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  1. The partition of the Ottoman Empire (30 October 1918 – 1 November 1922) was a geopolitical event that occurred after World War I and the occupation of Constantinople by British, French and Italian troops in November 1918.

    • Background
    • Young Turk Revolution
    • The Second Constitutional Era
    • Union and Progress Takes Control
    • Mehmet Vi
    • End of The Ottoman Empire
    • Image Gallery
    • See Also
    • Bibliography
    • Further Reading

    Social conflicts

    Europe became dominated by nation states with the rise of nationalism in Europe. The 19th century saw the rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire which resulted in the establishment of an independent Greece in 1821, Serbia in 1835, and Bulgaria in 1877-1878. Unlike the European nations, the Ottoman Empire made little attempt to integrate conquered peoples through cultural assimilation. Instead, Ottoman policy was to rule through the millet system, consisting of confessional communities f...

    Economic issues

    The Capitulationswere the main discussion of economic policy during the period. It used to be believed incoming foreign assistance with capitulation could benefit the Empire. Ottoman officials, representing different jurisdictions, sought bribes at every opportunity and withheld the proceeds of a vicious and discriminatory tax system. This ruined every struggling industry by the graft, and fought against every show of independence on the part of Empire's many subject peoples. The Ottoman publ...

    In July 1908, the Young Turk Revolution changed the political structure of the Empire. The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) rebelled against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II to establish the Second Constitutional Era. On 24 July 1908, Abdul Hamid II capitulated and restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876. The revolution created multi-party democracy. Once underground, the Young Turk movement declared its parties.(p32) Among them was "Union and Progress" (CUP), and the "Ottoman Liberty Party." There were smaller parties such as Ottoman Socialist Party and ethnic parties which included People's Federative Party (Bulgarian Section), Bulgarian Constitutional Clubs, Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion), Al-Fatat (also known as the Young Arab Society; Jam’iyat al-'Arabiya al-Fatat), Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization, and Armenians were organized under the Armenakan, Hunchakian and Armenian Revolutionary Federation(ARF/Dashnak). A...

    New Parliament

    1908 Ottoman general election was preceded by political campaigns. In the summer of 1908, a variety of political proposals were put forward by the CUP. The CUP stated in its election manifesto that it sought to modernize the state by reforming finance and education, promoting public works and agriculture, and the principles of equality and justice. Regarding nationalism, (Armenian, Kurd, Turkic..) the CUP identified the Turks as the "dominant nation" around which the empire should be organize...

    31 March Incident

    After nine months into the new government, discontent found expression in a fundamentalist movement which attempted to dismantle Constitution and revert it with a monarchy. The 31 March Incident began when Abdul Hamid promised to restore the Caliphate, eliminate secular policies, and restore the rule of Islamic law, as the mutinous troops claimed. CUP also eliminated the time for religious observance. Unfortunately for the advocates of representative parliamentary government, mutinous demonst...

    Italian War, 1911

    Italy declared war, the Italo-Turkish War, on the Empire on 29 September 1911, demanding the turnover of Tripoli and Cyrenaica. Italian forces took those areas on 5 November of that year. Although minor, the war was an important precursor of World War I as it sparked nationalism in the Balkanstates. The Ottomans lost their last directly ruled African territory. The Italians also sent weapons to Montenegro, encouraged Albanian dissidents, and seized the Dodecanese. Seeing how easily the Italia...

    At the turn of 1913, the Ottoman Modern Army failed at counterinsurgencies in the periphery of the empire, Libya was lost to Italy, and Balkan war erupted in the fall of 1912. Freedom and Accord flexed its muscles with the forced dissolution of the parliament in 1912. The signs of humiliation of the Balkan wars worked to the advantage of the CUPThe cumulative defeats of 1912 enabled the CUP to seize control of the government. The Freedom and Accord Party presented the peace proposal to the Ottoman government as a collective démarche, which was almost immediately accepted by both the Ottoman cabinet and by an overwhelming majority of the parliament on 22 January 1913.(p101) The 1913 Ottoman coup d'état (23 January), was carried out by a number of CUP members led by Ismail Enver and Mehmed Talaat, in which the group made a surprise raid on the central Ottoman government buildings, the Sublime Porte (Turkish: Bâb-ı Âlî). During the coup, the Minister of the Navy Nazım Pasha was assassi...

    Just before the end of World War I, Sultan Mehmet V died and Mehmed VIbecame the new Sultan. The Occupation of Constantinople took place in accordance with the Armistice of Mudros, ending the Ottoman participation in World War I. The occupation had two stages: the initial occupation took place from 13 November 1918 to 16 March 1920; from 16 March 1920 – Treaty of Sèvres. The year 1918 saw the first time Constantinople had changed hands since the Ottoman Turks conquered the Byzantine capital in 1453. An Allied military administration was set up early in December 1918. Hagia Sophia was converted back into a cathedral by the Allied administration, and the building was returned temporarily to the Greek Orthodox Ecumenical Patriarch.[citation needed] The CUP members were court-martialled during the Turkish courts-martial of 1919–1920 with charges of subversion of the constitution, wartime profiteering, and the massacres of both Greeks and Armenians. The courts-martial became a stage for...

