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  1. Lithuanian (Lithuanian: lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language belonging to the Balto-Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family. It is the official language of Lithuania and one of the official languages of the European Union .

    • 3.0 million (2012)
    • Lithuania
  2. The Lithuanian language is a Baltic language. It is from Lithuania , spoken in a few countries in Europe , as well as in the Americas and Australia . Lithuanian

    • History
    • Classification
    • Geographic Distribution
    • Orthography
    • Phonology
    • Grammar
    • Vocabulary
    • Old Lithuanian
    • See Also
    • References

    Among Indo-European languages, Lithuanian is extraordinarily conservative, retaining many archaic features otherwise found only in ancient languages such as Sanskrit or Ancient Greek. For this reason, it is one of the most important sources in the reconstruction of the Proto-Indo-European language despite its late attestation (with the earliest texts dating only to c. 1500 AD). The phonology and especially the nominal morphology of Lithuanian is almost certainly the most conservative of any living Indo-European language,[2][3] although its verbal morphology is less conservative and may be exceeded by the conservatism of Modern Greek verbs, which maintain a number of archaic features lacking in Lithuanian, such as the synthetic aorist and mediopassiveforms. The Proto-Balto-Slavic languages branched off directly from Proto-Indo-European, then branched into Proto-Baltic and Proto-Slavic. Proto-Baltic branched off into Proto-West Baltic and Proto-East Baltic.[4] Baltic languages passed...

    Lithuanian is one of two living Baltic languages, along with Latvian. An earlier Baltic language, Old Prussian, was extinct by the 18th century; the other Western Baltic languages, Curonian and Sudovian, became extinct earlier. Some theories, such as that of Jānis Endzelīns, considered that the Baltic languages form their own distinct branch of the family of Indo-European languages, but the most widely accepted opinion is the one that suggests the union of Baltic and Slavic languages into a distinct sub-family of Balto-Slavic languages amongst the Indo-European family of languages. Such an opinion was first represented by the likes of August Schleicher, and to a certain extent, Antoine Meillet. Endzelīns thought that the similarity between Baltic and Slavic was explicable through language contact while Schleicher, Meillet and others argued for a genetic kinship between the two families. An attempt to reconcile the opposing stances was made by Jan Michał Rozwadowski. He proposed that...

    Lithuanian is spoken mainly in Lithuania. It is also spoken by ethnic Lithuanians living in today's Belarus, Latvia, Poland, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, as well as by sizable emigrant communities in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Estonia, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, the United States, Uruguay, and Spain. 2,955,200 people in Lithuania (including 3,460 Tatars), or about 80% of the 1998 population, are native Lithuanian speakers; most Lithuanian inhabitants of other nationalities also speak Lithuanian to some extent. The total worldwide Lithuanian-speaking population is about 3,200,000.

    Template:IPA notice Lithuanian uses the Latin script supplemented with diacritics. It has 32 letters. In the collation order, y follows immediately after į (called i nosinė), because both y and į represent the same long vowel Template:IPAblink: In addition, the following digraphs are used, but are treated as sequences of two letters for collation purposes. The digraph ch represents a single sound, the velar fricative Template:IPAblink, while dz and džare pronounced like straightforward combinations of their component letters (sounds): Dz dz Template:IPAblink (dzė), Dž dž Template:IPAblink (džė), Ch ch Template:IPAblink(cha). The Lithuanian writing system is largely phonemic, i.e., one letter usually corresponds to a single phoneme (sound). There are a few exceptions: for example, the letter i represents either the vowel Template:IPAblink, as in the English sit, or is silent and merely indicates that the preceding consonant is palatalized. The latter is largely the case when i occurs...

    Consonants

    All Lithuanian consonants except /j/ have two variants: the non-palatalized one represented by the IPA symbols in the chart, and the palatalized one (i.e., /b/ – /bʲ/, /d/ – /dʲ/, /ɡ/ – /ɡʲ/, and so on). The consonants /f/, /x/, /ɣ/ and their palatalized variants are only found in loanwords. Consonants preceding the front vowels /ɪ/, /iː/, /ɛ/, /æː/ and /eː/, as well as any palatalized consonant or /j/ are always moderately palatalized (a feature Lithuanian has in common with the Polish, Bela...

