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  1. Father. Ecgberht, King of Wessex. Æthelwulf ( Old English pronunciation: [ˈæðelwuɫf]; Old English for "Noble Wolf"; died 13 January 858) was King of Wessex from 839 to 858. In 825, his father, King Egbert, defeated King Beornwulf of Mercia, ending a long Mercian dominance over Anglo-Saxon England south of the Humber.

    • 13 January 858
    • Ecgberht
    • Early Career
    • King of Wessex
    • Family

    Athelwulf was born c.795. He was the oldest son of King Egbert of Wessex and his Frankish wife Redburga. He may have been born in Francia (France) while his father was in exile there. In 824 his father sent him at the head of an army into Kent. There Athelwulf drove Baldred, the Mercian puppet king, out of Kent.His father appointed Athelwulf King of Kent which included Essex, Surrey and Sussex. Athelwulf ruled as a sub-king of Wessex.

    Athelwulf succeeded his father to the throne of Wessex in 839.[a] His father Egbert had done everything he could so that his son would be king after him. He appointed Aethelwulf his sub-king; ruler of the subordinate kingdom of Kent. This gave Athelwulf experience that made him the leading candidate for king after his father. In turn, Athelwulf did the same for his sons to insure they would follow him to the throne.One of the first things he did as king was to appoint his son Athelstan, King of Kent. Under Athelwulf's rule the ealdormen, the most important leaders after the king, became very important. In the 840s when viking raids became more frequent it was his ealdormen who led various local armies against the invaders. In 851 there were three large raids in southern England. The largest had over three hundred ships. They attacked at a place called Acleah in Surrey. Athelwolf and his son Athelbald met the Danes (vikings) in battle and defeated them. After this victory Athelwulf w...

    Athelwulf married Osburh, daughter of Oslac, Athelwulf's butler.[c]Together they had: 1. Ethelstan (†851), King of Kent. 2. Ethelbald (†860), King of Kent, King of Wessex. 3. Ethelbert (†866), King of Wessex. 4. Ethelred (†871), King of Wessex. 5. Alfred(849–899), King of Wessex, King of the Anglo-Saxons. 6. Ethelswith (†888), 'Lady of Mercia', married Burghred, King of Mercia, at his death she ruled as Queen in her own right. 7. Judith, married Eticho, Count in Ammergau & Breisgau.

    • Untitled
    • Osburh
    • Death
    • Battle of Acleah
    • Opening Paragraph
    • Date of Æthelbald's Accession
    • Draft Background Section
    • ODNB Organization
    • Commas
    • Aethelwulf's Ring

    So how did he manage to get born in Aachen? -----Michael K. Smith05:30, 22 January 2006 (UTC) 1. His father spent time in exile at Charlemagne's court prior to his accession to the West Saxon throne, though I thought there was doubt that he was still there in 800. I'd like to see a reference for Ethelwulf's birth in Aachen. Binabik8002:54, 5 February 2006 (UTC)

    Is the statement that Ethelulf's wife died nine years before he went to Rome in 855 a mistake? This would mean she died in 846 and Alfred's date of birth is given as 847-9. Her own entry (as Osburga) gives her death as 855, and in Alfred's entry there is a story about him winning a book of poetry from his mother.Dudley Miles 24 September 2006

    This page says he died in 858, but my source () says he died in 871, saying: "In the year of our Lord's incarnation 871," ... "Ethelred, king of the West-Saxons, and his brother Alfred, united their forces and marched to Reading, where, on their arrival, they cut to pieces the pagans whom they found outside the gate fortifications. But the pagans, nevertheless, sallied out from the gates, and a long and fierce engangement ensued. At last, grief to say, the Christians fled, the pagans obtained victory, and the aforesaid earl Ethelwulf was among the slain." And I'm quite sure that this isn't a typo that could have been his son Aethelred, because Aethelred is mentioned quite a few more times later on in the article. Slycypher (talk) 21:37, 10 June 2008 (UTC) 1. Hmmm, anglo-saxons.net says 858 too. I'll take another look later! = ) --Cameron (T|C) 16:59, 11 June 2008 (UTC)

