The Ottoman Empire (/ ˈ ɒ t ə m ə n /; Ottoman Turkish: دولت عليه عثمانيه, romanized: Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye; Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti; French: Empire ottoman) also known as the Turkish Empire was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Ottoman Empire was founded circa 1299 by Osman I as a small beylik in northwestern Asia Minor just south of the Byzantine capital Constantinople. The Ottomans first crossed into Europe in 1352, establishing a permanent settlement at Çimpe Castle on the Dardanelles in 1354 and moving their capital to Edirne (Adrianople) in 1369.
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The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I in 1299. His son, Orhan, captured its first capital, Bursa, from the Byzantine Empire. In the late 1300s, the Ottomans began consolidating power, especially in the Balkans, where Serbia was defeated in 1389 at the Battle of Kosovo Polje by Sultan Murad I. He died at the battle, and Bayezid I took control. A...
Mehmed the Conqueror conquered Constantinople on May 29, 1453. He also subjugated Albania and expanded tolerance for the Orthodox Church. Mehmed continued his expansion, followed by his son Bayezid II. Selim I conquered Egypt and the Levant, which were ruled by the Mamluks, in early 1517. He also obliterated the Safavid Persians at Chaldiran in 151...
The Ottoman Tanzimat period brought reform: conscription was introduced, a central bank was formed, homosexuality was decriminalised, the law was secularised, and the guilds were replaced with factories. The Christian part of the empire became much more advanced than the Muslim part, and the divide created tension. In the 1850s, the British and the...
The empire was a hereditary monarchy. The ruler's title was 'Sultan'. (It was used in front of the name, e.g. "Sultan Süleyman".) The title of 'Sultan' was also used for the wives and the daughters of the monarchs. (It was used at the end of the name, e.g. "Hürrem Sultan".) In the early years of the empire, shahzadahs, the sons of the Sultan, were ...
Bursa was the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. Edirne in Thrace became the capital city of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, until Istanbul was conquered by the Turksand became the empire's final capital.
Many places were vassal states to the empire, rather than being directly ruled. They included Transylvania, Moldavia, Wallachia, (all of them later joined to form Romania), Caucasus (Georgia, Dagestan, and Chechnya). Their rulers received a degree of independence and autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, but they had to pay more money (tax or tribute) ...The Ottoman Empire: The Eternal State Archived 2009-10-25 at the Wayback Machine
Wi Constantinople as its caipital ceety, an vast control o lands aroond the eastren Mediterranean throu the reign o Suleiman the Magneeficent (ruled 1520 tae 1566), the Ottoman Empire wis, in mony respeckkts, an Islamic successor tae the Eastren Roman (Byzantine) Empire. The Ottoman Empire came tae an end, as a regime unner an imperial monarchy, on November 1, Mehmed VI deportit frae Constantinople on November 17.
Throughout its history, the Ottoman Empire had substantial subject populations of Orthodox subjects, Armenians, Jews and Assyrians, who were allowed a certain amount of autonomy under the millet system of Ottoman government, and whose distinctive cultures were adopted and adapted by the Ottoman state.
The foundation and rise of the Ottoman Empire is a period of history that started with the emergence of the Ottoman principality (Osmanlı Beyliği) in c. 1299, and ended circa 1453.
Romania, fighting on the Russian side, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1878 after the end of Russo-Turkish War. Ottoman miniature about the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as avant-garde. Battle of Nicopolis in 1396. Painting from 1523.