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  1. › wiki › Mexico_CityMexico City - Wikipedia

    Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial centers in the world. [16] It is located in the Valley of Mexico in the high central plateau, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs or demarcaciones territoriales, which are in turn divided into neighborhoods or colonias .

    • 1,485 km² (573 sq mi)
    • 55/56
    • 2,240 m (7,350 ft)
    • Mexico
  2. Es el núcleo urbano más grande de México y su principal centro político, económico, social, académico, financiero, empresarial, turístico, cultural, de comunicaciones y de entretenimiento. En 2018, tuvo un PIB nominal de 568 445 000 000 (quinientos sesenta y ocho mil cuatrocientos cuarenta y cinco millones) de dólares.

  3. Mexico City ( Spanish: Ciudad de México; abbreviated CDMX) is the capital and largest city of Mexico. It is also one of the most populous and polluted cities in the world. The Aztec people were here before the Spanish came and made Mexico City. It was founded in 1521 by Hernán Cortés.

    • The Aztec City-State of Tenochtitlan
    • Colonial Period 1521–1821
    • Independence to The Mexican Revolution
    • 20th Century to Present
    • See Also
    • Further Reading
    • External Links


    The Aztecs were one of the last of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples who migrated to this part of the Valley of Mexico after the fall of the Toltec Empire. Existing inhabitants resisted their presence, but the Aztecs established a city on a small island on the western side of Lake Texcoco. The Aztecs themselves had a story about how their city was founded after their principal god, Huitzilopochtli, led them to the island. According to the story, the god indicated their new home with a sign, an eag...

    Tenochtitlan at its height

    Thirteen years after the founding of Tenochtitlan, the population of the islet had grown and there was internal strife. A portion of the population left and went to the nearby island of Tlatelolco, establishing a monarchy there, with their first ruler being Acamapitzin. Shortly thereafter, the people of Tenochtitlan had their own monarchy. The two cities became rivals. Eventually, Tenochtitlan conquered Tlatelolco eliminating its rulers and incorporated the city into Tenochtitlan and was name...

    Growth of city

    After the conquest, the Spaniards generally left the existing Nahua city-states or altepetl largely intact, but Mexico City was an exception since it became the seat of Spanish political power. It was established as a ciudad de españoles (city of Spaniards) and initially kept the remnants of its prehispanic place name, being called "Mexico-Tenochtitlan". No longer the seat of Aztec power, the Spaniards allowed two areas to be ruled through Nahua governors (gobernadores) and town councils (cab...

    Flooding, the Desagüe, and Environmental Changes

    Since Mexico City was built on an island in the center of a large but shallow lake system, flooding became a serious issue during the colonial period. Spaniards denuded hillsides of their trees from the early conquest era on, so that mud and silt made the lake system even shallower, exacerbating the periodic flooding. Spaniards had not maintained the Aztec drainage system, which included a major dike. Major floods in Mexico City were recorded in 1555, 1580, 1604, and 1607, Indian labor was di...

    Political power

    By the 1530s, Mexico City was given jurisdiction over other town councils of New Spain[citation needed]and quickly established itself as the most populous and powerful city in the Americas. Like that of the Aztecs, the Spaniards' grasp extended well beyond the capital and the Valley of Mexico—only much farther. As the site of the viceroyalty of New Spain and archbishopric of Mexico, as well as economic elites, Mexico City was the center of power. Socially, the viceregal government and ecclesi...

    Mexican Independence and Iturbide

    When rebellion against Spanish rule broke out, interests outside of Mexico City would be represented by Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, José María Morelos and others. While the nobility in Mexico City also did not like the absolute colonial system, their goal was limited representation and autonomy within the Spanish empire. They decided to make their stand in 1820, after the rural insurgency had been going on for several years, choosing Colonel Agustín de Iturbide to push their interests m...

    U.S.-Mexican War

    During the Mexican–American War, American forces marched toward Mexico City itself after capturing Veracruz. President Santa Anna first tried blocking their way at Cerro Gordo in the Veracruz highlands. The first battle to defend Mexico City itself was the Battle of Contreras. A fortified hacienda in the town of San Antonio covered the southeastern approach, while the town of San Ángel covered the southwestern. Between them lay a vast, seemingly impenetrable lava field, called El Pedrégal. Ge...

    Reform War and Second Empire

    Peace did not last long. Santa Anna's losses to the Americans created great discontent among his political opponents who coalesced to call themselves the Reform movement or the Liberals. Those who supported Santa Anna's regime and the power of the Catholic Church were called the Conservatives. The Reform War lasted from 1857 to 1861. For a time, the two factions had parallel governments with the Liberals in Veracruz and the Conservatives in Mexico City. When the Liberals were victorious, Libe...

    Loss of democracy and recovery

    Mexico City lost its democratically elected mayor and legislature/city council in 1928, which left its urban middle class and workers without legislative redress. The mayor was appointed by the President of Mexico. Residents of the densely populated capital became dependent on the newly formed Party of National Revolution (PNR) to dress its concerns. During the Lázaro Cárdenas presidency (1934–40), the government reduced spending in the capital, leaving infrastructure, such as water, sewage,...

    Historic commemorations

    In the historic center of Mexico City, the Plutarco Elías Calles administration (1924–28) began placing colonial-style tiles on street corners "on each street that has some history or legend that merits remembrance by means of their old names." This was part of the government's aim to shape public memory in the city, particularly of the Revolution. Many street names were changed to commemorate the deeds of revolutionary heroes, including Francisco Madero, José María Pino Suárez, whose democra...

    Growth of the city

    In 1900, the population of Mexico City was about 500,000. By the end of the 19th century, the perimeter of the city had noticeably grown again and by 1929, the boundaries lost any sense of regularity. The city had grown to reach Tacuba, Nextengo, Popotla, east of now Metro San Lázaro and Metro Tasqueña, Miguel Ángel de Quevedo to the south and Lomas de Chapultepec and Azcapotzalco to the west and north as the last of the lake dried up. The city continued to modernize at a rapid pace. Old pala...


    1. Craib, Raymond B. "Mexico City Modern: A Review Essay." Scapegoat Journal (2014) online

    In Spanish

    1. Nueva Grandeza Mexicana, Salvador Novo. Mexico: Ediciones Era, 1967. 2. Páginas sobre la Ciudad de Mexico: 1469–1987. Mexico: Consejo de la Crónica de la Ciudad de México, 1988.

    Primary sources

    1. Gallo, Rubén. The Mexico City Reader(Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 2004) 2. Cervantes de Salazar, Francisco. Life in the Imperial and Loyal City of Mexico in New Spain, and the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico(1554), Translated by Minnie Lee Barrett Shepard et al. Austin: University of Texas Press 1954. 3. Grandeza Mexicana (1604). Bernardo de Balbuena

  4. The total population is 57,930,969, 45.97% of Mexico's total. The mean city population is 579,310. The median city in population is Villahermosa. The mean city growth from 2010 to 2020 is 20.77%, compared to a national growth of 12.17%. [1] The median city in population growth is Ixtapaluca. See also [ edit]