    A couple of things on this. Firstly, Oakley is not in Surrey. There are several Oakley's but the one most often associated with the battle of Acleah is in Berkshire, see link:http://www.berkshirehistory.com/villages/oakleygreen.htmlSecondly, in Stenton's Oxford History of Great Britain, the Anglo saxons (or similar name), he makes an argument that the site could NOT be Ockley, due to etmylogical reasons. As a resident of the area I find this disappointing but thought I should mention it.Robruss24 (talk) 13:48, 28 January 2009 (UTC)As no-one has objected, I have slightly edited the page to reflect this.Robruss24 (talk) 09:14, 17 March 2009 (UTC)

    I have edited the first paragraph of this article which was littered with mistakes. Some of the rest of the article is also wrong in material respects and I will tackle these as and when. Dantes Warden (talk) 10:45, 8 March 2010 (UTC)

    Æthelbald's accession is given as 856, but in her ODNB article on Æthelwulf at http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/8921Janet Nelson gives it as 858 when Æthelwulf died, pointing out that the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle gave him a reign of eighteen and a half years. She also says that it is unclear whether Wessex itself was divided between Æthelwulf and Æthelbald, or Wessex from lands to the east, and the Wikipedia articles on the two kings give different views on this. Additional points are that after Æthelwulf's return from Rome in 856, Judith was recognised as Queen, and coins were still issued solely in his name. Although he shared power from 856, I think he should still be regarded as king until his death. Dudley Miles (talk) 18:47, 13 April 2011 (UTC)

    I've drafted a background section here, and before I go through it experimenting with sfn, I wanted to check to see if we agree this is a good way to start the article. I think some political context is necessary to orient a reader unfamiliar with the era. Any comments? Mike Christie (talk - contribs - library) 23:19, 3 March 2015 (UTC) 1. Off to bed now. I will look at it tomorrow. I forgot to say that I am working on his early life before he became king. Dudley Miles (talk) 23:27, 3 March 2015 (UTC)

    I spent some time with the ODNB article on Aethelwulf today to get a sense of how Nelson structured it; I think it would help to figure out how we want to break up the material here. It's more or less like this (I hope my abbreviated notes are comprehensible): 1. Summary 1.1. Kingship in Kent, acknowledgement as heir, succeeds in 839, gives Aethelstan the southeast, wife is Osburh, daughter marries Burgred, four sons are kings of Wessex, Judith & no offspring, dies 858 2. Aethelwulf and Kent and Mercia 2.1. Descent from Kent (?), loyalty of Kent, comparisons with Egbert, Vikings in Kent, Alhhere 3. Aethelwulf in Wessex 3.1. Winchester as a centre – cf. Alfred; Aethelberht is king in Kent; decimation – act of piety and gets him secular support too 4. The papacy and the Franks 4.1. 838 consecration, Egbert & Rome & Louis the Pious, trip to Rome in 855, Judith and consecration as queen, possible role of Felix 5. Judith 5.1. Consecration & queenship, remarriage to Aethelbald, examples o...

    Pyrusca, the article achieved FA status after careful consideration by a number of highly proficient writers and experienced editors of WP, from which I shall exclude myself. As it appears there are several instances where you believe commas are needed, I'm reasonably sure that such a pattern would have been noticed at some point in the FA process, had the other editors agreed. I appreciate that constant improvement is an aim for WP, but close consideration of the writing is rather the point of the FA process. Be that as it may, I have brought this issue to the attention of Dudley Miles, who nominated the article as a FA candidate. He shall be away for a while from Tuesday, but I hope he shall add his view on this issue sooner or later. Until such time I intend to leave it alone. I should be grateful if you would do likewise, until a fuller discussion can be had. Nortonius (talk) 22:04, 9 October 2016 (UTC) 1. Dan can you advise please? Pyrusca has inserted extra commas in several e...

    The picture used is a very sloppy copy of the original. The British Museum allows usage of their image quite easily as I understand it. There are other images which have been redrawn - but to any reasonable view, they are all quite poorly drawn when compared to the original. What is the recommended procedure in such cases; what is the best procedure? Somebody with more experience must decide!!NoJoking --Nojoking (talk) 18:37, 28 November 2017 (UTC) 1. Unfortunately I don't think this is possible. The BM at only allows reuse for non-commercial purposes, whereas Wikipedia only allows uploading of materials can be used for any purposes, including commercial ones. Nikkimaria can you confirm whether this is correct please? Dudley Miles (talk) 22:29, 28 November 2017 (UTC) 1.1. Assuming whatever image you're asking about is under that blanket NC license, no we would not be able to use it. (However, note that some museums have a habit of claiming copyright over things whose copyright has e...

