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  1. Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine. John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216) was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. He lost the Duchy of Normandy and most of his other French lands to King Philip II of France, resulting in the collapse of the Angevin Empire and contributing to the subsequent growth in power of the French Capetian ...

    • Family History
    • Richard's Absence
    • Reign
    • Lost Lands and Disputes
    • Rebellion
    • Death
    • Legacy

    As a young man, John already had a reputation for treachery. He conspired sometimes with and sometimes against his elder brothers, Henry, Richard and Geoffrey. In 1184, John and Richard both claimed that they were the rightful heir to Aquitaine, one of many unfriendly encounters between the two.

    Richard, now King Richard I of England was absent on the Third Crusade from 1190 to 1194. John attempted to overthrow William Longchamp, the Bishop of Ely, who was Richard's designated 'chief justiciar' (like a Regent or Prime Minister). This was one of the events which led later writers to cast John as the villain in the legend of Robin Hood. John...

    Dispute with Arthur

    On Richard's death (6 April 1199) John was accepted in Normandy and England. He was crowned king at Westminster on 27 May, Ascension Day. However, Anjou, Maine, and Brittany declared for Arthur of Brittany, son of his elder brother Geoffrey. Arthur fought his uncle for the throne, with the support of Philip II of France. The conflict between Arthur and John had serious consequences for both. Finally, Philip recognised John over Arthur. The price paid was John's agreement to be Philip's vassal...

    Dealings with Bordeaux

    In 1203, John exempted the citizens and merchants of Bordeaux from the Grande Coutume, which was the principal tax on their exports. In exchange, the regions of Bordeaux, Bayonne and Dax pledged support against the French Crown. The unblocked ports gave Gascon merchants open access to the English wine market for the first time. The following year, John granted the same exemptions to La Rochelle and Poitou.

    Normandy seized by the French

    In June 1204, the fall of Rouen allowed Phillip to annex Normandy and also take parts of Anjou and Poitou. John needed money for his army, but the loss of the French territories, especially Normandy, greatly reduced the state income. A huge tax would be needed to reclaim these territories. He imposed the first income tax, raising the (then) huge sum of £70,000.

    Dispute with the Pope

    When Archbishop of Canterbury Hubert Walter died on 13 July 1205, John became involved in a dispute with Pope Innocent III. The Canterbury Cathedral Chapter claimed the sole right to elect Hubert's successor, and favoured Reginald, a candidate out of their midst. However, both the English bishops and the King wanted someone else to have this powerful office. The king wanted John de Gray, one of his own men. When their dispute could not be settled, the Chapter secretly elected one of their mem...

    Excommunication and papal supremacy

    In November 1209 John was excommunicated, and in February 1213, Innocent threatened stronger measures unless John submitted. The papal terms for submission were accepted in the presence of the papal legate Pandulph in May 1213 (according to Matthew Paris, at the Knights Templar Church at Dover); in addition, John offered to surrender the Kingdom of England to God and the Saints Peter and Paul for a feudal service of 1,000 marks annually, 700 for England and 300 for Ireland.With this submissio...

    Magna Carta

    The heavy scutage levy for the failed campaign was the last straw, and when John attempted to raise more in September 1214, many barons refused to pay. The barons no longer believed that John was capable of regaining his lost lands. In May 1215, Robert Fitz Walter led forty barons to renounce homage to the king at Northampton. The so-called 'Army of God' marched on London, taking the capital as well as taking Lincoln and Exeter. John met their leaders and with their French and Scots allies at...

    War with barons

    John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, and directed a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle. While a small force arrived in rebel-held London in November, the Scots under their king, Alexander II, invaded northern England. By the end of December, John was leading a murderous expedition in the north, culminating with the sacking of Berwick-upon-Tweed. The French retook Rochester and much of the south, although the royalists held on to Windsor and Dover. With...

    Retreating from the French invasion, John took a safe route around the marshy area of The Wash to avoid the rebel held area of East Anglia. His slow baggage train (including the Crown Jewels), took a direct route across it and was lost to the incoming tide. This dealt John a terrible blow, which affected his health and state of mind. Succumbing to ...

    King John's reign began with military defeats – he lost Normandy to Philip II of France in his first five years on the throne. His reign ended with England torn by civil war and himself on the verge of being forced out of power. In 1213, he made England a papal fief to resolve a conflict with the Catholic Church, and his rebellious barons forced hi...

    • 24 December 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxford
    • Richard I
    • 6 April 1199 - 19 October 1272
    • Henry III
  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › John_EnglandJohn England - Wikipedia

    John England may refer to: John C. England (1920–1941), U.S. Navy officer killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor. John England (politician) (1911–1985), Administrator of the Northern Territory of Australia and member of the Australian parliament. John England (bishop) (1786–1842), first Catholic Bishop of Charleston, South Carolina.

  3. John England (September 23, 1786, Cork, Ireland – April 11, 1842, Charleston, South Carolina) was an Irish-born American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the first bishop of the Diocese of Charleston, which then covered three Southern States. England previously served as a priest in Cork where he was active in the movement ...

  4. John is a character in James Goldman 's 1966 play The Lion in Winter, which dramatises Henry II's struggles with his wife and sons over the rule of his empire. John is portrayed as a spoiled, simple-minded pawn in the machinations of his brothers and Philip II of France.

  5. Johann von England ( englisch John) (* 10. Juni oder Juli 1266; † 1. August 1271) war ein englischer Prinz aus dem Haus Plantagenet. Er war der älteste Sohn des Thronfolgers Eduard und dessen Frau Eleonore von Kastilien. Seine Eltern brachen 1270 zu einem Kreuzzug ins Heilige Land auf.

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