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  1. María I de Inglaterra. «María Tudor» redirige aquí. Para la hermana de Enrique VIII, véase María Tudor, duquesa de Suffolk . de 1553 - 17 de noviembre de 1558. ( Palacio de Greenwich, 18 de febrero de 1516 - Palacio de St James, 17 de noviembre de 1558) fue reina de Inglaterra e Irlanda desde el 6 o el 19 de julio. de 1553 hasta su muerte.

    • Birth and Family
    • Childhood
    • Adolescence
    • Adulthood
    • Accession
    • Reign
    • Death
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Style, and Arms
    • Genealogy

    Mary was born on 18 February 1516 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, England. She was the only child of King Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon to survive infancy. Her mother had suffered many miscarriages. Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn daughter and three short-lived or stillborn sons, including Henry, Duke of Cornwall. Mary was baptised into the Catholic faith at the Church of the Observant Friars in Greenwich three days after her birth. Her godparents included Lord Chancellor Thomas Wolsey, her great-aunt Catherine of York, Countess of Devon, and Agnes Howard, Duchess of Norfolk. Henry VIII's cousin, once removed, Margaret Pole, Countess of Salisbury, stood sponsor for Mary's confirmation, which was conducted immediately after the baptism. The following year, Mary became a godmother herself when she was named as one of the sponsors of her cousin Frances Brandon. In 1520, the Countess of Salisbury was appointed Mary'...

    Mary was a precocious child. In July 1520, when scarcely four and a half years old, she entertained a visiting French delegation with a performance on the virginals (a type of harpsichord). A great part of her early education came from her mother, who consulted the Spanish humanist Juan Luis Vives for advice and commissioned him to write De Institutione Feminae Christianae, a treatise on the education of girls. By the age of nine, Mary could read and write Latin. She studied French, Spanish, music, dance, and perhaps Greek. Henry VIII doted on his daughter and boasted to the Venetian ambassador Sebastian Giustiniani that Mary never cried.Mary had a fair complexion with pale blue eyes and red or reddish-golden hair. She was ruddy-cheeked, a trait she inherited from her father. Despite his affection for Mary, Henry was deeply disappointed that his marriage had produced no sons. By the time Mary was nine years old, it was apparent that Henry and Catherine would have no more children, l...

    Meanwhile, the marriage of Mary's parents was in jeopardy. Disappointed at the lack of a male heir, and eager to remarry, Henry attempted to have his marriage to Catherine annulled, but Pope Clement VII refused his request. Henry claimed, citing biblical passages (Leviticus 20:21), that his marriage to Catherine was unclean because she was the widow of his brother Arthur (Mary's uncle). Catherine claimed that her marriage to Arthur was never consummated and so was not a valid marriage. Indeed a previous pope, Julius II, had issued a dispensation on that basis. Clement may have been reluctant to act because he was influenced by Charles V, Catherine's nephew and Mary's former betrothed, whose troops had surrounded and occupied Rome in the War of the League of Cognac. From 1531, Mary was often sick with irregular menstruation and depression, although it is not clear whether this was caused by stress, puberty or a more deep-seated disease. She was not permitted to see her mother, whom H...

    In 1536, Queen Anne fell from the king's favour and was beheaded. Elizabeth, like Mary, was declared illegitimate and stripped of her succession rights. Within two weeks of Anne's execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who urged her husband to make peace with Mary. Henry insisted that Mary recognise him as head of the Church of England, repudiate papal authority, acknowledge that the marriage between her parents was unlawful, and accept her own illegitimacy. She attempted to reconcile with him by submitting to his authority as far as "God and my conscience" permitted, but was eventually bullied into signing a document agreeing to all of Henry's demands. Reconciled with her father, Mary resumed her place at court. Henry granted her a household, which included the reinstatement of Mary's favourite, Susan Clarencieux. Mary's privy purse accounts for this period, kept by Mary Finch, show that Hatfield House, the Palace of Beaulieu (also called Newhall), Richmond and Hunsdon were among h...

    On 6 July 1553, at the age of 15, Edward VI died of a lung infection, possibly tuberculosis. He did not want the crown to go to Mary because he feared she would restore Catholicism and undo his and their father's reforms, and so he planned to exclude her from the line of succession. His advisers told him that he could not disinherit only one of his half-sisters: he would have to disinherit Elizabeth as well, even though she was a Protestant. Guided by John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, and perhaps others, Edward excluded both from the line of succession in his will. Contradicting the Succession Act, which restored Mary and Elizabeth to the line of succession, Edward named Dudley's daughter-in-law Lady Jane Grey, the granddaughter of Henry VIII's younger sister Mary, as his successor. Lady Jane's mother was Frances Brandon, Mary's cousin and goddaughter. Just before Edward VI's death, Mary was summoned to London to visit her dying brother, but was warned that the summons was a...

