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  1. This article covers the history of the United States from 1789 through 1849, the period of westward expansion. George Washington , elected the first president in 1789, worked with the heads of the departments of State, Treasury, and War, along with an Attorney General (the Justice Department wasn't created until 1870), the group of which later became known as his cabinet .

    • Federalist Era
    • Jeffersonian Period
    • Era of Good Feelings
    • Two Party System
    • Era of Jacksonian Democracy
    • Social Reforms
    • Antebellum Slavery
    • U.S. Presidents
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    This is the period from 1789 to about 1801 when the Federalist Party controlled the American government.[a] In 1789, Washington was elected the first President of the United States. The Constitution only gave a vague outline of what a president should be. Washington defined the position of President and left office after two terms. During Washington's term, there was a Whiskey Rebellion, where country farmers tried to stop the government from collecting taxes on whiskey. In 1795, Congress passed the Jay Treaty, which allowed for increased trade with Britain in exchange for the British giving up their forts on the Great Lakes. However, Great Britain was still interfering with the U.S., such as impressment (making American sailors join the British Royal Navy). John Adams defeated Thomas Jefferson in the election of 1796 to become the second President of the United States. This was the first American election that was between two political parties. Under Adams, the United States Navy w...

    This is the period from 1800 through 1815 which includes the administrations of two Democratic-Republican Party presidents, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. They are commonly called Jeffersonian Republicans. During this time the country nearly doubled in size with the Louisiana Purchase from France. This, in turn, was one of the causes behind the War of 1812, when Great Britain attempted to re-claim her former American colonies.

    In 1816, the Federalist Party candidate Rufus King ran against the Democratic-Republican candidate James Monroe. Monroe received 183 electoral votes to King's 34. That was the last time the Federalist Party ran a candidate. The Congressional election of 1818 gave the Democratic-Republicans a majority of 85%. Monroe served for two terms from 1817 to 1825. Due to the dominance of one political party this is often called the "Era of Good Feelings". But the party was deeply divided by this time. Many of the Federalist policies of Alexander Hamilton were adopted during this time and Monroe continued many of the economic policies of Madison. Three in particular were a national bank, protective tariffs and federal funding of the infrastructure.

    The one-party Era of Good Feelings system of cooperation between politicians lasted only about a decade. It was replaced by a new two-party system,[b] which continues to today. Political parties took on the job of building coalitions between many different groups with different interests. This new system broke away from the patronage system based on personal loyalties. The Founding Fathers of the United Stateshad never imagined a system based on political parties but by the 1830s they had become the main system of American politics. The presidential election of 1824 had no Federalist party candidate. There were five candidates with Andrew Jackson winning the electoral college with 99 votes. Second to Jackson was John Quincy Adams with 84 votes and third was William H. Crawford who received 41 votes. Because nobody received a clear majority of electoral votes, following the Twelfth Amendment, the decision would be made by the House of Representatives. The Speaker of the House was Hen...

    Andrew Jackson was elected president in 1828. He got nearly 70% of the electoral votes and over 60% participation in his election. This was largely due to Jackson's popularity as "Old Hickory", the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. His military career had included service in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars. Jackson also benefited from the perceived corrupt bargainbetween Adams and Clay to expand his political base. During his presidency, Jackson founded the party that began calling itself the "American Democracy". Changes in the electoral rules and political campaigns also contributed towards the feeling the country was becoming more democratic than it had been up to this point. For both reasons this era was called Jacksonian democracy. The period itself was from 1828 into the 1840s but its influence lasted much longer. It was a period of democratic reforms in voting and changes to the structure of the federal government. Some historians see it as a con...

    A number of reform movements began during this period after 1815. The improved economy after the War of 1812 provided a new class of people who had the time and financial resources to become involved in social movements. New technologies in printing increased the number of publications including those about subjects such as abolition. Better transportation meant lecturers could move from place to place more easily. A temperance movement began about 1819. A religious movement, sometimes called the Second Great Awakening, swept through the country during this time. Common themes ran through most of these reform movements. One of the most important was the belief that people had the ability to choose between right and wrong. For example, slavery was wrong. The term "slave" was used to show anything that was held to be wrong in society. Drunkards were "slaves" to alcohol, workers were "slaves" to the factory owners, and women were "slaves" to men. It was also common for those who believ...

    Slavery was mainly concentrated in the South by 1830. Slaves were used on small farms and large plantations. They were also used in towns as domestic workers and labor for various industries. Slaves were considered to be property because they were black. They were kept as slaves by the constant threat of violence. They were not allowed to forget they were slaves even though they lived with their masters. Many slaveowners genuinely cared about their slaves, but never saw them as their equal. But the largest percentage of Southerners did not own slaves. Most Southerners worked their own farms yet, curiously, they defended slavery as an institution. Many resented the wealth and power of the large plantation owners but at the same time held out the hope that someday they could join those ranks.Also, while poor Southerners were looked down on by rich plantation owners, they could themselves look down on blacks as an inferior group. Cotton had become the largest cash crop. But plantations...

    1. George Washington (1789–1797)
    2. John Adams (1797–1801)
    3. Thomas Jefferson (1801–1809)
    4. James Madison (1809–1817)
  2. This article is part of a series on the History of the United States Timeline and periods Prehistoric and Pre-colonial until 1607 Colonial period 1607–1765 1776–1789 American Revolution 1765–1783 Confederation Period 1783–1788 1789–1849 Federalist Era 1788–1801 Jeffersonian Era 1801–1817 Era of Good Feelings 1817–1825 Jacksonian Era 1825–1849 1849–1865 Civil War Era 1850 ...

  3. Media in category "History of the United States (1789–1849)" The following 32 files are in this category, out of 32 total. Battle of Taos.jpg 650 × 296; 15 KB. Henry Adams' History of the United States Vol. 1.djvu 1,275 × 1,650, 465 pages; 8.51 MB.

  4. History of the United States (1789–1849) Introduction This article covers the history of the United States from 1789 through 1849 , the period of westward expansion .

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