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Georgia is a mountainous country situated almost entirely in the South Caucasus, while some silvers of the country are situated north of the Caucasus Watershed in the North Caucasus. The country lies between latitudes 41° and 44° N, and longitudes 40° and 47° E, with an area of 67,900 km 2 (26,216 sq mi).
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The Georgians are an ancient people. Their capital Tbilisi was founded around AD 400, by the king Vakhtang Gorgasali. Western Georgia was part of the Roman Empire before then. The Arabs captured it in 635 AD. The culture continued and they flourished through trade.In the 900s Arabs influence diminished in Caucasia significantly. In 1008 Kingdom of Georgia was formed. It was the major country in the region until the Mongols invaded in 1223. Georgia was part of the Mongolian empire for a century on and off until 1334, when King Giorgi V took over. In the 1400s Georgia dissolved into several principalities. In the 1500s the Persians invaded Eastern Georgia four times from 1541-1544. In 1555 the Kings of Kartli ruled through the will of the PersianShahs. In 1783 The treaty of Georgievsk was signed between Catherine the Great of Russiaand King Heraclius II, giving Russia the power to protect Georgia. Then, in 1798 the Persians burned Tbilisi to the ground. From 1811 to 1918 Georgia was u...
Georgia is next to the countries of Russia, Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It also has a coast on the Black Sea. It is at the edge of Europe and Asia. Georgia has many mountains. Its highest point is 5,193 m above sea level. The mountains running through Georgia are called the Caucasus Mountains. The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,193 m. The coastline of Georgia is 310 km long. Georgia has about 25,000 rivers. The largest river is the Mtkvari.
Georgia is divided into 9 regions, 1 city, and 2 autonomous republics. These in turn are divided into 67 districtsand 12 self-governing cities. The region of Abkhazia declared independence in 1999. South Ossetiais officially known by Georgia as the Tskinvali region. Georgia considers both regions as occupied by Russia.
The population of Georgia is about 4 million. About 1.2 million of these live in Tbilisi. People from Georgia are called Georgians. Most of them speak Georgian as their first language, though some people also speak Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russianor other languages. Georgians have their own unique three alphabets. They were invented by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia. The most famous person to have come from Georgia is Josef Stalin. Most Georgians are Christians, but there are some Muslims and Jewsas well. The currency of Georgia is called the Lari.
Georgia was one of them, proclaiming the establishment of the independent Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG) on May 26, 1918. The new country was ruled by the Menshevik faction of the Social Democratic Party, which established a multi-party system in sharp contrast with the "dictatorship of the proletariat" established by the Bolsheviks in
- Environmental issues
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It lies on the coast of the Black Sea and is bordered to the north and northeast by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan.
Georgia is largely surrounded by the Greater Caucasus and Lesser Caucasus mountains, which form part of a natural boundary between Eastern Europe and Western Asia. Because the Europe–Asia boundary is essentially a “historical and cultural construct”, Georgia's continental placement has varied greatly. Anaximander placed the boundary between Europe and Asia along the Phasis River, which effectively located northern parts of Georgia in Europe and the south in Asia, a convention also ...
Despite its small area, Georgia has one of the most varied topographies of the former Soviet republics. Georgia lies mostly in the Caucasus Mountains, and its northern boundary is partly defined by the Greater Caucasus range. The Lesser Caucasus range, which runs parallel to the Turkish and Armenian borders, and the Surami and Imereti ranges, which connect the Greater Caucasus and the Lesser Caucasus, create natural barriers that are partly responsible for cultural and linguistic differences amo
The coastline of Georgia is 310 km long. Out of the Georgian coastline, 57 km is the coastline of Ajaria, and 200 km is the coastline of Abkhazia. The Encyclopedia of the Nations lists the total length of the coastline as 315 km long. Georgia has an Exclusive Economic Zone of 21,946 km2 in the Black Sea.