    One of Mary's first actions as queen was to order the release of the Roman Catholic Duke of Norfolk and Stephen Gardiner from imprisonment in the Tower of London, as well as her kinsman Edward Courtenay. Mary understood that the young Lady Jane was essentially a pawn in Dudley's scheme, and Dudley was the only conspirator of rank executed for high treason in the immediate aftermath of the coup. Lady Jane and her husband, Lord Guildford Dudley, though found guilty, were kept under guard in the Tower rather than immediately executed, while Lady Jane's father, Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, was released. Mary was left in a difficult position, as almost all the Privy Counsellors had been implicated in the plot to put Lady Jane on the throne. She appointed Gardiner to the council and made him both Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor, offices he held until his death in November 1555. Susan Clarencieux became Mistress of the Robes. On 1 October 1553, Gardiner crowned Mary at Westmin...

    After Philip's visit in 1557, Mary again thought she was pregnant, with a baby due in March 1558. She decreed in her will that her husband would be the regent during the minority of their child.But no child was born, and Mary was forced to accept that her half-sister Elizabeth would be her lawful successor. Mary was weak and ill from May 1558. In pain, possibly from ovarian cysts or uterine cancer, she died on 17 November 1558, aged 42, at St James's Palace, during an influenza epidemic that also claimed Pole's life later that day. She was succeeded by Elizabeth. Philip, who was in Brussels, wrote to his sister Joan: "I felt a reasonable regret for her death." Although Mary's will stated that she wished to be buried next to her mother, she was interred in Westminster Abbey on 14 December, in a tomb she eventually shared with Elizabeth. The inscription on their tomb, affixed there by James I when he succeeded Elizabeth, is Regno consortes et urna, hic obdormimus Elizabetha et Maria s...

    At her funeral service, John White, bishop of Winchester, praised Mary: "She was a king's daughter; she was a king's sister; she was a king's wife. She was a queen, and by the same title a king also."She was the first woman to successfully claim the throne of England, despite competing claims and determined opposition, and enjoyed popular support and sympathy during the earliest parts of her reign, especially from the Roman Catholics of England. Protestant writers at the time, and since, have often condemned Mary's reign. By the 17th century, the memory of her religious persecutions had led to the adoption of her sobriquet "Bloody Mary". John Knox attacked her in his First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women (1558), and she was prominently vilified in Actes and Monuments (1563), by John Foxe. Foxe's book remained popular throughout the following centuries and helped shape enduring perceptions of Mary as a bloodthirsty tyrant.Historian Lucy Wooding notes miso...

    When Mary ascended the throne, she was proclaimed under the same official style as Henry VIII and Edward VI: "Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, and of the Church of England and of Irelandon Earth Supreme Head". The title Supreme Head of the Church was repugnant to Mary's Catholicism, and she omitted it after Christmas 1553. Under Mary's marriage treaty with Philip, the official joint style reflected not only Mary's but also Philip's dominions and claims: "Philip and Mary, by the grace of God, King and Queen of England, France, Naples, Jerusalem, and Ireland, Defenders of the Faith, Princes of Spain and Sicily, Archdukes of Austria, Dukes of Milan, Burgundy and Brabant, Counts of Habsburg, Flanders and Tyrol".This style, which had been in use since 1554, was replaced when Philip inherited the Spanish Crown in 1556 with "Philip and Mary, by the Grace of God King and Queen of England, Spain, France, both the Sicilies, Jerusalem and...

    Both Mary and Philip were descended from John of Gaunt, the Duke of Lancaster, a relationship that was used to portray Philip as an English king.

  2. María I de Inglaterra, retrato feito por Antonis Mor, 1554. María I, nada o 18 de febreiro de 1516 e finada o 17 de novembro de 1558, foi raíña de Inglaterra e Irlanda desde o 6 o 19 de xullo de 1553 ata a súa morte. É coñecida polo seu intento de abrogar a Reforma anglicana, que comezara durante o reinado do seu pai, Henrique VIII.

