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  1. This makes it the fifth-largest language family by number of speakers. Major Austronesian languages include Malay ( Indonesian and Malaysian ), Javanese, and Tagalog ( Filipino ). According to some estimates, the family contains 1,257 languages, which is the second most of any language family.

  2. Dialects of major Austronesian languages. Banyumas Javanese (15,000,000 native, Indonesia) Banten Sundanese (3,350,000 native, Indonesia) Osing Javanese (300,000 native, Indonesia) Batak Alas language (200,000 native, Indonesia) Batak Angkola language (750,000 native, Indonesia) Batak Karo language (600,000 native, Indonesia)

    Language
    Speakers
    Native Name
    Official Status
    639,210
    Na Vosa Vakaviti
    Tagalog ( Filipino)
    20,000,000 (L1) 80,000,000 (L2)
    Wikang Filipino/Tagalog
    120,000
    Taetae ni Kiribati
    120,000 (L2)
    Hiri Motu
    • Distribución E Historia
    • Clasificación
    • Descripción Lingüística
    • Referencia

    Descubrimiento

    El descubrimiento de la familia es antiguo y precede al de las lenguas indoeuropeas (afirmada claramente solo a finales del siglo XVIII y establecida científicamente a partir del siglo XIX). Desde 1706, el lingüista Hadrian Reland ya había subrayado el parecido entre la lengua hablada en Futuna, el malayo y el malgache, a partir del glosario recogido por Jacob Le Maire en Futuna. La existencia de una familia de lenguas, que con sucesivas ampliaciones y clarificaciones se denomina actualmente...

    Distribución geográfica

    La familia austronesia es una de las que posee mayor extensión geográfica abarcando tres continentes: Asia, Oceanía y África. Cuenta con más de 1000 lenguas la mayor parte de ellas en las islas del Pacífico. Los últimos territorios en ser alcanzados por la expansión austronesia probablemente fueron Hawái, Isla de Pascua en el siglo V y Nueva Zelanda hacia el siglo IX.

    Origen y expansión

    La lingüística comparativa, apoyada por hallazgos arqueológicos, localiza el origen de los ancestros lingüísticos de la familia en el sureste de la actual China desde donde emigraron hacia Taiwán. El origen está relacionado con el temprano poblamiento de Taiwán durante la edad de hielo, el cual se encontraba unido al continente. Al subir el nivel del mar hace unos 10 000 años, emerge como isla produciéndose el aislamiento de la población de aborígenes de Taiwán. Las lenguas austronesias son l...

    La estructura interna de la familia austronesia es compleja, pues está constituida por un gran número de lenguas cercanamente relacionadas con un gran número de continuos dialectales, lo que dificulta el establecimiento de los límites entre cada grupo que conforma la familia. A pesar de ello es claro que la gran diversidad filogenética se encuentra entre las lenguas formosanas y es menor entre los idiomas hablados en las islas del Pacífico. Esta situación apoya la hipótesis de que el origen de esta familia se encuentra en la isla de Formosao China. El trabajo seminal en la clasificación de las lenguas formosanas y la macroestructura de la familia austronesia es el de Blust (1999). Algunos especialistas en los idiomas formosanos toman este trabajo con algunas reservas en los detalles, pero se suele tener como referencia para el análisis lingüístico. Las lenguas malayo-polinesias son colocadas con frecuencia dentro del grupo formosano oriental en el trabajo de Blust, debido a la conse...

    Las lenguas malayo-polinesias utilizan la reduplicación (procedimiento morfológico consistente en la repetición de todo o parte de una palabra) para expresar el plural y todas las lenguas austronesias tienen una entropíade primer orden baja, es decir, los textos son bastante repetitivos en cuanto a la frecuencia de los sonidos. La mayoría no posee grupos de consonantes (como [str] o [mpl]) y tiene un número de vocales pequeño, siendo cinco lo más común.

    Bibliografía

    1. Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical classification of the Austronesian languages." International Journal of American Linguistics, Memoir 19. 2. Dyen, Isidore, ed. (1973). Lexicostatistics in genetic linguistics: Proceedings of the Yale conference, April 3–4, 1971. La Haye: Mouton. 3. Ross, Malcom (1992). "The Sound of Proto-Austronesian", Oceanic Linguistics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1992, pp. 23-64.

