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  1. Noviembre. 7 de noviembre: Elecciones presidenciales de Estados Unidos de 1848. El presidente demócrata James K. Polk no opta a la reelección y declara candidato a Lewis Cass, que es vencido por el candidato whig, Zachary Taylor, ganador de los comicios por una ventaja de 153 votos electorales.

  2. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › 18481848 - Wikipedia

    1848 is historically famous for the wave of revolutions, a series of widespread struggles for more liberal governments, which broke out from Brazil to Hungary; although most failed in their immediate aims, they significantly altered the political and philosophical landscape and had major ramifications throughout the rest of the century.

    • Contexto Político, Económico Y Social
    • Desarrollo
    • Legado

    Tras el Congreso de Viena, en aplicación del principio de legitimismo dinástico, las monarquías absolutas fueron restauradas en los territorios donde las Guerras Napoleónicas habían instalado Estados liberales. Este restablecimiento del Antiguo Régimen en un periodo de cambio socioeconómico (las denominadas revolución industrial y revolución burguesa, y el desarrollo del capitalismo en sus aspectos industrial y financiero) no se correspondía, en términos de evolución histórica, con el surgimiento de una opinión pública de tipo contemporáneo, cada vez más identificada con los valores de la sociedad industrial y urbana, en la que las clases medias, los profesionales liberales y los estudiantes universitarios tenían un peso decisivo (si no numérico sí en influencia); y que se mostró favorable a los movimientos liberales y nacionalistas. Las potencias absolutistas (Austria, Prusia y Rusia) consiguieron, mediante la Santa Alianza y la convocatoria periódica de congresos, controlar los pe...

    Francia

    En Francia, los conflictos sociales se presentaron como una lucha de clases triangular, con las dos burguesías y la masa popular. La gran burguesía, identificada con el Antiguo Régimen, era predominante en el poder y se negaba a compartirlo con la pequeña burguesía, mientras que la clase obrera comenzaba a ser consciente de su miseria y de su fuerza para reivindicar sus intereses.[6]​ Sin embargo, no fue solo el conflicto social lo que desencadenó la revolución de 1848, sino que la cultura po...

    Estados alemanes

    En la mayor parte de los Estados de la Confederación Germánica (la institución que sustituyó al Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico disuelto durante las guerras napoleónicas) el movimiento revolucionario conocido como Märzrevolution (revolución de marzo) llevó a la formación gobiernos liberales, los denominados Märzregierungen ("gobiernos de marzo"). El 10 de marzo de 1848, el Bundestag (parlamento federal) de la Confederación Germánica nombró un Siebzehnerausschuss ("comité de los diecisiete") pa...

    Estados de los Habsburgo

    En el Imperio austríaco se intentaron llevar a cabo ciertas reformas, obligados por la presión revolucionaria en todos los territorios del imperio plurinacional y otros territorios controlados por los Habsburgo: Austria, Hungría, Bohemia, Voivodina, Italia, etc.[12]​ En este caso, la burguesía era prácticamente inexistente, por lo que el papel de Tercer Estado correspondió a la nobleza media y a la plebe noble, gran parte de la cual estaba compuesta por individuos con estudios universitarios,...

    Socialmente, los distintos grupos que se unieron en los inicios de la revolución se alejaron luego al defender distintos objetivos. Una buena parte de la pequeña burguesía, temerosa de una revolución social, abandonó su alianza con el proletariado y se unió a la gran burguesía, aunque a lo largo del siglo XIX las diferencias entre ambas fueron bien patentes y se materializaron en las luchas políticas entre moderados y radicales. Según el materialismo histórico marxista, el proletariado comenzó a adquirir conciencia de clasey, si bien actuó desorganizadamente, se constituyó como un movimiento autónomo desgajado de los intereses burgueses. Los campesinos, una vez conseguida su liberación del régimen señorial, se condujeron de forma muy moderada y su objetivo en el futuro sería preservar las conquistas conseguidas. Aunque las revoluciones de 1848 fracasaron, su experiencia influyó poderosamente en las ideologías obreras del siglo XIX. Políticamente, a pesar de ese aparente fracaso, los...

    • Origins
    • Sequence of Main Trends
    • Events by Country Or Region
    • Legacy
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
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    The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both liberal reformers and radical politicianswere reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, and new values and ideas such as popular liberalism, nationalism and socialism began to emerge. Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures, particularly those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor.[citation needed] Large swaths of the nobility were discontented with royal absolutism or near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, which was only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an uprising by...

    Every country had a distinctive timing, but the general pattern showed very sharp cycles as reform moved up then down.

    Italian states

    Although few noticed at the time, the first major outbreak came in Sicily, starting in January 1848. There had been several previous revolts against Bourbon rule; this one produced an independent state that lasted only 16 months before the Bourbons came back. During those months, the constitution was quite advanced for its time in liberal democratic terms, as was the proposal of an Italian confederation of states.[citation needed] The revolt's failure was reversed 12 years later as the Bourbo...