    • Infancia Y Primeros años
    • Ascensu
    • Política Interior
    • Relixón
    • Política Esterior
    • Comerciu Ya Ingresos
    • Muerte
    • Apariencia
    • Títulos Y Tratamientos
    • Bibliografía

    María foi la única fía d'Enrique VIII y la so primer esposa, Catalina d'Aragón que sobrevivió a la infancia. La so madre sufrió albuertos en delles ocasiones, una hermana nació muerta y tres hermanos apenes vivieron. Per parte de madre yera nieta de Fernandu II d'Aragón y de Sabela I de Castiella. Nació nel Palaciu de Placentia en Greenwich, Londres. Foi bautizada col cardenal Wolsey como padrín. Foi una neña enfermiza con problemes de visión y dolores de cabeza. John Hussey, barón Hussey de Sleaford foi'l so chambelán, y la so muyer, Lady Anne, fía de George Grey, una de los sos ayudantes. A pesar de los sos problemes de salú, foi una neña precoz. Gran parte de la reconocencia de la so esmerada educación deber a la so madre, quien cuntó pa ello col eruditu Xuan Lluis Vives.Tamién estudió griegu, ciencies y música. En xunetu de 1521, con apenes cinco años y mediu, entretenía a les visites tocando'l virxinal, un pequeñu clavicémbalu. Enrique VIII adorar y presumía frente a les sos am...

    Eduardu VI morrió de tuberculosis en xunetu de 1553. Eduardu VI, según el so padre Enrique VIII, nun quería que María heredara la corona pola medrana a que reimplantara el catolicismu y desfixera toles reformes feches hasta esi momentu. Por ello entamó escluyila de la llinia socesoria, daqué que-y desaconseyaron el so asesores yá que tendría qu'escluyir tamién a la so hermana Sabela. Empuestu por John Dudley, duque de Northumberland, Eduardu VI escluyó a dambes de la llinia de socesión nel so testamentu. Eduardu VI consiguió que Lady Jane Grey, nuera de Dudley, nieta de la reina de Francia y sobrina d'Enrique VIII, fora la que-y asocediera. Sicasí la esclusión de María ya Sabela contradicía l'Acta de Socesión de 1544 na que se restauraba a María ya Sabela na llinia socesoria. A puntu de morrer Eduardu VI, la so hermana María foi unviada de vuelta a Londres dende'l castiellu de Framlingham (Suffolk), onde se camudara apocayá n'abandonando la residencia del Palaciu de Beaulieu. Sicasí...

    Les insurrecciones nun tardaron en manifestase al reafitase nel so designio de casase con Felipe II, de quien taba namorada. Henry Grey volvió proclamar que la so fía Lady Jane Grey yera la reina. En sofitu a la princesa Sabela, Thomas Wyatt lideró una fuercia que, procedente de Kent, consiguió algamar Londres. Sicasí, entartallada esta rebelión, Henry Grey, la so fía Lady Jane Grey y el so home fueron encarcelaos por alta traición y executaos. Sabela, a pesar de declarar la so inocencia nel casu Wyatt, foi encarcelada mientres dos meses na Torre de Londres y más tarde quedaría baxu arrestu domiciliariu nel Palaciu de Woodstock. Según les condiciones del contratu de matrimoniu, a Felipe llamaríase-y «Rei d'Inglaterra», tolos documentos oficiales, incluyíes les actes del Parllamentu, roblar con dambos nomes y el Parllamentu tenía de ser llamáu so l'autoridá conxunta. Acuñáronse tamién monedes cola efixe de dambos. Nel contratu de matrimoniu dispúnxose qu'Inglaterra nun taría obligada...

    María I esmolecer d'asuntos rellacionaos cola relixón católica, siempres refugó la rotura con Roma entamada pol so padre y l'establecimientu del protestantismu que fixo'l so hermanu Eduardo. Restauró les rellaciones col papáu y col fíu del so institutriz la condesa de Salisbury, el cardenal Reginald Pole, quien tres la execución de Thomas Cranmer foi Arzobispu de Canterbury. María tamién persuadió al Parllamentu pa refugar les lleis protestantes aprobaes por Enrique VIII. Pa consiguir un alcuerdu tuvo que faer una importante concesión: decenes de miles d'acres de tierres de conventos confiscadas pol so padre nun seríen devueltes por cuenta de la influencia que teníen los nuevos dueños por aciu esta distribución. El reestablecimientu de les lleis contra los herexes fueron aprobaes en 1554. Tamién s'empezó una reforma monetaria supervisada por Thomas Greshampa compensar la dramática devaluación que caracterizó los últimos años del reináu d'Enrique VIII y el del so fíu Eduardu VI, anqu...

