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  1. Tamar of Georgia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tamar_of_Georgia

    Tamar's youth coincided with a major upheaval in Georgia; in 1177, her father, George III, was confronted by a rebellious faction of nobles. The rebels intended to dethrone George in favor of the king's fraternal nephew, Demna , who was considered by many to be a legitimate royal heir of his murdered father, David V .

  2. Tamara de Georgia - Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

    es.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tamara_de_Georgia

    (en georgiano თამარი [ Tamari ]; c. 1160-18 de enero de 1213) fue reina de Georgia de 1184 hasta su muerte, período en el que la Edad de Oro de Georgia (siglos XI y XIII) alcanzó su apogeo. 7

  3. Kingdom of Georgia - Wikipedia

    en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Kingdom_of_Georgia
    • Background
    • History
    • Government and Society
    • Legacy
    • See Also

    Located on the crossroads of protracted Roman–Persian wars, the early Georgian kingdoms disintegrated into various feudal regions by the early Middle Ages. This made it easy for the remaining Georgian realms to fall prey to the early Muslim conquestsin the 7th century. In struggle against the Arab occupation, Iberian princes of Bagrationi dynasty came to rule over Tao-Klarjeti, the former southern provinces of Iberia, and established Kouropalatate of Iberia as a nominal vassal of the Byzantine Empire. Bagrationi's continued fighting for the central Georgian land, known as Kartli, contested also by the Kingdom of Abkhazia, the Arab emirs of Tbilisi and even by Kakhetian and Armenian Bagratid rulers of Tashir-Dzoraget. The restoration of the Iberian kingship begins in 888, however Bagrationi dynasty failed to maintain the integrity of their kingdom, which was actually divided between the three branches of the family with the main branch retaining in Tao and another controlling Klarjet...

    Unification of the Georgian State

    At the end of the 10th century David III of Tao invaded the Kartli and gave it to his foster-son Bagrat III and installed his father Gurgen as his regent, who was also crowned as "King of the Iberians" in 994. Through his mother Gurandukht, sister of the childless Abkhazian king Theodosius III (c. 975–978), Bagrat was a potential heir to the realm of Abkhazia. Kingdom of Abkhazia was engulfed into complete chaos and feudal warfare under the rule of Bagrat's uncle Theodosius the Blind, a weak...

    War and peace with Byzantium

    The major political and military event during George I’s reign, a war against the Byzantine Empire, had its roots back to the 990s, when the Georgian prince David III of Tao, following his abortive rebellion against Emperor Basil II, had to agree to cede his extensive possessions in Tao to the emperor on his death. All the efforts by David’s stepson and George’s father, Bagrat III, to prevent these territories from being annexed to the empire went in vain. Young and ambitious, George launched...

    Great Turkish Invasion

    The second half of the 11th century was marked by the strategically significant invasion of the Seljuq Turks, who by the end of the 1040s had succeeded in building a vast empire including most of Central Asia and Persia. The Seljuk threat prompted the Georgian and Byzantine governments to seek a closer cooperation. To secure the alliance, Bagrat's daughter Maria married, at some point between 1066 and 1071, to the Byzantine co-emperor Michael VII Ducas. The Seljuqs made their first appearance...

    Georgian monarchs followed a policy of religious tolerance and their Christian, Muslim and Jewish subjects could feel quite comfortable. Medieval Georgia, in its political and cultural development and social structure, resembled Europe, "all the familiar terms of Western feudalism had their equivalents in the social system of medieval Georgia" obviously influenced by Byzantium. In the medieval period, Georgian feudalism or "Batonqmoba" went through three distinct phases. In the first period, taken to have lasted from the 8th to the 11th centuries, Georgian society was organized as a network of personal ties, tying the king with the nobles of various classes. By the early 9th century, Georgia had already developed a system in which homage was exchanged for benefices. Unlike the countries of medieval Europe, where the three elements of political compromise – towns, feudal lords and the church – divided power among themselves and consequently promoted the development of strong centrali...

    Artistic inheritance

    1. Golden Theotokos of Khobi Monastery, with some precious stones stolen by the communists 2. Tryptich of Khakhuli 3. Detail of the Khakhuli Triptych 4. Atskuri Triptych 5. Georgian tondo commemorating Roman martyr Mammes of Caesarea 6. David IV's processional cross 7. Crucifixion from Mestia 8. Fresco from Ubisi, Georgia 9. The Last Supper of Ubisi 10. Annunciation of Ubisi 11. Gelati Monastery 12. Walls of the KhobiMonastery showing strong Roman influence 13. Kvatakhevi monastery 14. Betani...

