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  1. Truman's presidency was a turning point in foreign affairs, as the United States engaged in an internationalist foreign policy and renounced isolationism. During his first year in office, Truman approved the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and subsequently accepted the surrender of Japan, which marked the end of World War II.

  2. Truman presided over the onset of the Cold War in 1947. He oversaw the Berlin Airlift and Marshall Plan in 1948. He defended South Korea against North Korea in 1950–1953. It was an embarrassing stalemate. Domestically, his administration successfully guided the economy through the postwar economic challenges such as strikes and inflation.

  3. August 14 – President Truman holds the eighteenth press conference of his presidency at the White House, speaking and answering questions on foreign affairs in the presence of members of both his family and cabinet. [75] August 15 – Surrender of the Empire of Japan announced.

  4. Harry S. Truman (Lamar, Misuri; 8 de mayo de 1884-Kansas City, Misuri; 26 de diciembre de 1972) fue el trigésimo tercer presidente de los Estados Unidos desde 1945 hasta 1953. Previamente, fue el trigésimo cuarto vicepresidente durante el breve cuarto mandato de Franklin Delano Roosevelt entre enero y abril de 1945 y llegó a la presidencia el 12 de abril de ese año, debido al fallecimiento del presidente.

    • Leadership
    • End of World War II
    • Postwar International Order
    • Beginning of The Cold War, 1945–1950
    • Latin America
    • Asia
    • Korean War
    • International Trips
    • Legacy
    • See Also

    At first Truman kept all of Roosevelt's cabinet. By late 1946 only one remained. Even as vice president, knowing of the president's poor health, he showed little curiosity about Roosevelt's postwar plans and was kept out of the loop. Furthermore, he had a small White House staff that knew little about diplomacy. As president he relied heavily on to...

    By April 1945, the Allied Powers, led by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, were close to defeating Germany, but Japan remained a formidable adversary in the Pacific War. As vice president, Truman had been uninformed about major initiatives relating to the war, including the top-secret Manhattan Project, which was about to test...

    Truman at first was committed to following Roosevelt's policies and priorities. However he soon replaced Roosevelt's top appointments and put in his own people. In 1945 public opinion was demanding immediate demobilization of the troops. The Administration's policies were designed to benefit individuals, regardless of the damage it did when experie...

    Escalating tensions, 1945–1946

    The Second World War dramatically upended the international system, as formerly-powerful nations like Germany, France, Japan, and even Britain had been devastated. At the end of the war, only the United States and the Soviet Union had the ability to exercise influence, and a bipolar international power structure replaced the multipolar structure of the Interwar period. On taking office, Truman privately viewed the Soviet Union as a "police government pure and simple", but he was initially rel...

    Truman Doctrine

    In the first major step in implementing containment, Truman gave money to Greece and Turkey to prevent the spread of Soviet-aligned governments. Prior to 1947, the U.S. had largely ignored Greece, which had an anti-communist government, because it was under British influence. Since 1944, the British had assisted the Greek government against a left-wing insurgency, but in early 1947 London informed Washington that it could no longer afford to intervene in Greece. At the urging of Acheson, who...

    Military reorganization and budgets

    Facing new, global challenges, Washington reorganized the military and intelligence establishment to provide for more centralized control and reduce rivalries. The National Security Act of 1947 merged the Department of War and the Department of the Navy into the National Military Establishment (which was later renamed as the Department of Defense). The law also separated the U.S. Air Force from the Army. It created the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the National Security Council (NSC)...

    Cold War tensions and competition reached across the globe, affecting Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America, and Africa. The United States had historically focused its foreign policy on upholding the Monroe Doctrine in the Western Hemisphere, but new commitments in Europe and Asia diminished U.S. focus on Latin America. Partially in reaction t...

    Recognition of Israel

    Truman had long taken been sympathetic to the Jewish community in Kansas City. Regarding British-controlled Mandatory Palestine, in 1943, he had called for a homeland for those Jews who survived the Nazi regime. However, State Department officials were reluctant to offend the Arabs, who were opposed to the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Secretary of Defense Forrestal warned Truman of the importance of Saudi Arabia's supply of oil; Truman replied that he would decide his policy...

    China

    In 1945 China descended into a civil war. The civil war baffled Washington, as both the Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek and the Communists under Mao Zedong had American advocates. Truman sent Marshall to China in early 1946 to broker a compromise featuring a coalition government. The mission failed, as both sides felt the issue would be decided on the battlefield, not at a conference table. Marshall returned to Washington in December 1946, blaming extremist elements on both sides. In mid-1...

    Japan

    Under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur, the U.S. occupied Japan after the latter's surrender in August 1945. MacArthur presided over extensive reforms of the Japanese government and society on the New Deal model. He imposed a new constitution that established a parliamentary democracy and granted women the right to vote. He also reformed the Japanese educational system and oversaw major economic changes, although Japanese business leaders were able to resist the reforms to some deg...

    Outbreak of the war

    Following World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union occupied Korea, which had been a colony of the Japanese Empire. The 38th parallel was chosen as a line of partition between the occupying powers since it was approximately halfway between Korea's northernmost and southernmost regions, and was always intended to mark a temporary separation before the eventual reunification of Korea. Nonetheless, the Soviet Union established the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) in...

    Stalemate and dismissal of MacArthur

    As the UN forces approached the Yalu River, the CIA and General MacArthur both expected that the Chinese would remain out of the war. Defying those predictions, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu River in November 1950 and forced the overstretched UN soldiers to retreat. Fearing that the escalation of the war could spark a global conflict with the Soviet Union, Truman refused MacArthur's request to bomb Chinese supply bases north of the Yalu River. UN forces were pushed below the 38th parallel b...

    Truman made five international trips during his presidency: His only trans-Atlantic trip was to participate in the 1945 Potsdam Conference with British Prime Ministers Churchill and Attlee and Soviet Premier Stalin. He also visited neighboring Bermuda, Canada and Mexico, plus Brazil in South America. Truman only left the continental United States o...

    Scholars have on average ranked Truman in the top ten American presidents, most often at #7. In 1962, a poll of 75 historians conducted by Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. ranked Truman among the "near great" presidents. Truman's ranking in polls of political scientists and historians, never fallen lower than ninth, and ranking as high as fifth in a C-SP...

  5. Presidency of Harry S. Truman Timeline of the Harry S. Truman presidency 0–9 1946 State of the Union Address 1948 United States presidential election 1950 State of the Union Address 1952 State of the Union Address 1952 steel strike A Anglo-American loan B The Buck Stops Here C Committee of European Economic Co-operation Containment F Fair Deal