    Enlaces externos

    1. Ethnologue report for Austronesian. 2. Austronesian language family

    • ~300[1]​-354[2]​ millones
    • (agrupadas dentro de las Áustricas)
  3. The Austronesian languages are a language family. They were originally spoken in Southeast Asia and on islands in the Pacific Ocean. List of Austronesian languages. Anus; Indonesian; Fijian; Hawaiian; Javanese; Malay; Māori; Tagalog; Tuvaluan

    • Overview
    • Classification
    • Criticism

    Sino-Austronesian or Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian is a proposed language family suggested by Laurent Sagart in 1990. Using reconstructions of Old Chinese, Sagart argued that the Austronesian languages are related to the Sinitic languages phonologically, lexically and morphologically. Sagart later accepted the Sino-Tibetan languages as a valid group and extended his proposal to include the rest of Sino-Tibetan. He also placed the Tai–Kadai languages within the Austronesian family as a sister...

    Stanley Starosta expands Sagart's Sino-Austronesian tree with a "Yangzian" branch, consisting of Austroasiatic and Hmong–Mien, to form an East Asian superphylum.

    Weera Ostapirat supports the link between Austronesian and Kra–Dai, though as sister groups. However, he rejects a link to Sino-Tibetan, noting that the apparent cognates are rarely found in all branches of Kra–Dai, and almost none are in core vocabulary. Austronesian linguists Paul Jen-kuei Li and Robert Blust have criticized Sagart's comparisons, on the grounds of loose semantic matches, inconsistent correspondences, and that basic vocabulary is hardly represented. They also note that ...

    • Overview
    • Grammatical correspondences
    • Criticism

    Austronesian–Ongan is a proposed connection between the Ongan and Austronesian language families, proposed by Juliette Blevins. Ongan is a small family of two attested languages in the Andaman Islands, while Austronesian is one of the largest language families in the world, with a thousand languages spread across the Pacific. The proposed connection has been rejected by other linguists.

    Most derivational morphology and grammatical words are so short that the several resemblances between Proto-Ongan and Proto-AN may be chance. However, Ongan morphology does appear to explain an odd situation in Austronesian. Proto-Austronesian has a limited set of reconstructed vowel-initial roots, all of which are kin terms, body parts, or other readily possessed nouns. Ongan languages have inalienable possession, and inalienably possessed nouns are all vowel initial. Elsewhere, vowel-initial r

    The proposal of a genealogical connection between Austronesian and Ongan has not been well received by other linguists. Van Driem considers Blevins' evidence as "not compelling", although he leaves the possibility open that some resemblances could be the result of contact/borrowing, a position also held by Hoogervorst. Blust argues that Blevins' conclusions are not supported by her data, and that of her first 25 reconstructions, none are reproducible using the comparative method. Blust concludes

    • Southeast Asia, East Asia, the Pacific and Madagascar
    • Proposed language family
    • Phonology
    • Sound Changes
    • Syntax
    • Morphology
    • Vocabulary
    • See Also
    • Further Reading

    Proto-Austronesian is reconstructed by constructing sets of correspondences among consonants in the various Austronesian languages, according to the comparative method. Although in theory the result should be unambiguous, in practice given the large number of languages there are numerous disagreements, with various scholars differing significantly on the number and nature of the phonemes in Proto-Austronesian. In the past, some disagreements concerned whether certain correspondence sets were real or represent sporadic developments in particular languages. For the currently remaining disagreements, however, scholars generally accept the validity of the correspondence sets but disagree on the extent to which the distinctions in these sets can be projected back to proto-Austronesian or represent innovations in particular sets of daughter languages.