Georgia's climate is affected by temperate humid influences from the west and continental influences from the east. The Greater Caucasus range moderates local climate by serving as a barrier against cold air from the north. Warm, moist air from the Black Sea moves easily into the coastal lowlands from the west. Climatic zones are determined by distance from the Black Sea and by altitude. Along the Black Sea coast, from Abkhazia to the Turkish border, and in the region known as the Colchis Lowlan
Beginning in the 1980s, Black Sea pollution has greatly harmed Georgia's tourist industry. Inadequate sewage treatment is the main cause of that condition. In Batumi, for example, only 18 percent of wastewater was treated before release into the sea as of the early 1990s. As of the early 1990s, an estimated 70 percent of surface water contained health-endangering bacteria to which Georgia's high rate of intestinal disease was attributed. The war in Abkhazia did substantial damage to the ecologic
- Demographic Trends
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- Cia World Factbook 2002 Demographic Statistics
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The demographic situation in Georgia, like that of some other former Soviet republics (especially Estonia and Latvia), has been characterized by two prominent features since independence: decline in total population and significant "Georgianization" of the ethnic composition. The proportion of ethnic Georgians increased by full 10 percentage points between 1989 and 2002, rising from 73.7% to 83.7% of the population. The population grew steadily while Georgia was part of the Soviet Union and during the first years of independence, rising from less than 4 million in the 1950s to a peak of 5.5 million in 1992. Then the trend changed and the population began to decline, dropping to 4.5 million in 2005 according to the estimates by the Georgian Department of Statistics. This figure represents the total population, including the separatist regions of Abkhazia and Tskhivanli Region, whose population in 2005 was estimated at 178,000 and 49,200, respectively. Without Abkhazia and Tskhinvali...
Georgians are the predominant ethnic group in Georgia, according to the 2014 census 86.83% of the population. The proportion in 2014 was much higher than in preceding censuses as in 2014 Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region were not under government control and therefore not included. As a result of this the proportion of Ossetians and Abkhazianswas very low (0.39% and 0.02%, respectively).
The most widespread language group is the Kartvelian family, which includes Georgian, Svan, Mingrelian and Laz. The official languages of Georgia are Georgian, with Abkhaz having official status within the autonomous region of Abkhazia. Georgian is the primary language of 87.7 percent of the population, followed by 6.2 percent speaking Azerbaijani, 3.9 percent Armenian, 1.2 percent Russian, and 1 percent other languages.In the 2010, the United States federal government began the Teach and Learn English with Georgia program of promoting English literacy in elementary school. The goal was to import English speakers from across the world to ensure that all children in Georgia spoke English in four years and replace Russian as a second language.
Ethnic groups: 1. Georgian100.00% Languages: 1. Georgian(official) 71% 2. Russian9% 3. Azerbaijani6.3% Religions: 1. Orthodox Christian(official) 83.9% Age structure: 1. 0–14 years: 16.9%(male 401,3/female 359,8) 2. 15–64 years: 69.4%(male 1,509,8/female 1,610,8) 3. 65 years and over: 13.7%(male 232,7/female 383,2) (2012 resultat.) Median age: 1. total: 39.1 years 2. male: 36.6 years 3. female: 41.6 years (2011 est.) Population growth rate: 1. -0.327% (2012 est.) Sex ratio: 1. at birth: 1.11 male(s)/female 2. under 15 years: 1.15 male(s)/female 3. 15–64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female 4. 65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female 5. total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2012 est.) Infant mortality rate: 1. total: 14.68 deaths/1,000 live births 2. male: 16.58 deaths/1,000 live births 3. female: 12.59 deaths/1,000 live births (2012 est.) Life expectancy at birth: 1. total population: 74,5 years 2. male: 70,2 years 3. female: 78,6 years (2012 est.) Total fertility rate:1.71 children born/woman...
- 14.3‰ (2017)
- 3,728,600 (1 January 2021)
- 65.3 (2018)
- 1.5‰ (2017)
- Recent Macroeconomic Performance
- Foreign Direct Investment in Georgia
- International Money Transfers
- Institutional Reforms
- Structure of The Economy
- Human Development Index of Georgia
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Before the 20th century Georgia had a largely agrarian economy. Georgia's modern economy has traditionally revolved around Black Sea tourism, cultivation of citrus fruits, tea and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and the output of a large industrial sector producing wine, metals, machinery, chemicals, and textiles. Like many post-Soviet countries, Georgia went through a period of sharp economic decline during the 1990s, with high inflation and large budget-deficits, due to persistent tax evasion.In 1996 Georgia's budget deficit rose to as much as 6.2%. During that period international financial institutions played a critical role in Georgia's budgetary calculations. Multilateral and bilateral grants and loans totaled 116.4 million lari in 1997; they totaled 182.8 million lari in 1998. Economic recovery had been hampered by the separatist disputes in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, resistance to reform on the part of some corrupt and reactionary factions,[citation...