    Vowels

    Lithuanian has six long vowels and five short ones (not including a disputed phoneme marked in brackets). Length has traditionally been considered the distinctive feature, though short vowels are also more centralized and long vowels more peripheral: The presence of a short mid front unrounded vowel [e̞] is disputed and this sound is not pronounced by many, if not most, speakers in favour of [ɛ]. In standard Lithuanian vowels [äː] and [ɐ] generally cannot be pronounced after any palatalized c...

    Diphthongs

    Lithuanian is traditionally described as having nine diphthongs, ai,au,ei,eu,oi,ou,ui,ie, anduo.However, some approaches (i.e., Schmalstieg 1982) treat them as vowel sequences rather than diphthongs; indeed, the longer component depends on the type of stress, whereas in diphthongs, the longer segment is fixed. Lithuanian long stressed syllables can have either a rising or a falling tone. In specialized literature, they are marked with a tilde [ ̃] or an acute accent [ ́] respectively. The ton...

    The Lithuanian language is a highly inflected languagein which the relationships between parts of speech and their roles in a sentence are expressed by numerous inflections. In Lithuanian, there are two grammatical genders for nouns – masculine and feminine, and there are three genders for adjectives, pronouns, numerals and participles: masculine, feminine and neuter. Every attribute has to follow the gender and the number of the noun. The neuter forms of other parts of speech are used with a subjectof an undefined gender (a pronoun, an infinitive etc.). There are twelve noun, five adjective, and one (masculine and feminine) participle declensions.[12] Nouns and other parts of nominal morphology are declined in seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative, and vocative. In older Lithuanian texts three additional varieties of the locative case are found: illative, adessive and allative. The most common are the illative, which still is used, mostly in...

    Indo-European vocabulary

    Lithuanian retains cognates to many words found in classical languages, such as Sanskrit and Latin. These words are descended from Proto-Indo-European. A few examples are the following: 1. Lith. and Skt. sūnus(son) 2. Lith. and Skt. avis and Lat. ovis(sheep) 3. Lith. dūmas and Skt. dhūmas and Lat. fumus(fumes, smoke) 4. Lith. antras and Skt. antaras(second, the other) 5. Lith. vilkas and Skt. vṛkas(wolf) 6. Lith. ratas and Lat. rota (wheel) and Skt. rathas(carriage). 7. Lith. senis and Lat. s...

    Loanwords

    In a 1934 book entitled Die Germanismen des Litauischen. Teil I: Die deutschen Lehnwörter im Litauischen, K. Alminauskis found 2,770 loanwords, of which about 130 were of uncertain origin. The majority of the loanwords were found to have been derived from the Polish, Belarusian, and German languages, with some evidence that these languages all acquired the words from contacts and trade with Prussia during the era of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.[13] Loanwords comprised about 20% of the vocabu...

    The language of the earliest Lithuanian writings, in the 16th and 17th centuries, is known as Old Lithuanianand differs in some significant respects from the Lithuanian of today. Besides the specific differences given below, it should be noted that nouns, verbs and adjectives still had separate endings for the dual number. The dual persists today in some dialects. Example:

    • Aspectos Históricos, Sociales Y Culturales
    • Descripción Lingüística
    • Vocabulario
    • Sistema de Escritura
    • Ejemplos
    • Véase también
    • Enlaces Externos

    Distribución geográfica

    El lituano se habla principalmente en Lituania. No obstante, existen minorías de lituanohablantes en Alemania, Argentina, Australia, Armenia, Bielorrusia, Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Colombia, México, Moldavia, Estados Unidos, España, Estonia, Kazajistán, Kirguistán, Letonia, Polonia, Reino Unido, Rumania, Rusia, Suecia, Tayikistán, Turkmenistán, Uruguay, Uzbekistán y Venezuela, Georgia. Alrededor del 80% de los habitantes de Lituania(unos tres millones de personas) habla lituano. En total, unos c...