    • Vurdering
    • Som Krigskonge
    • Pilegrimsreise, Ekteskap Og Død
    • Familie Og etterkommere
    • Litteratur

    Som barn ble Æthelwulf gitt undervisning av blant annet Svithun av Winchester. Han etterfulgte sin far Egbert som konge i 839, og måtte raskt lede sine styrker i forsvaret mot danene. Historikerne har gitt ulike og motstridende vurderinger av Æthelwulf. I henhold til Richard Humble hadde han en bekymringsfull stil som konge. Han kom til tronen av Wessex ved arv. Han viste seg som særdeles religiøs, hemmet av liten politisk forståelse, og med altfor mange dyktige og ambisiøse sønner. I henhold til historikeren Frank Stenton synes Æthelwulf «å ha vært en religiøs og lite ambisiøs mann, og hvor engasjementet i krig og politikk var en liten ønskelig konsekvens av rang.» Imidlertid mener Janet Nelson at hans tid som konge har blitt lite verdsatt i moderne forskning, og han faktisk la grunnlaget for Alfreds suksess, fant nye så vel som tradisjonelle svar, og sto bedre imot angrep fra nordmenn og daner enn mange andre samtidige angelsaksiske herskere.I Simon Keynes’ syn «det var ham, mer e...

    Den mest kjente og vanligste brukte primærkilde er Den angelsaksiske krønike som viser til Æthelwulfs tilstedeværelse ved en del betydningsfulle slag. I 840 kjempet han ved Carhampton mot 35 skip med daner. De danske angrepene hadde økt betydelig på denne tiden. Hans mest kjente seier kom i 851 ved «Acleah», hvilket kan være Ockley i Surrey eller Oakley i Berkshire. Her kjempet Æthelwulf og hans sønn Æthelbald mot hedningene, og ifølge Krøniken var det «det største drapet på hedninger noensinne». En gang rundt 853 beseiret Æthelwulf og hans svigersønn Burgred, konge av Mercia, den walisiske kongen Cyngen ap Cadell og gjorde waliserne til sine undersåtter. Krøniken beskrev flere slag i årene etter, de meste mot pirater og danene. Dette var en tid i europeisk historie da nasjonene ble angrepet av mange ulike grupper; det var sarasenere i sør, madjarere i øst, maurere i vest, og vikinger i nord. Før Æthelwulfs død hadde nordboere overvintret på øya Sheppey og herjet som de ville i East...

    Religion var alltid en meget viktig del av Æthelwulfs liv. Så tidlig som de første årene av hans styre planla han en pilegrimsreisetil Roma. Grunnet de pågående og økende antall angrep følte han behovet for å søke den kristne guden om hjelp mot en fiende «så rask og så tallrik, og så bespottelig.» I 853 sendte Æthelwulf sin sønn Alfred, da et barn på rundt fire år, til Roma. I 855, antagelig et år etter at hans hustru Osburga gikk bort, fulgte Æthelwulf etter sin sønn til Roma hvor rundhåndet foredelte sin rikdom. Han ga gull til presteskapet i Peterskirken og tilbød dem kirkebeger av det reneste gull og angelsaksiske sølvforgylte kandelaber. Under hjemreisen giftet han seg strategisk med Judith, en frankisk prinsesse og oldebarn av Karl den store. Hun var rundt tolv år gammel og datter av Karl den skallede, konge av vestfrankerne. Etter at han kom tilbake til England i 856 sto han ansikt til ansikt med en akutt krise. Hans eldste overlevende sønn Æthelbald (Athelstan hadde siden dø...

    Æthelwulf og hans første hustru, Osburga, datter av hovmesteren Oslac, hadde fem sønner, Æthelstan, Æthelbald, Æthelbert, Æthelred, og Alfred. Alle sønnene, unntatt Æthelstan, overtok tronen etter ham. Æthelwulfs eneste datter, Æthelswith, ble bortgiftet som barn til kong Burgred av Mercia. Æthelwulf ble gift for andre gang med frankiske Judith som da var rundt tretten år gammel,men fikk ingen barn med henne.