    As Proto-Austronesian transitioned to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian, the phonemic inventories were continually reduced by merging formerly distinct sounds into one sound. Three mergers were observed in the Proto-Austronesian to Proto-Malayo-Polynesian transition, while nine were observed for the Proto-Oceanic to Proto-Polynesian transition. Thus, Proto-Austronesian has the most elaborate sound system, while Proto-Polynesian has the fewest phonemes. For instance, the Hawaiian language is famous for having only eight consonants, while Māori has only ten consonants. This is a sharp reduction from the 25 consonants of the Proto-Austronesian language that was originally spoken near Taiwan or Kinmen. Blust also observed the following mergers and sound changes between Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian. However, according to Wolff (2010:241), Proto-Malayo-Polynesian's development from Proto-Austronesian only included the following three sound chan...

    Word order

    Proto-Austronesian is a verb-initial language (including VSO and VOS word orders), as most Formosan languages, all Philippine languages, some Bornean languages, all Austronesian dialects of Madagascar, and all Polynesian languages are verb-initial. However, most Austronesian (many of which are Oceanic) languages of Indonesia, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Micronesia are SVO, or verb-medial, languages. SOV, or verb-final, word order is considered to be typologica...

    Voice system

    The Austronesian languages of Taiwan, Borneo, Madagascar and the Philippines are also well known for their unusual morphosyntactic alignment, which is known as the symmetrical voice (also known as the Austronesian alignment). This alignment was also present in the Proto-Austronesian language. Unlike Proto-Austronesian, however, Proto-Oceanic syntax does not make use of the focus morphology present in Austronesian-aligned languages such as the Philippine languages. In the Polynesian languages,...

    Interrogatives and case markers

    The following table compares Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian question words. Currently, the most complete reconstruction of the Proto-Austronesian case marker system is offered by Malcolm Ross.The reconstructed case markers are as follows: Important Proto-Austronesian grammatical words include the ligature *na and locative *i.

    Morphology and syntax are often hard to separate in the Austronesian languages, particularly the Philippine languages.This is because the morphology of the verbs often affects how the rest of the sentence would be constructed (i.e., syntax).

    Pronouns

    The Proto-Austronesian and Proto-Malayo-Polynesian personal pronouns below were reconstructed by Robert Blust. In 2006, Malcolm Rossalso proposed seven different pronominal categories for persons. The categories are listed below, with the Proto-Austronesian first person singular ("I") given as examples. 1. Neutral (e.g., PAN *i-aku) 2. Nominative 1 (e.g., PAN *aku) 3. Nominative 2 (e.g., PAN *=ku, *[S]aku) 4. Accusative (e.g., PAN *i-ak-ən) 5. Genitive 1 (e.g., PAN *=[a]ku) 6. Genitive 2 (e.g...

    Nouns

    Proto-Austronesian vocabulary relating to agriculture and other technological innovations include: 1. *pajay: rice plant 2. *beRas: husked rice 3. *Semay: cooked rice 4. *qayam: bird (means "domesticated animal" in PMP) 5. *manuk: chicken (PMP *manu-manuk means "bird") 6. *babuy: pig 7. *qaNuaŋ: carabao 8. *kuden: clay cooking pot 9. *SadiRi: housepost 10. *busuR: bow 11. *panaq: flight of an arrow 12. *bubu: fish trap 13. *tulaNi: bamboo nose flute Proto-Malayo-Polynesian innovations include...

    Colors and directions

    Below are colors in reconstructed Proto-Austronesian, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, Proto-Oceanic, and Proto-Polynesian. The first three have been reconstructed by Robert Blust, while the Proto-Polynesian words given below were reconstructed by Andrew Pawley. Proto-Polynesian displays many innovations not found in the other proto-languages. The Proto-Austronesians used two types of directions, which are the land-sea axis and the monsoon axis. The cardinal directions of north, south, east, and west...

    Blust, Robert and Stephen Trussel. 2018. Austronesian Comparative Dictionary, web edition.
    Miyake, Marc. 2015. Proto-Sino-Tibetan-Austronesian *ponuq 'brain'?
    Miyake, Marc. 2015. Do Austronesian and Sino-Tibetan share a word for Setaria italica?
    Miyake, Marc. 2013. Thurgood's "Tai-Kadai and Austronesian: the nature of the historical relationship" (1994).
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