei era "Jorge Segundo, pela Graça de Deus, Rei da Grã-Bretanha, França e Irlanda, Defensor da Fé,...

    Brasões

    Quando Jorge se tornou Príncipe de Gales em 1714, ele recebeu o brasão de armas real sem o escudo interior eleitoral no quartel hanoveriano, diferenciado por um lambel argento de três pés. O brasão incluía uma coroa de um único arco e os suportes com um lambel similar nos ombros. Como rei, ele usava o brasão de seu pai sem nenhuma diferença.[134]

    Jorge II casou-se com a princesa Carolina de Brandemburgo-Ansbach, de quem teve os seguintes filhos:

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_VIGeorge VI - Wikipedia

    • Early Life
    • Military Career and Education
    • Marriage
    • Reluctant King
    • Early Reign
    • Second World War
    • Empire to Commonwealth
    • Illness and Death
    • Legacy
    • References

    The future George VI was born at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate in Norfolk during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria. His father was Prince George, Duke of York (later King George V), the second and eldest surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra). His mother, the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), was the eldest child and only daughter of Francis, Duke of Teck, and Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck. His birthday, 14 December 1895, was the 34th anniversary of the death of his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. Uncertain of how the Prince Consort's widow, Queen Victoria, would take the news of the birth, the Prince of Wales wrote to the Duke of York that the Queen had been "rather distressed". Two days later, he wrote again: "I really think it would gratify her if you yourself proposed the name Albertto her." The Queen was mollified by the proposal to name the new baby Albert, and wrote to the Duchess of...

    From 1909, Albert attended the Royal Naval College, Osborne, as a naval cadet. In 1911 he came bottom of the class in the final examination, but despite this he progressed to the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.When his grandfather, Edward VII, died in 1910, his father became King George V. Edward became Prince of Wales, with Albert second in line to the throne. Albert spent the first six months of 1913 on the training ship HMS Cumberland in the West Indies and on the east coast of Canada. He was rated as a midshipman aboard HMS Collingwood on 15 September 1913. He spent three months in the Mediterranean, but never overcame his seasickness. Three weeks after the outbreak of World War I he was medically evacuated from the ship to Aberdeen, where his appendix was removed by Sir John Marnoch. He was mentioned in despatches for his actions as a turret officer aboard Collingwood in the Battle of Jutland (31 May – 1 June 1916), the great naval battle of the war. He did not see further comb...

    In a time when royalty were expected to marry fellow royalty, it was unusual that Albert had a great deal of freedom in choosing a prospective wife. An infatuation with the already-married Australian socialite Lady Loughborough came to an end in April 1920 when the King, with the promise of the dukedom of York, persuaded Albert to stop seeing her. That year, he met for the first time since childhood Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, the youngest daughter of the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. He became determined to marry her. She rejected his proposal twice, in 1921 and 1922, reportedly because she was reluctant to make the sacrifices necessary to become a member of the royal family. In the words of her mother Cecilia Bowes-Lyon, Countess of Strathmore and Kinghorne, Albert would be "made or marred" by his choice of wife. After a protracted courtship, Elizabeth agreed to marry him. They were married on 26 April 1923 in Westminster Abbey. Albert's marriage to someone not of royal birth w...

    King George V had severe reservations about Prince Edward, saying "After I am dead, the boy will ruin himself in twelve months" and "I pray God that my eldest son will never marry and that nothing will come between Bertie and Lilibet and the throne." On 20 January 1936, George V died and Edward ascended the throne as King Edward VIII. In the Vigil of the Princes, Prince Albert and his three brothers (the new king, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Prince George, Duke of Kent) took a shift standing guard over their father's body as it lay in state, in a closed casket, in Westminster Hall. As Edward was unmarried and had no children, Albert was the heir presumptive to the throne. Less than a year later, on 11 December 1936, Edward abdicated in order to marry Wallis Simpson who was divorced from her first husband and divorcing her second. Edward had been advised by British prime minister Stanley Baldwin that he could not remain king and marry a divorced woman with two living ex-hus...

    Albert assumed the regnal name "George VI" to emphasise continuity with his father and restore confidence in the monarchy. The beginning of George VI's reign was taken up by questions surrounding his predecessor and brother, whose titles, style and position were uncertain. He had been introduced as "His Royal Highness Prince Edward" for the abdication broadcast, but George VI felt that by abdicating and renouncing the succession, Edward had lost the right to bear royal titles, including "Royal Highness". In settling the issue, George's first act as king was to confer upon his brother the title "Duke of Windsor" with the style "Royal Highness", but the letters patent creating the dukedom prevented any wife or children from bearing royal styles. George VI was forced to buy from Edward the royal residences of Balmoral Castle and Sandringham House, as these were private properties and did not pass to him automatically. Three days after his accession, on his 41st birthday, he invested hi...

