Middle Georgian: 11th/12th–17th/18th centuries; Modern Georgian: 17th/18th century – present; Georgian shares an ancestral language with Mingrelian, Laz and Svan. Georgian as separate from the other Kartvelian languages would have emerged in the 1st millennium BC in the area known later as the Kingdom of Iberia.
The Georgian language, the most pervasive of the Kartvelian languages, is not Indo-European, Turkic, or Semitic. The present day Georgian or Kartvelian nation is thought to have resulted from the fusion of aboriginal, autochthonous inhabitants with immigrants who moved into South Caucasus from the direction of Anatolia in remote antiquity.
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Located on the crossroads of protracted Roman–Persian wars, the early Georgian kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages. This made it easy for the remaining Georgian realms to fall prey to the early Muslim conquestsin the 7th century. In struggle against the Arab occupation, Iberian princes of Bagrationi dynasty came to rule over Tao-Klarjeti, the former southern provinces of Iberia, and established Kouropalatate of Iberia as a nominal vassal of the Byzantine Empire. Bagrationi's continued fighting for the central Georgian land, known as Kartli, contested also by the Kingdom of Abkhazia, the Arab emirs of Tbilisi and even by Kakhetian and Armenian Bagratid rulers of Tashir-Dzoraget. The restoration of the Iberian kingship begins in 888, however Bagrationi dynasty failed to maintain the integrity of their kingdom, which was actually divided between the three branches of the family with the main branch retaining in Tao and another controlling Klarjet...
Unification of the Georgian State
At the end of the 10th century David III of Tao invaded the Kartli and gave it to his foster-son Bagrat III and installed his father Gurgen as his regent, who was also crowned as "King of the Iberians" in 994. Through his mother Gurandukht, sister of the childless Abkhazian king Theodosius III (c. 975–978), Bagrat was a potential heir to the realm of Abkhazia. Kingdom of Abkhazia was engulfed into complete chaos and feudal warfare under the rule of Bagrat's uncle Theodosius the Blind, a weak...
War and peace with Byzantium
The major political and military event during George I’s reign, a war against the Byzantine Empire, had its roots back to the 990s, when the Georgian prince David III of Tao, following his abortive rebellion against Emperor Basil II, had to agree to cede his extensive possessions in Tao to the emperor on his death. All the efforts by David’s stepson and George’s father, Bagrat III, to prevent these territories from being annexed to the empire went in vain. Young and ambitious, George launched...
Great Turkish Invasion
The second half of the 11th century was marked by the strategically significant invasion of the Seljuq Turks, who by the end of the 1040s had succeeded in building a vast empire including most of Central Asia and Persia. The Seljuk threat prompted the Georgian and Byzantine governments to seek a closer cooperation. To secure the alliance, Bagrat's daughter Maria married, at some point between 1066 and 1071, to the Byzantine co-emperor Michael VII Ducas. The Seljuqs made their first appearance...
Georgian monarchs followed a policy of religious tolerance and their Christian, Muslim and Jewish subjects could feel quite comfortable. Medieval Georgia, in its political and cultural development and social structure, resembled Europe, "all the familiar terms of Western feudalism had their equivalents in the social system of medieval Georgia" obviously influenced by Byzantium. In the medieval period, Georgian feudalism or "Batonqmoba" went through three distinct phases. In the first period, taken to have lasted from the 8th to the 11th centuries, Georgian society was organized as a network of personal ties, tying the king with the nobles of various classes. By the early 9th century, Georgia had already developed a system in which homage was exchanged for benefices. Unlike the countries of medieval Europe, where the three elements of political compromise – towns, feudal lords and the church – divided power among themselves and consequently promoted the development of strong centrali...
1. Golden Theotokos of Khobi Monastery, with some precious stones stolen by the communists 2. Tryptich of Khakhuli 3. Detail of the Khakhuli Triptych 4. Atskuri Triptych 5. Georgian tondo commemorating Roman martyr Mammes of Caesarea 6. David IV's processional cross 7. Crucifixion from Mestia 8. Fresco from Ubisi, Georgia 9. The Last Supper of Ubisi 10. Annunciation of Ubisi 11. Gelati Monastery 12. Walls of the KhobiMonastery showing strong Roman influence 13. Kvatakhevi monastery 14. Betani...
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1837. It is named after the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the relatively short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837. The so ...
ka.wikipedia.org › wiki › ტრაპიზონი Cached Michael Richard Thomas Dumper, Bruce E. Stanley, Janet L. Abu-Lughod, Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: a historical encyclopedia.
ro.wikipedia.org › wiki › Republica_Democrată_Georgia Cached Guvernul georgian a început mobilizarea și a l-a numit pe Kvinitadze în fruntea armatei. Între timp, ca răspuns la presupusa asistență dată de Georgia revoltei naționaliste din Ganja, trupele sovietice au încercat să pătrundă pe teritoriul Georgiei, fiind oprite de Kvinitadze în luptele de la Krasnîi Most.
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Georgians Cached Located in the Caucasus, on the continental crossroads of Europe and Asia, the High Middle Ages saw Georgian people form a unified Kingdom of Georgia in 1008 AD, the pan-Caucasian empire, later inaugurating the Georgian Golden Age, a height of political and cultural power of the nation.
en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Georgian_language Cached In the 11th century, Old Georgian gives rise to Middle Georgian, the literary language of the medieval kingdom of Georgia.
14/01/2021 · Georgian (ka) Collapse. └ ──── Middle Georgian (ka-mid) E. Category:ka:All topics: Georgian terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". Category:Georgian appendices: Pages containing additional information about Georgian.
- Kartvelian, Judeo-Georgian, Kivruli, Gruzinic