  4. Category:Tamar of Georgia - Wikimedia Commons

    commons.wikimedia.org › wiki › Category:Tamar_of_Georgia

    30/03/2021 · Category:Tamar of Georgia. English: Tamar (Georgian: თამარი; 1160 – 1213), from the House of Bagrationi, was Queen of the Kingdom of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. She is often known in English as Tamara.

    • 1213, Tabakhmela
    • 1166, Mtskheta, თამარ მეფე
  5. Tamar de Georgia - Tamar of Georgia - xcv.wiki

    es.xcv.wiki › wiki › Tamar_of_Georgia

    Tamar la Grande ( georgiano: თამარ მეფე, romanizado: tamar mepe, literalmente "Rey Tamar") ( c. 1160 - 18 de enero de 1213) reinó como la reina de Georgia desde 1184 hasta 1213, presidiendo la cúspide de la Edad de Oro georgiana.

  6. Tamar (Georgia) – Wikipedia

    fi.wikipedia.org › wiki › Tamar_(Georgia)
    • Lapsuus Ja Nousu Valtaistuimelle
    • Hallinnon Alku Ja Ensimmäinen Avioliitto
    • Toinen Avioliitto
    • Ulkopolitiikka Ja Sotaretket
    • Kulta-Aika
    • Kuolema Ja Hautaus
    • Perintö Ja Populaarikulttuuri
    • Lähteet
    • aiheesta Muualla

    Tamar syntyi noin vuonna 1160 kuningas Giorgi III:lle ja tämän vaimolle Burdukhanille, Alanian kuninkaan tyttärelle. Tamarilla oli mahdollisesti pikkusisko Rusudan, mutta hänet mainitaan Tamarin kauden aikalaislähteissä vain kerran. Tamarin nuoruusvuosina Georgia oli suuren mullistuksen keskellä. Kapinallinen aatelisryhmä hyökkäsi vuonna 1177 hänen isäänsä Giorgia vastaan. Kapinalliset pyrkivät syrjäyttämään Giorgin ja nostamaan valtaistuimelle hänen veljenpoikansa Demnan, jota monet pitivät murhatun isänsä Davit V:n oikeutettuna kruununperillisenä. Aatelisille Demnan puolustaminen oli lähinnä vain veruke kuninkaanvallan heikentämiseksi. Heitä johti kruununtavoittelijan appi Ivane Orbeli. Giorgi III onnistui murskaamaan kapinan ja aloitti väkivaltaisen taistelun tärkeimpiä häntä vastustaneita aatelissukuja vastaan; Ivane Orbeli teloitettiin ja hänen selviytyneet perheenjäsenensä karkotettiin Georgiasta. Prinssi Demna kastroitiinja sokaistiin setänsä käskystä. Hän ei selviytynyt silp...

    Tamar hallitsi yhdessä isänsä kanssa kuuden vuoden ajan. Kun Giorgi kuoli vuonna 1184, Tamar jatkoi ainoana hallitsijana ja hänet kruunattiin uudelleen Gelatin katedraalissa Kutaisin lähellä Länsi-Georgiassa. Hän peri suhteellisen vahvan kuningaskunnan, mutta aatelisten hajottavia pyrkimyksiä ei ollut vielä saatu läheskään tukahdutettua. Tamarin valtaannousulla oli runsaasti vastustajia: vastustus oli reaktio hänen isänsä sortopolitiikkaa vastaan, mutta lisäksi myös uuden hallitsijan sukupuoli nähtiin heikkoutena. Koska Georgiaa ei ollut koskaan aikaisemmin hallinnut nainen, osa aatelistosta kyseenalaisti Tamarin valtaannousun laillisuuden ja muut yrittivät käyttää hänen nuoruuttaan ja oletettua heikkouttaan hyödykseen saadakseen itselleen autonomisemman aseman. Tamarin vaikutusvaltaisella tädillä kuningatar Rusudanilla ja Georgian kirkon katolikos Mikael IV Mirianisdzella oli keskeinen rooli Tamarin vallan vakiinnuttamisessa. Nuori kuningatar joutui kuitenkin tekemään aatelistolle...