Over the last few years Georgian economy has been one of the fastest in the FSU. Since 2003's Rose Revolution, the new Government of Georgia implemented broad and comprehensive reforms, that touched every aspect of the country's life. Economic reforms were addressed to liberalization of the economy and provision of sustainable economic growth, based on the private sector development. Establishment of an attractive business environment led to significant inflow of Foreign Direct Investment in the country, facilitating high economic growthrates. In 2013, Georgia ranked in the top ten countries in the Emerging Market Energy Security Growth Prosperity Index, according to an article published by CISTRAN Financenews. The index identifies emerging nations that have strong growth potential based on energy reserves and GDP. Based on the economic reforms, Georgian economy has been diversified showing an upward tendency with average 10% of annual GDP real growth in 2004–2007 and reached the hi...
Large inflows of Foreign direct investment(FDI) have been a driving factor behind a rapid economic growth in Georgia since 2003. An attractive and liberal investment environment and equal approach to local and foreign investors makes the country an attractive destination for FDI. Stable economic development, liberal and free market oriented economic policy, 6 taxes only and reduced tax rates, reduced number of licenses and permissions, dramatically simplified administrative procedures, preferential trade regimes with foreign countries, advantageous geographic location, well developed, integrated and multimodal transport infrastructure, educated, skilled and competitive workforcepresents a solid ground for successful business in Georgia. In addition to other advantages, Georgia has Free Industrial Zones, where companies are exempt from all the corporate taxes. From 2003 to 2011, FDI in Georgia amounted to US$8511.5 million. The highest volume of FDI – 2,015.0 million USD was reached...
Since 2014, Georgia is part of the European Union's Free Trade Area, with the EU continuing to be the country's largest trading partner, accounting for over a quarter of Georgia's total trade turnover. Following the EU trade pact, 2015 was marked by further increase in bilateral trade, whereas trade with the Russian-led Commonwealth of Independent States(CIS) decreased by 22%. As of 2015, in the order of magnitude, Georgia's main exports were: copper ores and concentrates, ferroalloys, hazelnut, medications, nitrogen fertilizers, wine, crude oil, mineral water, non-denatured ethanoland spirits. In 2015, Georgia's main imports, in the order of magnitude, were: oil products, vehicles, hydrocarbons, copper ores and concentrates, mobile phones and other wireless phones, wheat, cigarettes, iron tubes and pipes, structures and parts of structures of iron. In 2019, Georgian exports to Armenia grew by 2% compared to previous year, while imports decreased by 7%. Georgia exported 98.3 million...
Money transferred from abroad to Georgia in 2019 amounted to USD 1.73 billion, according to figures released by Georgia's central bank. Money transfers from Russia, which has been the largest source of remittancesfor Georgia for many years already, stood at USD 428.89 million in 2019. Among other largest sources of remittances for Georgia are: Greece with USD 192.56 million in 2019, Italy – USD 239.17 million; the United States – USD 178.41 million; Ukraine – USD 47.3 million; Spain – USD 30.9 million; Turkey – USD 94.85 million; Kazakhstan – USD 26.63 million; the UK – USD 16.89 million; Israel – USD 162.55 million; Azerbaijan – USD 22.17 million; Germany – USD 49.81 million; France – USD 26.37 million; Canada– USD 14.21 million.
Under the Saakashvili administration, Georgia undertook a number of profound institutional reforms aimed at modernizing the economy and improving business climate. Kakha Bendukidze(1956–2014) was one of the most notable team members during his governance, coordinating the Ministry of Economical Reforms of Georgia. Implemented institutional reforms created an effective, professional and transparent public sector, motivated to protect the principles of democracy. Due to the economic deregulation policy, number of state regulated spheres sharply decreased, as well as regulation procedures were simplified. Georgia succeeded in fighting against corruption, that was the one of the main obstacles for development. Success of Georgia is recognized by different rating agencies. According to the Transparency International, Georgia is the top country in the post-Soviet region in terms of fighting corruption. According to the Corruption Perception Index published by Transparency International, G...