    La creación del Reinu d'Irlanda en 1542 nun foi reconocida pola Europa católica, pero en 1555, María I llogró una bulda papalna que confirmaba qu'ella y el so maríu yeren los monarques d'Irlanda. D'esta miente la Ilesia aceptó'l llazu d'unión ente los reinos d'Inglaterra ya Irlanda. Los condaos de Laois y Offaly fueron conocíos como Condáu del Rei (King's County) y Condáu de la Reina (Queen's County) enantes de la independencia d'Irlanda pa fomentar reconquistar de los Tudor. Les sos principales ciudaes llamáronse Maryborough (Portlaoise oficialmente dende 1920) y Philipstown (Daingean oficialmente dende 1920) respeutivamente. Numberosos colonos ingleses asítiase nes tierres del centru p'amenorgar los ataques de Pale, la colonia cercana a Dublín. N'heredando'l tronu d'España dempués de que'l so padre abdicara, Felipe II volvió a Inglaterra dende marzu hasta xunetu de 1557 pa convencela por que sofitara a España nuna guerra contra Francia (les guerres italianes). Como esistía una vie...

    Mientres los años del reináu de María la persistente agua y los hinchentes subsiguientes llevaron a la fame. Otru problema foi l'amenorgamientu del comerciu d'Amberes.A pesar del matrimoniu de María con Felipe, Inglaterra nun se benefició del comerciu por demás codalosu d'España col Nuevu Mundu. Los españoles guardaben los sos rutes comercialescelosamente, y María nun podía tolerar el comerciu ilexítimu (en forma de piratería) porque ella taba casada col rei d'España. Nun intentu por aumentar el comerciu y rescatar a la economía inglesa, los conseyeros de María siguieron cola política de Northumberland y la busca de nueves oportunidaes comerciales. Financieramente, el réxime de María trató de conciliar una forma moderna de gobiernu, col correspondiente aumentu del gastu, con un sistema medieval de recoyer los impuestos, tases y derechos. María caltuvo a William Paulet, 1ᵉʳ marqués de Winchester, como Tesoreru Mayor y asignáu por que supervisara el sistema de recaldación d'ingresos....

    Mientres el so reináu sufrió dos falsos embaranzos, polo que s'especuló que podría debese a la presión por niciar un herederu, anque los síntomes físicos, ente los que s'incluyía lactancia y depués la perda de visión, faíen abarruntar que se trataba de dalgún desorde hormonal, tal como un tumor de la glándula pituitaria. María I decretó nel so testamentu que'l so home tendría d'adquirir la rexencia en casu de que la so descendencia nun cumpliera la mayoría d'edá. La so muerte produció'l 17 de payares de 1558 , a los 42 años, nel Palaciu de St. James. A pesar de que'l so testamentu recoyía la so voluntá de ser soterrada xunto a so madre, finalmente foi soterrada na Abadía de Westminster, que más tarde compartiría con Sabela I.

    Como amuesa la miniatura, María tenía, al igual que los sos padres, una complexón pálida, güeyos azules bien claros y pelo de color coloráu o acoloratáu-doráu. Tamién tenía mexelles rubicundas, una traza heredada del so padre.

    18 de febreru de 1516 - 23 de mayu de 1533: Princesa María Tudor (Princess Mary of England).
    23 de mayu de 1533 - 19 de xunetu de 1553: Lady María Tudor.
    19 de xunetu de 1553 - 17 de payares de 1558: La so Maxestá la Reina d'Inglaterra ya Irlanda.
    16 de xineru de 1556 - 17 de payares de 1558: La so Maxestá la Reina [consorte]d'España y Sicilia.
    Eakins, L. Y. (2004). "Mary I"
    «Mary I». (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica(Undécima edición). Londres: Cambridge University Press.
    Sub voce"Mary Tudor" (1910). The Catholic Encyclopedia (Volume IX). Nueva York: Robert Appleton Company.
    Williamson, D. (1998). The Kings and Queens of England Nueva York: National Portrait Gallery.
  3. María de Inglaterra puede referirse a: . La reina María I de Inglaterra (María la sangrienta-Bloody Mary-).; La reina María II de Inglaterra (en cuyo honor se compuso la Música para los funerales de la Reina Mary de Henry Purcell).

  4. María I de Coucy (abril de 1366 - después del 3 de marzo de 1405) fue dama de Coucy y de Oisy, y condesa de Soissons desde 1397. Obtuvo el título de suo jure condesa de Soissons el 18 de febrero de 1397, tras la muerte de su padre, Enguerrand VII de Coucy.

  5. María I, de nombre María Estuardo (en inglés, Mary Stuart, Mary Stewart o Marie Steuart; [iii] 8 de diciembre de 1542-8 de febrero de 1587), fue reina de Escocia del 14 de diciembre de 1542 al 24 de julio de 1567. Única hija legítima de Jacobo V, con seis días de edad sucedió a su padre en el trono escocés.

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