    Seuraavaksi Tamar suostutteli aatelisneuvoston hyväksymään avioeronsa Jurista, jota syytettiin sodomiasta ja juomisesta. Hänet lähetettiin Konstantinopoliin vuonna 1187. Juri yritti vallankaappausta kaksi kertaa: häntä auttoivat aateliset, jotka halusivat rajoittaa Tamarin kasvavaa valtaa. Hän kuitenkin epäonnistui ja katosi valokeilasta vuoden 1191 jälkeen. Kuningatar valitsi toisen aviomiehensä itse. Hän oli Davit Soslan, alanialainen prinssi, jonka 1700-luvun georgialainen oppinut prinssi Vakhušti sanoi polveutuvan Giorgi I:stä, Georgian 1000-luvun alun kuninkaasta.Davit oli kyvykäs sotilaskomentaja, josta tuli Tamarin merkittävä tukija ja jolla oli keskeinen rooli Juria tukevien kapinallisten aatelisten kukistamisessa. Vaikka Davit Soslanin asema kuningaspuolisona näkyi taiteessa, asetuksissa ja kolikoissa, hänen asemansa oli alisteinen Tamarille, jonka kanssa hän jakoi kruununsa ja jolta hän sai valtansa. Tamariin viitattiin edelleen arvonimellä mepeta mepe ’kuninkaiden kuninga...

    Musliminaapurit

    Kun Tamar oli onnistunut lujittamaan valta-asemansa ja löytämään luotettavia tukijoita – Davit Soslanin, Mkhargrdzelit ja muita aatelissukuja – hän elvytti edeltäjiensä harjoittaman ekspansionistisen ulkopolitiikan. Tamarin isoisoisän Davit IV:n ja isän Giorgi III:n aikana georgialaiset olivat nousseet aktiivisiksi toimijoiksi alueellaan, mutta toistuvat dynastiset riidat ja seldžukkien valtakunnan paikalliset seuraajat, kuten ildenizidien Azerbaidžan, širvanšahit ja ahlatšahit, olivat pidäte...

    Trebizond ja Lähi-itä

    Merkittäviin tapahtumiin Tamarin hallituskaudella kuului Trebizondin keisarikunnan syntyminen Mustanmeren rannikolle vuonna 1204. Valtion perustivat Aleksios Komnenos ja hänen veljensä Daavid georgialaisten joukkojen avustuksella. Se syntyi murenevan Bysantin valtakunnan koillisten maakuntien alueelle Pontoksessa. Bysanttilaiset maanpakolaisprinssit Aleksios ja Daavid olivat Tamarin sukulaisia, ja heidät kasvatettiin Georgian hovissa. Tamarin virallisen historioitsijan mukaan Georgian Trebizo...

    Feodaalimonarkia

    Vaikka Tamarin hallituskauden poliittiset ja kulttuuriset saavutukset olivatkin Georgian historiassa ennennäkemättömiä, niiden juuret ulottuivat pitkälle vaiheikkaaseen menneisyyteen. Tamar oli urotöistään velkaa erityisesti isoisoisänsä Davit IV:n (hallitsi 1089–1125) uudistuksille ja kauempana historiassa Davit III:lle ja Bagrat III:lle, jotka toimivat useiden georgialaisten kuningas- ja ruhtinaskuntien poliittisen yhtenäisyyden arkkitehteina 1000-luvun alussa. Tamar kykeni rakentamaan hall...

    Kulttuuri

    Vaurauden myötä esiin nousi omaperäinen georgialainen kulttuuri, jossa sekoittuivat kristitytja maalliset vaikutteet ja joka oli sukua sekä Bysantille lännessä että Iranille idässä. Georgian monarkia halusi alleviivata yhteyttään kristinuskoon ja esittää asemansa lahjana Jumalalta. Georgialaisen uskonnollisen arkkitehtuurin kaanon määriteltiin uudelleen ja maahan rakennettiin useita suurimittaisia katedraaleja kupoleineen. Bysantista saatuja kuninkaanvallan ilmentymiä muunneltiin eri tavoin t...