Unemployment has been a persistent problem in Georgia ever since the country gained independence in 1991. According to National Statistics Office (Georgia)unemployment rate stood at 16.9% in 2013 and it has been decreased at 11.6% in 2019. Nearly a half of Georgia's population lives in rural areas, where low-intensity self-sufficient farming provides the principal source of livelihood. Georgian statistics service puts individual persons into the category of self-employed workers. As of 2007 416,900 persons were listed as self-employed in agriculture. For large families, heads of households are typically described as "individual entrepreneurs", members of the family that help to cultivate land are classified as "unpaid family business workers". The use of this methodology produces relatively low unemployment rates for rural areas rather in urban areas and in Tbilisi.Neighbouring countries show somewhat similar results. For example, Armenia in 2015 had 18.26% unemployment rate, which...
In recent years Georgia has fully deregulated its electricity sector, and now there is free and open access to the market. Georgia has a sizable hydroelectric capacity, a factor that has become an increasingly important component of its energy supplies and policies. The country's topography and abundance of hydro resources give it serious potential to dominate hydroelectric markets in the Caucasus region. The Georgian Ministry of Energy estimates that there are around 26,000 rivers within Geo...
Currently, about 55% of the total labor force is employed in agriculture, though much of this is subsistence farming. Georgian agricultural production is beginning to recover following the devastation caused by the civil unrest and the necessary restructuring following the breakup of the Soviet Union. Livestock production is beginning to rebound, although it continues to be confronted by minor and sporadic disease outbreaks. Domestic grain production is increasing, and government invests in i...
Tourism in Georgia (country) is one of the fastest growing sectors of the local economy, which has high potential for further development. During recent years the number of visitors to Georgia increased significantly contributing to the growth of other tourism related sectors. In 2011, more, about 3 million visitors visited Georgia 40 percent more, than in 2010. To foster the development of the tourism sector the Government of Georgia invests heavily in the development of the transportation a...
Human Development Indexis a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and income indices used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.Georgia's HDI value for 2017 is 0.780— in the high human development category—positioning it at 70 out of 189 countries and territories. The rank is shared with Antigua and Barbuda. Between 2000 and 2017, Georgia's HDI value increased from 0.673 to 0.780, an increase of 15.9 percent or average annual increase of about 0.9 percent. Between 1990 and 2017, Georgia's life expectancy at birth increased by 3.1 years, mean years of schooling increased by 1.1 years and expected years of schooling increased by 2.6 years, also Georgia's GNI per capita increased by about 21.0%. However, it is misleading to compare values and rankings with those of previously published reports, because the underlying data and methods have changed over time.
- Constitutional framework
The Government of Georgia is the supreme body of executive power in Georgia that implements the domestic and foreign policies of the country. It consists of Prime Minister—the head of the government—and ministers and is accountable and responsible to the Parliament of Georgia. The current powers and responsibilities of the Government are governed by the amendments of the Constitution of Georgia passed in 2017 and 2018. From 14 May 1991 to 9 November 1996, the executive government of...
The Government of Georgia consists of a Prime Minister and ministers. The Prime Minister is the head of the government. In addition to ministers—who are in charge of ministries and manage a specific sector of public administration—one or several State Ministers can be ...
Upon the recognition of the full powers of the newly elected Parliament, the Government relinquishes its authority to the Parliament and continues to perform its duties until a new Prime Minister is appointed. In case of the resignation of the Prime Minister or the termination of
A vote of no confidence in the Government can be held if the motion is proposed by more than one third of the total number of the Members of Parliament. Together with a no confidence motion, the initiators nominate a candidate for Prime Minister, and the latter proposes a new gov
The supreme executive body of the first Georgian Republic was the Government of Republic elected by the National Council of Georgia on 26 May 1918. According to the Constitution, adopted on 21 February 1921, the Government consisted of the Chairperson, elected by the Parliament for one year and for no more than two consecutive terms, and ministers, invited by the Chairperson. Before the Constitution could be fully implemented, amid the Red Army invasion of Georgia, the country's government saile
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