    Estatus oficial

    El lituano es la lengua oficial de Lituania y uno de los idiomas oficiales de la Unión Europea; también en Puńsk, en Polonia, junto al polaco, son los dos idiomas oficiales.

    Dialectos

    El idioma lituano tiene dos dialectos principales: alto lituano (Aukštaičių), en cuyo variante occidental se basa el lituano estándar y samogitiano(bajo lituano, Žemaičių/Žemaitių). Entre ambos hay escasa inteligibilidad mutua. Aquíse puede ver un mapa de la distribución geográfica de ambos dialectos.

    Clasificación

    El lituano es uno de los dos idiomas bálticos aún vivos (junto con el letón). Las lenguas bálticas forman su propia rama dentro de las lenguas indoeuropeas.

    Fonología

    El inventario consonántico del lituano se resume en el siguiente cuadro:[2]​ Todas las consonantes salvo la /j/ tienen dos formas, la palatalizada y la no palatalizada. Hay dos maneras de describir el sistema vocálico lituano. El modelo tradicional tiene seis vocales largas y cinco cortas, con la longitud como característica distintiva:[3]​ Sin embargo, más de un investigador sugiere que el rasgo diferenciador puede ser la contraposición de vocal tensa frente a relajada, o al menos tan import...

    Gramática

    El lituano es un idioma altamente flexivo, en donde las relaciones entre las partes de la oración y sus funciones en ella se expresan por medio de numerosas flexiones. Hay dos géneros gramaticales en lituano, el masculino y el femenino. No hay género neutro, aunque existen algunas formas que se derivan de un primitivo género neutro, sobre todo adjetivos atributivos. Posee un acento léxico libre y móvil, y además se caracteriza por un acento entonativo. Tiene cinco declinaciones para los susta...

    Los números de uno a veinte en lituano son: 1 vienas, 2 du, 3 trys, 4 keturi, 5 penki, 6 šeši, 7 septyni, 8 aštuoni, 9 devyni, 10 dešimt, 11 vienuolika, 12 dvylika, 13 trylika, 14 keturiolika, 15 p...

    Al igual que muchos idiomas indoeuropeos de Europa, el lituano utiliza el alfabeto latino modificado. Se compone de 32 letras. El orden alfabético presenta una variante: la Y se coloca entre la I con ogonek(Į) y la J. El acento agudo, el acento grave, la tilde y el macron se pueden usar para marcar el acento y la cantidad vocálica. Sin embargo, no se suelen escribir, salvo en diccionarios y donde se necesitan en pos de la claridad. Además, se usan los siguientes dígrafos, pero se consideran secuencias de dos letras para cuestiones de orden alfabético. Hay que reseñar que el dígrafo "ch" representa la velar fricativa sorda, mientras que los otros son una simple adición de sus letras componentes.

    Algunas palabras y frases de ejemplo: 1. Labas! -¡Hola! 2. Laba diena! - ¡Buenos días! 3. taip - sí 4. ne - no 5. Ate! - ¡adiós! 6. Gero apetito! (Gen.) - ¡buen provecho! 7. Į sveikatą! (Ac.) - ¡salud! 8. Atsiprašau! - ¡perdón!(literalmente: me disculpo) 9. Arbatpinigiai - propina(literalmente: dinero para el té) 10. Prašom! - ¡por favor! 11. Ačiū! - ¡gracias! 12. (labai) gerai - (muy) bien 13. Dievas - dios 14. Vanduo - agua 15. Žemė - tierra

    Ethnologue report for Language (enlace roto disponible en Internet Archive; véase el historial, la primera versión y la última).
  3. Reproducir medios. Un hablante de lituano. lituano (Lituano: lietuvių kalba) es un Lengua báltica oriental hablado en el Región báltica. Es el lenguaje de Lituanos y el idioma oficial de Lituania así como uno de los Lenguajes oficiales de El unión Europea.

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