    Tamar eli pidempään kuin miehensä Davit Soslan ja kuoli "tuhoisaan sairauteen" lähellä pääkaupunkiaan Tbilisiä kruunattuaan aiemmin poikansa Giorgin yhteishallitsijaksi. Tamarin historioitsija kertoo, että kuningatar sairastui äkillisesti keskustellessaan valtion asioista visiiriensä kanssa Natšarmagevin linnassa lähellä Gorin kaupunkia. Hänet kuljetettiin Tbilisiin ja sitten läheiseen linnaan Agaranissa, jossa hän kuoli ja jossa hänen alamaisensa surivat häntä. Hänen ruumiinsa siirrettiin Mtskhetan katedraaliin, josta se vietiin haudattavaksi Gelatin luostariin. Siellä oli Georgian kuninkaallisen dynastian sukuhauta. Tutkijoiden valtaosa on sitä mieltä, että Tamar kuoli vuonna 1213, vaikka onkin joitakin epämääräisiä viitteitä siitä, että hän olisi kuollut aiemmin vuonna 1207 tai 1210. Myöhemmin syntyi useita Tamarin hautapaikkaa koskevia legendoja. Eräässä niistä kerrotaan, että Tamar haudattiin salaiseen syvennykseen Gelatissa, jotta hänen vihollisensa eivät voisi häpäistä hänen...

    Keskiaika

    Vuosisatojen kuluessa Tamar on noussut georgialaisen historiallisen pantheonin hallitsevaksi hahmoksi. Hänen hallituskautensa rakentaminen "kulta-ajaksi" alkoi kuitenkin jo hänen elinaikanaan ja hän itse nousi aikakautensa polttopisteeseen.Useat keskiaikaiset georgialaiset runoilijat, Šota Rustaveli mukaan lukien, väittivät saaneensa inspiraation teoksiinsa Tamarilta. Legendan mukaan Rustaveli jopa riutui rakkaudesta kuningatarta kohtaan ja päätti päivänsä luostarissa. Rustavelin eepoksen dra...

    Nykyaika

    Nykyinen käsitys kuningatar Tamarista muodostui pitkälti 1800-luvun romantiikan ja georgialaisten intellektuellien kasvavan nationalisminvaikutuksessa. 1800-luvun venäläisessä ja länsimaisessa kirjallisuudessa kuningatar Tamarin kuvaan heijastuivat eurooppalainen käsitys itämaista, joiden osaksi Georgia luettiin, ja naisten asemasta ja ominaisuuksista niissä. Tirolilainen kirjailija Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer kuvaili Tamaria "kaukasialaiseksi Semiramiiksi". "Eksoottisesta" Kaukasuksesta innost...

    Englanniksi

    1. Alemany, Agusti: Sources of the Alans: A Critical Compilation. Brill Publishers, 2000. ISBN 90-04-11442-4. 2. Ciggaar, Krijnie & Teule, Herman, ed.: East and West in the Crusader States. Peeters Publishers, 1996. ISBN 90-429-1287-1. 3. Eastmond, Antony: Royal Imagery in Medieval Georgia. Penn State Press, 1998. ISBN 0-271-01628-0. 4. Humphreys, Stephen R.: From Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260. SUNY Press, 1977. ISBN 0-87395-263-4. 5. James, Liz, ed.: Women, Men...

    Georgiaksi

    1. Javakhishvili, Ivane: ქართველი ერის ისტორია, ტ. 2.1983. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. 2. Melikishvili, Giorgi & Anchabadze, Zurab, ed.: ტ. 3: საქართველო XI–XV საუკუნეებში1979. Sabchota Sakartvelo. 3. Metreveli, Roin: მეფე თამარი. Tbilisi: Ganatleba, 1992. ISBN 5-520-01229-6.

    Venäjäksi

    1. Dondua, Varlam & Berdzenishvili, Niko: Жизнь царицы цариц Тамар 1985. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. English summary. 2. Vateĭshvili, Dzhuansher Levanovich: Грузия и европейские страны. Очерки истории взаимоотношений, XIII-XIX века. Том 1. Грузия и Западная Европа, XIII-XVII века. Книга 1. ("Georgia and the European countries: studies of interrelationship in the 13th–19th centuries. Volume 1: Georgia and Western Europe, 13th–17th centuries. Book 1."). Nauka, 2003. ISBN 5-02-008869-2.