    Ashley, Maurice (1961): Great Britain to 1688: A Modern History. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
    Hindley, Geoffrey (2006): The Anglo-Saxons. London: Robinson.
    Hodgkin, R.H. (1935): A History of the Anglo-Saxons. London: Oxford University Press.
    Humble, Richard (1980): The Saxon Kings. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
  2. Æthelbald (died 860) was King of Wessex from 855 to 860. He was the second of five sons of King Æthelwulf.In 850, Æthelbald's elder brother Æthelstan defeated the Vikings in the first recorded sea battle in English history, but he is not recorded afterwards and probably died in the early 850s.

    • contexte
    • Biographie
    • Aspects Du Règne
    • Mariages et Descendance
    • Historiographie
    • Références
    • Bibliographie
    • Liens Externes

    Au début du IXe siècle, l'Angleterre est presque entièrement occupée par une série de royaumes anglo-saxons dont les plus importants sont le Wessex et la Mercie. Cette dernière joue un rôle prédominant tout au long du VIIIe siècle sous les règnes d'Æthelbald (r. 716-757) et Offa (r. 757-796), mais le Wessex parvient à conserver son indépendance, contrairement à l'Est-Anglie ou au Kent. Son roi Beorhtric (r. 786-802) épouse une fille d'Offa en 789, et les deux rois s'associent pour chasser d'Angleterre le prince Ecgberht. Ce dernier, qui s'est réfugié à la cour de Charlemagne, profite de la mort de Beorhtric pour s'emparer du trône du Wessex en 802[1],[2],[3]. Ses chances de fonder une dynastie semblent alors réduites : cela fait deux siècles qu'aucun fils n'a succédé à son père sur le trône du Wessex, et sa légitimité repose sur un lien de parenté éloigné avec un frère du roi Ine, mort en 726[4]. Les vingt premières années du règne d'Ecgberht ne sont quasiment pas documentées. La Ch...

    Origines

    Æthelwulf est le fils du roi du Wessex Ecgberht (r. 802-839). Le nom de sa mère est inconnu, et on ne lui connaît ni frères ni sœurs[12]. Sa date de naissance ne figure pas non plus dans les sources. Les historiens considèrent généralement qu'il a la cinquantaine lorsqu'il se remarie, en 856, mais l'historien D. P. Kirby estime qu'il peut être né plus tard et n'avoir qu'une quinzaine d'années en 825[13]. 825 marque la première apparition d'Æthelwulf dans les sources. Cette année-là, son père...

    Roi du Wessex

    Æthelwulf devient roi du Wessex à la mort de son père, en 839. Ayant bénéficié de l'expérience acquise en tant que sous-roi du Kent, il nomme à son tour son fils Æthelstan à ce poste[32], mais avec une liberté réduite : Æthelstan ne semble pas avoir eu le pouvoir d'émettre ses propres chartes, bien qu'il apparaisse comme témoin sur celles de son père. Æthelwulf exerce un contrôle accru sur le sud-est, où il se rend régulièrement. Néanmoins, le Wessex et le Kent restent des entités distinctes,...

    Face aux Vikings

    Les années 840 sont marquées par l'intensification des raids vikings de part et d'autre de la Manche. Æthelwulf subit une défaite en 843 face à une armée descendue de trente-cinq navires danois à Carhampton, dans le Somerset. Sept ans plus tard, en 850, les Anglais menés par son fils Æthelstan et l'ealdorman du Kent Ealhhere remportent une victoire sur mer au large de Sandwich : ils s'emparent de neuf navires ennemis et font fuir les autres. Ealhhere est récompensé par le roi, qui lui concède...

    Monnaies

    Les monnaies d'Æthelwulf proviennent principalement de Cantorbéry et secondairement de Rochester. Ces deux ateliers étaient déjà en usage sous le règne de son père après la conquête du Kent. Il est possible de distinguer quatre phases pour chacun des deux ateliers à l'époque d'Æthelwulf, mais elles ne coïncident pas exactement et le moment exact du passage de l'une à l'autre est difficile à déterminer. À Cantorbéry, la première phase reprend un dessin du règne d'Ecgberht, le Saxoniorum. Il co...

