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A parliamentary system may be either bicameral, with two chambers of parliament (or houses) or unicameral, with just one parliamentary chamber.A bicameral parliament usually consists of a directly elected lower house with the power to determine the executive government, and an upper house which may be appointed or elected through a different mechanism from the lower house.
- Early Parliaments
- Development of Modern Parliaments
- Parliamentary System
- Women in Parliament
- List of National Parliaments
- List of Subnational Parliaments
- Other Parliaments
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The English term is derived from Anglo-Norman and dates to the 14th century, coming from the 11th century Old French parlement, from parler, meaning "to talk".The meaning evolved over time, originally referring to any discussion, conversation, or negotiation through various kinds of deliberative or judicial groups, often summoned by a monarch. By the 15th century, in Britain, it had come to specifically mean the legislature.
Since ancient times, when societies were tribal, there were councils or a headman whose decisions were assessed by village elders. This is called tribalism. Some scholars suggest that in ancient Mesopotamia there was a primitive democratic government where the kings were assessed by council. The same has been said about ancient India, where some form of deliberative assemblies existed, and therefore there was some form of democracy. However, these claims are not accepted by most scholars, who see these forms of government as oligarchies. Ancient Athens was the cradle of democracy. The Athenian assembly (ἐκκλησία, ekklesia) was the most important institution, and every free male citizen could take part in the discussions. Slaves and women could not. However, Athenian democracy was not representative, but rather direct, and therefore the ekklesiawas different from the parliamentary system. The Roman Republic had legislative assemblies, who had the final say regarding the election of m...
The development of the modern concept of parliamentary government dates back to the Kingdom of Great Britain(1707–1800).
Many parliaments are part of a parliamentary system of government, in which the executive is constitutionally answerable to the parliament. Some restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, while others use the word for any elected legislative body. Parliaments usually consist of chambers or houses, and are usually either bicameral or unicameral although more complex models exist, or have existed (see Tricameralism). In some parliamentary systems, the prime minister is a member of the parliament (e.g. in the United Kingdom), whereas in others they are not (e.g. in the Netherlands). They are commonly the leader of the majority party in the lower house of parliament, but only hold the office as long as the "confidence of the house" is maintained. If members of the lower house lose faith in the leader for whatever reason, they can call a vote of no confidenceand force the prime minister to resign. This can be particularly dangerous to a government when the distribu...Countries with more than a specific percentage of women in parliament as of 2017Greater than 10%Greater than 20%Greater than 30%
Parliaments of the European Union
1. European Parliament 2. Parliament of Austria (consisting of the National Council and the Federal Council) 3. Belgian Federal Parliament (consisting of the Chamber of Representatives and the Senate) 4. National Assembly of Bulgaria 5. Croatian Parliament 6. House of Representatives (Cyprus) 7. Parliament of the Czech Republic (consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate) 8. Folketing (Denmark) 9. Riigikogu (Estonia) 10. Parliament of Finland(Eduskunta) 11. Parliament of France (con...
1. Parliament of Albania 2. Parliament of Australia (consisting of the Queen, the House of Representatives, and the Senate) 2.1. The federal government of the Commonwealth of Australia has a bicameral parliament and each of Australia's six states has a bicameral parliament except for Queensland, which has a unicameral parliament. 3. Parliament of The Bahamas 4. Jatiya Sangsad (Bangladesh) 5. Parliament of Barbados 6. Parliament of Canada (consisting of the Queen, an Upper House styled the Sen...
In the federal (bicameral) kingdom of Belgium, there is a curious asymmetrical constellation serving as directly elected legislatures for three "territorial" regions—Flanders (Dutch), Brussels (bilingual, certain peculiarities of competence, also the only region not comprising any of the 10 provinces) and Wallonia (French)—and three cultural communities—Flemish (Dutch, competent in Flanders and for the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels), Francophone (French, for Wallonia and for Francoph...
1. Inatsisartut 2. Løgting
Contemporary supranational parliaments
1. List is not exhaustive 1. Pan-African Parliament 2. Central American Parliament 3. Latin American Parliament 4. European Parliament
Equivalent national legislatures
1. Majlis, e.g. in Iran 2. in Afghanistan: Wolesi Jirga (elected, legislative lower house) and Meshrano Jirga (mainly advisory, indirect representation); in special cases, e.g. as constituent assembly, a Loya Jirga 3. in Indonesia: People's Consultative Assembly, consists of People's Representative Council (elected, legislative lower house) and Regional Representative Council(elected, legislative upper house with limited powers)
1. Parliament of Southern Ireland(1921–1922) 2. People's Parliament(1940s) 3. Silesian Parliament(1922–1945) 4. Parliament of Northern Ireland(1921–1973) 5. Batasang Pambansâ(1978–1986) 6. National Assembly of the Republic of China(1913–2005)Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Parliament" . Encyclopædia Britannica(11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
In a parliamentary republic, the people choose the members. The people do this through elections. Sometimes they vote for every person in parliament. Other times they vote for people in their area. The politicians they elect go to parliament to make laws and select the head of state. This gives the people power to decide who is in government.
Parliamentary systems usually have a head of government and a head of state. They change after their terms are over. The head of government is the prime minister, who has the real power. The head of state may be an elected president or, in the case of a constitutional monarchy, hereditary.
Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.  Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War , France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870.