    Kuvia tai muita tiedostoja aiheesta Tamar Wikimedia Commonsissa
  7. Tamar of Georgia | Military Wiki | Fandom

    military.wikia.org › wiki › Tamar_of_Georgia
    • Early Life and Ascent to The Throne
    • Early Reign and The First Marriage
    • Second Marriage
    • Foreign Policy and Military Campaigns
    • Golden Age
    • Death and Burial
    • Legacy and Popular Culture
    • Genealogy
    • References
    • External Links

    Tamar was born, c. 1160, to George III, King of Georgia, and his consort Burdukhan, a daughter of the king of Alania. It is possible that Tamar had a younger sister, Rusudan; but she is only mentioned once in all contemporary accounts of Tamar's reign. The name Tamar is of Hebrew origin and, like other biblical names, was favored by the Georgian Bagrationi dynasty because of their claim to be descended from David, the second king of Israel. Tamar's youth coincided with a major upheaval in Georgia; in 1177, her father, George III, was confronted by a rebellious faction of nobles. The rebels intended to dethrone George in favor of the king's fraternal nephew, Demna, who was considered by many to be a legitimate royal heir of his murdered father, David V. Demna's cause was little but a pretext for the nobles, led by the pretender's father-in-law, the amirspasalar ("constable") Ivane Orbeli, to weaken the crown. George III was able to crush the revolt and embarked on a campaign of crack...

    For six years, Tamar was a co-ruler with her father upon whose death, in 1184, Tamar continued as the sole monarch and was crowned a second time at the Gelati cathedral near Kutaisi, western Georgia. She inherited a relatively strong kingdom, but the centrifugal tendencies fostered by the great nobles were far from being quelled. There was a considerable opposition to Tamar's succession; this was sparked by a reaction against the repressive policies of her father and encouraged by the new sovereign's other perceived weakness, her sex. As Georgia had never previously had a female ruler, a part of the aristocracy questioned Tamar's legitimacy, while others tried to exploit her youth and supposed weakness to assert greater autonomy for themselves. The energetic involvement of Tamar's influential aunt Rusudan and the Georgian catholicos Michael IV Mirianisdze was crucial for legitimizing Tamar's succession to the throne.However, the young queen was forced into making significant concess...

    In 1187, Tamar persuaded the noble council to approve her divorce with Yuri who was accused of addiction to drunkenness and "sodomy", and sent off to Constantinople. Assisted by several Georgian aristocrats anxious to check Tamar’s growing power, Yuri made two attempts at coup, but failed and went off to obscurity after 1191. The queen chose her second husband herself. He was David Soslan, an Alan prince, to whom the 18th-century Georgian scholar Prince Vakhushti ascribes descent from the early 11th-century Georgian king George I. David, a capable military commander, became Tamar's major supporter and was instrumental in defeating the rebellious nobles rallied behind Yuri.Tamar and David had two children. In 1192 or 1194, the queen gave birth to a son, George-Lasha, the future king George IV. The daughter, Rusudan, was born c.1195 and would succeed her brother as a sovereign of Georgia. David Soslan's status of a king consort, as well as his presence in art, on charters, and on coin...

    Muslim neighbors

    Once Tamar succeeded in consolidating her power and found a reliable support in David Soslan, the Mkhargrdzeli, Toreli, and other noble families, she revived the expansionist foreign policy of her predecessors. Repeated occasions of dynastic strife in Georgia combined with the efforts of regional successors of the Great Seljuq Empire, such as the Ildenizid atabegs of Azerbaijan, Shirvanshahs, and the Ahlatshahs, had slowed down the dynamic of the Georgians achieved during the reigns of Tamar'...

    Trebizond and the Middle East

    Among the remarkable events of Tamar's reign was the foundation of the empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea in 1204. This state was established by Alexios Megas Komnenos and his brother, David, in the northeastern – Pontic – provinces of the crumbling Byzantine Empire with the aid of Georgian troops. Alexios and David, Tamar's relatives, were fugitive Byzantine princes raised at the Georgian court. According to Tamar's historian, the aim of the Georgian expedition to Trebizond was to punish t...

    Feudal monarchy

    Georgia's political and cultural exploits of Tamar's epoch were rooted in a long and complex past. Tamar owed her accomplishments most immediately to the reforms of her great-grandfather David IV (r. 1089–1125) and, more remotely, to the unifying efforts of David III and Bagrat III who became architects of a political unity of Georgian kingdoms and principalities in the opening decade of the 11th century. Tamar was able to build upon their successes. By the last years of Tamar's reign, the Ge...

    Culture

    With this prosperity came an outburst of the distinct Georgian culture, emerging from the amalgam of Christian and secular, western and eastern. Despite this, the Georgians continued to identify with the Byzantine West, rather than Islamic east, with the Georgian monarchy seeking to underscore its association with Christianity and present its position as God-given. It was in that period that the canon of Georgian Orthodox architecture was redesigned and a series of large-scale domed cathedral...