    La décimation

    La Chronique anglo-saxonne et la biographie d'Alfred par Asser rapportent qu'en 855, alors qu'il se prépare à partir en pèlerinage à Rome, Æthelwulf procède à une décimation, c'est-à-dire à une donation à l'Église d'un dixième de son royaume ou des terres qu'il possède en propre – les sources sont ambigües sur ce point et les historiens en ont proposé plusieurs interprétations alternatives[88],[89]. Cette décimation est mise en œuvre à travers une série de quatorze chartes, décrites par l'his...

    L'anneau d'Æthelwulf

    Aux alentours du mois d'août 1780, un certain William Petty découvre un anneau portant l'inscription « Æthelwulf Rex » dans une ornière à Laverstock (en), dans le Wiltshire. Il le revend à un orfèvre de Salisbury, qui le revend à son tour au comte de Radnor Jacob Pleydell-Bouverie. Son fils William en fait don au British Museumen 1829. L'anneau d'Æthelwulf présente une décoration niellée représentant un couple de paons entourant la Fontaine de vie, deux symboles d'immortalité dans l'iconograp...

    La première femme connue d'Æthelwulf est Osburga, fille d'Oslac, un descendant des souverains jutes de l'île de Wight qui occupe le poste de pincerna (« échanson ») à la cour d'Æthelwulf[12],[98]. Osburga est vraisemblablement la mère de tous les enfants connus d'Æthelwulf, cinq fils et une fille : 1. Æthelstan, mort entre 851 et 855 ; 2. Æthelbald, mort en 860 ; 3. Æthelberht, mort en 865 ; 4. Æthelred, mort en 871 ; 5. Alfred, né vers 849 et mort en 899 ; 6. Æthelswith, morte en 888, qui épouse le roi de Mercie Burgreden 853. Certaines versions de la Chronique anglo-saxonne décrivent Æthelstan comme le frère d'Æthelwulf, et non comme son fils, mais la plupart des historiens considèrent qu'elles sont fautives sur ce point. L'importante différence d'âge entre lui et ses frères pourrait indiquer qu'il est le fils d'une première union d'Æthelwulf autrement inconnue[99],[100],[98]. Æthelwulf se remarie en 856 avec Judith, fille du roi carolingien de Francie occidentale Charles le Chauv...

    Æthelwulf souffre longtemps d'une piètre réputation auprès des historiens modernes. En 1935, l’historien R. H. Hodgkin décrit son pèlerinage à Rome comme une désertion témoignant d'une piété excessive, et son mariage avec Judith comme un signe de sénilité précoce[102]. Quelques années plus tard, Frank Stenton le dépeint comme « un homme pieux et dépourvu d'ambition, qui considérait la guerre et la politique comme des conséquences malvenues de son rang[103] ». Pour Michael Enright, « il semble avoir été par-dessus tout un dévot peu réaliste[104] ». Plus récemment, cette vision traditionnelle d'Æthelwulf comme un roi aveuglé par sa piété et manquant de sens pratique a été remise en question. En 2003, Simon Keynes le classe parmi les individus de la période anglo-saxonne « qui n'ont pas toujours bénéficié de l'attention qu'ils auraient pu mériter », rappelant que « c'est lui qui, plus que tout autre, a assuré la fortune politique de son peuple au neuvième siècle[105] ». Joanne Story so...

    (en) Cet article est partiellement ou en totalité issu de l’article de Wikipédia en anglais intitulé « Æthelwulf » (voir la liste des auteurs).

    (en) Richard Abels, Alfred the Great : War, Kingship and Culture in Anglo-Saxon England, Longman, 1998 (ISBN 0-582-04047-7).
    (en) Richard Abels, « Royal Succession and the Growth of Political Stability in Ninth-Century Wessex », The Haskins Society Journal: Studies in Medieval History, Boydell & Brewer, vol. 12,‎ 2002, p...
    (la) Asser (trad. du latin par Alban Gautier), Histoire du roi Alfred, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, 2013, 277 p. (ISBN 978-2-251-34063-0).
    (en) John Blair, The Church in Anglo-Saxon Society, Oxford University Press, 2005, 604 p. (ISBN 0-19-921117-5).
    (en) Æthelwulf sur Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England[archive]
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