    France

    The "February Revolution" in France was sparked by the suppression of the campagne des banquets. This revolution was driven by nationalist and republican ideals among the French general public, who believed the people should rule themselves. It ended the constitutional monarchy of Louis-Philippe, and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. The new government was headed by Louis-Napoleon, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, who in 1852 staged a coup d'état and established himself as a...

    German states

    The "March Revolution" in the German states took place in the south and the west of Germany, with large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations. Led by well-educated students and intellectuals, they demanded German national unity, freedom of the press, and freedom of assembly. The uprisings were poorly coordinated, but had in common a rejection of traditional, autocratic political structures in the 39 independent states of the German Confederation. The middle-class and working-class compon...

    Historian Priscilla Robertsonposits that many goals were achieved by the 1870s, but the credit primarily goes to the enemies of the 1848 revolutionaries, commenting: "Most of what the men of 1848 fought for was brought about within a quarter of a century, and the men who accomplished it were most of them specific enemies of the 1848 movement. Thiers ushered in a third French Republic, Bismarck united Germany, and Cavour, Italy. Deák won autonomy for Hungary within a dual monarchy; a Russian czar freed the serfs; and the British manufacturing classes moved toward the freedoms of the People's Charter." Liberal democrats looked to 1848 as a democratic revolution, which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity. For nationalists, 1848 was the springtime of hope, when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires, but the end results were not as comprehensive as many had hoped. Communists denounced 1848 as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bour...

    Surveys

    1. Breunig, Charles (1977), The Age of Revolution and Reaction, 1789–1850 (ISBN 0-393-09143-0) 2. Chastain, James, ed. (2005) Encyclopedia of Revolutions of 1848 online from Ohio State U. 3. Dowe, Dieter, ed. Europe in 1848: Revolution and Reform(Berghahn Books, 2000) 4. Evans, R. J. W., and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds. The Revolutions in Europe, 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction (2000), 10 essays by scholars excerpt and text search 5. Pouthas, Charles. "The Revolutions of 1848" in J....

    France

    1. Clark, Timothy J. Image of the people: Gustave Courbet and the 1848 revolution(Univ of California Press, 1999), his paintings. 2. Duveau, Georges. 1848: The Making of a Revolution(1966) 3. Fasel, George. "The Wrong Revolution: French Republicanism in 1848," French Historical Studies Vol. 8, No. 4 (Autumn, 1974), pp. 654–77 in JSTOR 4. Loubère, Leo. "The Emergence of the Extreme Left in Lower Languedoc, 1848–1851: Social and Economic Factors in Politics," American Historical Review (1968),...

    Germany and Austria

    1. Deak, Istvan. The Lawful Revolution: Louis Kossuth and the Hungarians, 1848–1849(1979) 2. Hahs, Hans J. The 1848 Revolutions in German-speaking Europe(2001) 3. Hamerow, Theodore S. "History and the German Revolution of 1848." American Historical Review 60.1 (1954): 27-44. online. 4. Hewitson, Mark. "'The Old Forms are Breaking Up, ... Our New Germany is Rebuilding Itself': Constitutionalism, Nationalism and the Creation of a German Polity during the Revolutions of 1848–49," English Histori...

    • 23 February 1848 – October 1849
    • See Events by country or region, Political change in a few countries, Significant social and cultural change
    • Overview
    • Background
    • Events of February
    • Second Republic

    The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, also known as the February Revolution, was the series of revolutionary events that ended the July Monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. It sparked a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the Second Republic was ruled by a provisional government. In the months that followed, this government steered a course that became more conservative, which led to the start

    Under the Charter of 1814, Louis XVIII ruled France as the head of a constitutional monarchy. Upon Louis XVIII's death, his brother, the Count of Artois, ascended to the throne in 1824, as Charles X. Supported by the ultra-royalists, Charles X was an extremely unpopular reactionary monarch whose aspirations were far more grand than those of his deceased brother. He had no desire to rule as a constitutional monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch and weaken that o

    Because political gatherings and demonstrations were outlawed in France, activists of the largely middle class opposition to the government began to hold a series of fund-raising banquets. This campaign of banquets, was intended to circumvent the governmental restriction on political meetings and provide a legal outlet for popular criticism of the regime. The campaign began in July 1847. Friedrich Engels was in Paris dating from October 1847 and was able to observe and attend some of these banqu

    On 24 February 1848, the liberal opposition came together to organize a provisional government, called the Second Republic. The poet Alphonse de Lamartine was appointed president of the provisional government. Lamartine served as a virtual dictator of France for the next three months. Elections for a Constituent Assembly were scheduled for 23 April 1848. The Constituent Assembly was to establish a new republican government for France. In preparation for these elections, two major goals of the pr

    • Paris, France
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