    Tamar outlived her consort, David Soslan, and died of a "devastating disease" not far from her capital Tbilisi, having previously crowned her son, George-Lasha, coregent. Tamar's historian relates that the queen suddenly fell ill when discussing the state affairs with her ministers at the Nacharmagevi castle near the town of Gori. She was transported to Tbilisi and then to the nearby castle of Agarani where Tamar died and was mourned by her subjects. Her remains were transferred to the cathedral of Mtskheta and then to the Gelati monastery, a family burial ground of the Georgian royal dynasty. The prevalent scholarly opinion is that Tamar died in 1213, although there are some vague indications that she might have died earlier, in 1207 or 1210. In later times, a number of legends emerged about Tamar's place of burial. One of them has it that Tamar was buried in a secret niche at the Gelati monastery so as to prevent the grave from being profaned by her enemies. Another version sugges...

    Medieval

    Over the centuries, Queen Tamar has emerged as a dominant figure in the Georgian historical pantheon. The construction of her reign as a "Golden age" began in the reign itself and Tamar became the focus of the era.Several medieval Georgian poets, including Shota Rustaveli, claimed Tamar as the inspiration for their works. A legend has it that Rustaveli was even consumed with love for the queen and ended his days in a monastery. A dramatic scene from Rustaveli's poem where the seasoned king Ro...

    Modern

    Much of the modern perception of Queen Tamar was shaped under the influence of 19th-century Romanticism and growing nationalism among Georgian intellectuals of that time. In the Russian and Western literatures of the 19th century, the image of Queen Tamar reflected the European conceptions of the Orient – of which Georgia was perceived as a part – and the position and characteristics of women in it. The Tyrolean writer Jakob Philipp Fallmerayer described Tamar as a "Caucasian Semiramis". Fasc...

    The chart below shows the abbreviated genealogy of Tamar and her family, tracing it from Tamar's grandfather to her grandchildren.

    English

    1. Alemany, Agusti (2000), Sources of the Alans: A Critical Compilation. Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11442-4. 2. Allen, William Edward David (1932, reissued 1971), A History of the Georgian People: From the Beginning Down to the Russian Conquest in the Nineteenth Century. Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-7100-6959-6. 3. Ciggaar, Krijnie & Teule, Herman (ed., 1996), East and West in the Crusader States. Peeters Publishers, ISBN 90-429-1287-1. 4. Eastmond, Antony (1998), Royal Imagery in Medieval Geor...

    Georgian

    1. Javakhishvili, Ivane (1983), ქართველი ერის ისტორია, ტ. 2. (History of the Georgian Nation, vol. 2). Tbilisi: Metsniereba. 2. Melikishvili, Giorgi & Anchabadze, Zurab (ed., 1979), საქართველოს ისტორიის ნარკვევები, ტ. 3: საქართველო XI–XV საუკუნეებში (Studies in the History of Georgia, vol. 3: Georgia in the 11th–15th centuries). Tbilisi: Sabchota Sakartvelo. 3. Metreveli, Roin (1992), მეფე თამარი ("Queen Tamar"). Tbilisi: Ganatleba, ISBN 5-520-01229-6.

    Russian

    1. Dondua, Varlam & Berdzenishvili, Niko (transl., comment., 1985), Жизнь царицы цариц Тамар (The Life of the Queen of Queens Tamar), English summary. Tbilisi: Metsniereba. 2. Vateĭshvili, Dzhuansher Levanovich (2003), Грузия и европейские страны. Очерки истории взаимоотношений, XIII-XIX века. Том 1. Грузия и Западная Европа, XIII-XVII века. Книга 1. ("Georgia and the European countries: studies of interrelationship in the 13th–19th centuries. Volume 1: Georgia and Western Europe, 13th–17th c...

    Irakli Paghava, THE FIRST ARABIC COINAGE OF GEORGIAN MONARCHS: REDISCOVERING THE SPECIE OF DAVIT IV THE BUILDER (1089-1125), KING OF KINGS AND SWORD OF MESSIAH
  8. Tamar of Georgia Biography - Queen of Georgia | Pantheon

    pantheon.world › profile › person

    Tamar the Great (Georgian: თამარ მეფე) (c. 1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia from 1184 to 1213, presiding over the apex of the Georgian Golden Age.

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