    Following the German invasion of Poland in September 1939, the United Kingdom and the self-governing Dominions other than Ireland declared war on Nazi Germany. George VI and his wife resolved to stay in London, despite German bombing raids. They officially stayed in Buckingham Palace throughout the war, although they usually spent nights at Windsor Castle. The first night of the Blitz on London, on 7 September 1940, killed about one thousand civilians, mostly in the East End. On 13 September, the King and Queen narrowly avoided death when two German bombs exploded in a courtyard at Buckingham Palace while they were there. In defiance, the Queen declared: "I am glad we have been bombed. It makes me feel we can look the East End in the face." The royal family were portrayed as sharing the same dangers and deprivations as the rest of the country. They were subject to British rationing restrictions, and U.S. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt remarked on the rationed food served and the limit...

    George VI's reign saw the acceleration of the dissolution of the British Empire. The Statute of Westminster 1931 had already acknowledged the evolution of the Dominions into separate sovereign states. The process of transformation from an empire to a voluntary association of independent states, known as the Commonwealth, gathered pace after the Second World War. During the ministry of Clement Attlee, British India became the two independent Dominions of India and Pakistan in August 1947. George relinquished the title of Emperor of India, and became King of India and King of Pakistan instead. In late April 1949, the Commonwealth leaders issued the London Declaration, which laid the foundation of the modern Commonwealth and recognised the King as Head of the Commonwealth. In January 1950, he ceased to be King of India when it became a republic, and remained King of Pakistan until his death. Other countries left the Commonwealth, such as Burma in January 1948, Palestine (divided betwee...

    The stress of the war had taken its toll on the King's health, made worse by his heavy smoking and subsequent development of lung cancer among other ailments, including arteriosclerosis and Buerger's disease. A planned tour of Australia and New Zealand was postponed after the King suffered an arterial blockage in his right leg, which threatened the loss of the leg and was treated with a right lumbar sympathectomy in March 1949. His elder daughter Elizabeth, the heir presumptive, took on more royal duties as her father's health deteriorated. The delayed tour was re-organised, with Elizabeth and her husband, Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, taking the place of the King and Queen. The King was well enough to open the Festival of Britain in May 1951, but on 23 September 1951, he underwent a surgical operation where his entire left lung was removed by Clement Price Thomas after a malignant tumour was found. In October 1951, Elizabeth and Philip went on a month-long tour of Canada; the trip had...

    In the words of Labour Member of Parliament (MP) George Hardie, the abdication crisis of 1936 did "more for republicanism than fifty years of propaganda". George VI wrote to his brother Edward that in the aftermath of the abdication he had reluctantly assumed "a rocking throne" and tried "to make it steady again".He became king at a point when public faith in the monarchy was at a low ebb. During his reign, his people endured the hardships of war, and imperial power was eroded. However, as a dutiful family man and by showing personal courage, he succeeded in restoring the popularity of the monarchy. The George Cross and the George Medal were founded at the King's suggestion during the Second World War to recognise acts of exceptional civilian bravery. He bestowed the George Cross on the entire "island fortress of Malta" in 1943. He was posthumously awarded the Ordre de la Libérationby the French government in 1960, one of only two people (the other being Churchill in 1958) to be awa...

    Sources

    1. Bradford, Sarah (1989). King George VI. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79667-1. 2. Howarth, Patrick (1987). George VI. Hutchinson. ISBN 978-0-09-171000-2. 3. Judd, Denis (1982). King George VI. London: Michael Joseph. ISBN 978-0-7181-2184-6. 4. Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). "George VI (1895–1952)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 5. Rhodes James, Robert (1998). A Spirit Undaunted: The Political Role of George VI. London: Little, Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-64765-6. 6...

    • 11 December 1936 – 6 February 1952
    • Mary of Teck
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_VGeorge V - Wikipedia

    George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death in 1936. Born during the reign of his grandmother Queen Victoria , George was third in the line of succession behind his father, Prince Albert Edward , and his own elder brother, Prince Albert Victor .

  5. George II of Great Britain: 4. Frederick, Prince of Wales: 9. Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach: 2. George III of the United Kingdom: 10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg: 5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha: 11. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst: 1. Princess Amelia of the United Kingdom: 12. Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz: 6.

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