    The resulting Treaty of Lausanne secured international recognition for the new Turkish state and its borders. The Treaty was signed on 24 July 1923 and ratified in Turkey on 23 August 1923. The Republic of Turkeywas formally declared on 29 October 1923. The following year on 23 April 1924, the republic declared 150 personae non gratae of Turkey, including the former Sultan, to be personae non-gratae. Most of these restrictions were lifted on 28 June 1938.

    Abdülhamid II
    Mehmed V
    Mehmed VI
    Akın, Yiğit (2018). When the War Came Home: The Ottomans' Great War and the Devastation of an Empire. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-1-503-60490-2.
    Bandžović, S. (2003). "Ratovi i demografska deosmanizacija Balkana (1912-1941)" [Wars and Demographic De-Ottomanization of the Balkans (1912–1941)]. Prilozi. Sarajevo. 32: 179–229.
    David, Murphy (2008). The Arab Revolt 1916–18 Lawrence sets Arabia Ablaze (3 ed.). London: Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-339-1.

    Öktem, Emre (September 2011). "Turkey: Successor or continuing state of the Ottoman empire?". Leiden Journal of International Law. 24 (3): 561–583. doi:10.1017/S0922156511000252. S2CID 145773201.-...

    • Movimientos independentistas
    • Véase también
    • Referencias

    Cuando los otomanos evacuaron, Damasco, los árabes proclamaron un Estado independiente, pero por su debilidad militar y económica no fueron capaces de resistir a los europeos por mucho tiempo y el Reino Unido y Francia restablecieron su control rápidamente. Durante los años 1920 y 1930, surgieron en Irak, Siria y Egipto movimientos en favor de la independencia, aunque los británicos y franceses no abandonaron la región hasta después de terminar la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En Palestina, las fuerzas opuestas del nacionalismo árabe y del sionismo crearon una situación que los británicos no se podían soslayar ni resolver. La toma del poder en Alemania por el nazismo avivó la urgencia de la misión sionista por crear un Estado judío en Palestina, que condujo al conflicto israelí-palestino.

    Bibliografía

    1. Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1989. ISBN 0-8050-0857-8 2. Quilliam, Neil. Syria and the New World Order. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press (Garnet), 1999. ISBN 0-86372-249-0

  2. The many noteworthy contributing factors to the central subject -Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire- are worthwhile subjects unto themselves -but beyond the scope of this article. To address them -or other issues of substance depending from, but not directly factoring in the Partitioning- here would onerously encumber the function of this document.

  3. The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, that settled the Anatolian and East Thracian parts of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by annulment of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920) that was signed by the Constantinople-based Ottoman government; as the consequence of the Turkish War of Independence between the Allies of World War I and the Ankara-based Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Turkish national movement) led by Mustafa Kemal ...

  4. The Ottoman Empire had been the leading Islamic state in geopolitical, cultural and ideological terms. The partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after the war led to the domination of the Middle East by Western powers such as Britain and France, and saw the creation of the modern Arab world and the Republic of Turkey .

    • Background
    • French Mandates
    • British Mandates
    • Independence Movements
    • See Also

    The Western powers had long believed that they would eventually become dominant in the area claimed by the weak central government of the Ottoman Empire. Britain anticipated a need to secure the area because of its strategic position on the route to Colonial India and perceived itself as locked in a struggle with Russia for imperial influence known as The Great Game.These powers disagreed over their contradictory post-war aims and made several dual and triple agreements.

    Syria and Lebanon became a French protectorate (thinly disguised as a League of Nations Mandate). French control was met immediately with armed resistance, and, to combat Arab nationalism, France divided the Mandate area into Lebanon and four sub-states.

    The British were awarded three mandated territories, with one of Sharif Hussein's sons, Faisal, installed as King of Iraq and Transjordan providing a throne for another of Hussein's sons, Abdullah. Mandatory Palestine was placed under direct British administration, and the Jewish population was allowed to increase, initially under British protection. Most of the Arabian peninsula fell to another British ally, Ibn Saud, who created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabiain 1932.

    When the Ottomans departed, the Arabs proclaimed an independent state in Damascus, but were too weak, militarily and economically, to resist the European powers for long, and Britain and France soon re-established control. During the 1920s and 1930s Iraq, Syria and Egypt moved towards independence, although the British and French did not formally depart the region until after World War II. But in Palestine, the conflicting forces of Arab nationalism and Zionism created a situation from which the British could neither resolve nor extricate themselves from. The rise to power of Nazism in Germany created a new urgency in the Zionist quest to create a Jewish state in Palestine, leading to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.

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