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  1. Second language. A person's second language, or L2, is a language that is not the native language ( first language or L1) of the speaker, but is learned later (usually as a foreign language, but it can be another language used in the speaker's home country). A speaker's dominant language, which is the language a speaker uses most or is most ...

    • beyond the level of input
    • slower than acquisition of L1
    • not directly influential
    • systematic stages of development
  2. A second language is a language that a person learns in addition to their first language. A second language may be learned in a formal or informal way, such as at school or in a family. A person may speak two or more second languages. Adults do not learn languages the same way that children do. Learning a second language is difficult for adults, ...

    • Diferencias Entre Segunda Lengua Y Lengua Extranjera
    • Adquisición de Segunda Lengua
    • Aprendizaje de Una Segunda Lengua
    • Barreras
    • Enfoques Comunicativos
    • Historia de Las Lenguas Francas
    • Neuromitos
    • Véase también
    • Referencias

    Es importante entender las diferencias entre una segunda lengua (L2) y una lengua extranjera (LE). Aunque tanto el aprendizaje de la L2 como de una LE se basan en la adquisición de una lengua diferente a la lengua materna, gozan de una diferencia sustancial y básica: la L2 se aprende en una comunidad lingüística en la que cumple una función social ...

    Se denomina adquisición de segunda lengua al proceso gradual de desarrollo e incorporación de las características propias de la segunda lengua, que lleva a cabo un individuo mediante técnicas naturales (no académicas) y el cual ya domina una lengua materna o lengua propia. Dentro del proceso de adquisición de una segunda lengua encontramos:

    Se denomina aprendizaje al proceso consciente de acumulación y estudio sobre las características gramaticales, sintácticas y memorización de vocabulario de aquella lengua que se quiere aprender. Donde se debe recalcar la diferencia entre aprendizaje y adquisición desde el punto de vista lingüístico. El término aprendizaje se implementa más comúnmen...

    Dentro del éxito del proceso de aprendizaje o adquisición de una segunda lengua podría darse el caso de que el individuo presente algunos inconvenientes o barreras. Algunas de estas barreras que influyen en el proceso son de carácter natural, tales como: la edad, problemas de aprendizaje, fosilización, interés del individuo, problemas de salud, fru...

    Los enfoques comunicativos consisten en las finalidades con las cuales se aprende una segunda lengua. En muchos casos se aprende dicha lengua con un fin puramente laboral; el sujeto necesita hablar el otro idioma para poder hacer un viaje al extranjero de negocios o simplemente para obtener un empleo determinado. Por otra parte, se aprende una leng...

    Actualmente, el inglés es la lengua que se presenta con mayor frecuencia como segunda lengua entre los hablantes multilingües, tras el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en septiembre de 1945. Esto se debe a factores socio-económicos y geopolíticos, tanto por la influencia histórica de los países anglosajones como por el hecho de que el inglés, esp...

    Existen multitud de neuromitos acerca del bilingüismo y el multilingüismo, como que debemos esperar para aprender otra lengua a que dominemos la primera, que cuando aprendemos una segunda lengua perdemos la primera, que lenguas distintas ocupan áreas separadas en el cerebro, o que los niños bilingües son más inteligentes. Estas creencias no están p...

    Nicholas Ostler: Empires of the Word: A Language History of the World, HarperCollins, 2005, ISBN 978-0066210865.
    Pulverness, A., Spratt, M., Williams, M. (2011)The TKT Course Modules 1, 2 and 3, Cambridge Unversity Press, ISBN 978-0-521-12565-9
  3. Second-language acquisition ( SLA ), sometimes called second-language learning — otherwise referred to as L2 ( language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process.

    • Terminology and Types
    • Difficulties For Learners
    • Social Challenges and Benefits
    • Peer Tutoring For ESL Students
    • Exams For Learners
    • Qualifications For Teachers
    • Professional Associations and Unions
    • Acronyms and Abbreviations
    • External Links

    The many acronyms and abbreviations used in the field of English teaching and learning may be confusing and the following technical definitions may have their currency contested upon various grounds. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly use...

    Language teaching practice often assumes that most of the difficulties that learners face in the study of English are a consequence of the degree to which their native language differs from English (a contrastive analysis approach). A native speaker of Chinese, for example, may face many more difficulties than a native speaker of German, because Ge...

    Class placement

    ESL students often suffer from the effects of tracking and ability grouping. Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. There is also low mobility among these students from low to high performing groups, which can prevent them from achieving the same academic progress as native speakers. Similar tests are also used to place ESL students in college-level courses. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students hav...

    Dropout rates

    Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is 43.4%. A study in Canada found that the high school dropout rate for all ESL students was 74%.High dropout rates are thought to be due to difficulties ESL students have in keeping up...

    Access to higher education

    ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school. In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. It is difficult for ESL students that arrive in the United States relatively late to finish this requirement because they must spend a longer time in ESL English classes in high school, or they might not arrive early enough to complete four years of English in high school. This resu...

    Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level. The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case, the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingualtutors are given ...

    Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: 1. IELTS (International English Language Testing System) is the world's most popular English test for higher education and immigration. It is managed by the British Council, Cambridge Assessment English and IDP Education. It is offered in Acade...

    Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. There are also different qualifications for those who manage or direct TESOL programs

    TESOL International Association (TESOL) is a professional organizationbased in the United States. In addition, TESOL International Association has more than 100 statewide and regional affiliates in...
    The International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL) is a professional organization based in the United Kingdom.
    Professional organizations for teachers of English exist at national levels. Many contain phrases in their title such as the Japan Association for Language Teaching (JALT), TESOL Greece in Greece,...
    The National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (NATECLA) which focuses on teaching ESOL in the United Kingdom.

    Note that some of the terms below may be restricted to one or more countries, or may be used with different meanings in different countries, particularly the US and UK. See further discussion is Terminology, and typesabove.

    English as a Second Language at Curlie
    Limited English Proficiency - Interagency site of the Federal Government of the United States