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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › World_War_IIWorld War II - Wikipedia

    World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers.

    • Allies and Axis
    • Background
    • Course of The War
    • Aftermath
    • Effects
    • Military Losses
    • Civilian Losses
    • Related Pages
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    The countries that joined the war were on one of two sides: the Axis and the Allies. The Axis Powers at the start of the war were Germany, Italy, and Japan. There were many meetings to create an alliance between those countries. Finland, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Thailandjoined the Axis later. As the war continued, some Axis countries like Italy changed sides to join the Allies instead. The Allied Powers were the United Kingdom and the rest of the British Empire, France, Poland, Yugoslavia, Greece, Belgium, and China, the last of which had been fighting a civil war. In June 1941, Germany attacked the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa, which made the Soviets join the Allies. In December 1941 came the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor against the United States, which then joined the Allies.

    World War I had greatly changed the way of diplomacy and politics in Asia, Europe, and Africa with the defeat of the Central Powers. The empires that had sided with the Central Powers were destroyed. Even the Russian Empire, which did not side with the Central Powers, still died. The war also changed the borders in Eastern Europe, with many new countries born. The war led to strong irredentism and revanchism, which were especially strong in Germany since it had been forced to sign the Treaty of Versailles. The Germans also had 13% of their homeland area, some of which were mostly German, and all of their colonies taken away, and they had to pay back a very large sum of money to the Allies. The size of their army and navy was also limited,and its air force was banned. In Italy, nationalists were unhappy with the outcome of the war since they thought that their country should have gained far more territory from the past agreement with the Allies. The fascist movement in the 1920s brou...

    War breaks out

    World War II began in Europe on September 1, 1939, as Germany invaded Poland. On September 3, Britain and France declared war on Germany. They did not do much to help Poland but sent only a small French attack on Germany from the west. The Soviet Union soon invaded eastern Poland, on September 17.Finally, all of Poland was divided. Germany then signed an agreement to work together with the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries to allow it to keep Soviet soldiers in their...

    Axis early victories

    On 10 May, Germany invaded France, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg and quickly defeated them by using tactics of massive force. The British were forced to leave mainland Europe at Dunkirk. On June 10, Italy invaded France and declared war on itand the United Kingdom. Soon, France was divided into occupation zones. Some were directly controlled by Germany and Italy, and the other was the zone of unoccupied Vichy France. By June 1940, the Soviet Union moved its soldiers into the Baltic states...

    War becomes global

    On June 22, 1941, the European Axis countries attacked the Soviet Union. During the summer, the Axis quickly captured Ukraine and the Baltic regions, which caused huge damage to the Soviets. Britain and the Soviet Union formed a military alliance in July. Although there was great progress in the last two months when winter arrived, the tired German army was forced to delay its attack just outside Moscow. That showed that the Axis had failed its main targets, and the Soviet army was still not...

    The Allies managed to occupy Austria and Germany. Germany was divided into two. The Soviets controlled the east, and the Western Allies controlled the west. The Allies began denazification, removing Nazi ideas from public life in Germany, and most high-ranking Nazis were captured and brought to a special court. Germany lost a quarter of the land that it had in 1937, mostly to Poland and the Soviet Union. The Soviets also took some parts of Poland and Finlandas well as the three Baltic countries. The United Nations was formed on October 24, 1945 to keep peace between countries in the world. However, the relationship between the Western Allies and the Soviet Union had worsened during the war and, soon after it, each power quickly built up their power over the controlled area. In Western Europe and West Germany, it was the United States, while in East Germany and Eastern Europe, it was the Soviet Union, which turned many countries into communist states. The Cold War led to the formatio...

    Death and war crimes

    There is no exact total number of deaths because many of them were unrecorded. Many studies said that more than 60 million people died in the war, mostly civilians. The Soviet Union lost around 27 million people, almost half of the recorded number of deaths, which means that 25% of the Soviets were killed or wounded in the war. About 85% of the total deaths were on the Allies, and the other 15% were on the Axis. Mostly, people died because they were sick, hungry to death, bombed, or the wrong...

    Concentration camps and slave work

    Other than the Holocaust, about 12 million people, mostly Eastern Europeans, were forced to work for the German economy. German concentration camps and Soviet gulagscaused many deaths. Both sides treated prisoners-of-war badly. That was the case even for Soviet soldiers who survived and returned home. Japanese prisoner-of-war camps, many of which were used as labour camps, also caused many deaths. The death rate of Western prisoners was 27.1%, seven times that of prisoners under Germans and I...

    Home fronts and production

    Before the war in Europe, the Allies had a larger population and economy than the Axis. If colonies were included, the GDP of the Allies would be twice that of the Axis.In Asia, however, China had a GDP only 38% higher than Japan if colonies were counted. The Allied economy and population compared with the Axis lessened with the early Axis victories. However, that was no longer the case after the United States and the Soviet Union joined the Allies in 1941. The Allies had a higher production...

    Most authorities now agree that of the 30 million Soviets who bore arms, there were 13.6 million military deaths. *Total of which 7,800,000 were battlefield deaths **Including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, etc.

    Deaths among civilians during this war, many of which resulted from famine and internal purges, such as in China and the Soviet Union, were colossal but less well documented than those by the fighting forces. Although the figures are the best available from authoritative sources and present a broad picture of the scale of civilian losses, the precise numbers will never be known. Axis Powers Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Allied Powers United States, British Empire, France, Soviet Union, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Yugoslavia

    World War II Letter Database Archived 2009-01-30 at the Wayback Machine- Letters from World War Two
    World War II - Encyc Archived 2009-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
  2. La Segunda Guerra Mundial (en inglés original: The Second World War) es el título de la obra literaria histórica en seis volúmenes que narra el período desde el final de la Primera Guerra Mundial hasta julio de 1945, escrita por Winston Churchill.

  3. The History of the Second World War is the official history of the British contribution to the Second World War and was published by Her Majesty's Stationery Office (HMSO). The immense project was sub-divided into areas to ease publication, United Kingdom Military Series , the United Kingdom Civil Series for the civilian war effort; the Foreign Policy series , the Intelligence series and the ...

    • Overview
    • Writing
    • Legacy
    • Editions

    The Second World War First edition in 6 volumes AuthorWinston Churchill and assistants CountryUnited Kingdom LanguageEnglish SubjectSecond World War PublisherHoughtonMifflin Publication date 1948–1953 This article is part of a series about Winston Churchill Liberal Party Conservative Party Electoral history MP for Dundee MP for Epping MP for Woodford Liberal Government Tonypandy riots Siege of Sidney Street National Insurance Act 1911 Gallipoli campaign Russian Civil War Irish War of...

    When Churchill assumed office in 1940, he intended to write a history of the war then beginning. He said several times: "I will leave judgements on this matter to history—but I will be one of the historians." To circumvent the rules against the use of official documents, he took the precaution throughout the war of having a weekly summary of correspondence, minutes, memoranda and other documents printed in galleys and headed "Prime Minister's personal minutes". These were then stored at ...

    The Second World War can be read with profit by students of the period as a memoir by a leading participant rather than a comprehensive history by a professional and detached historian. The Second World War, particularly the period from 1940 to 1942 when Britain fought with the support of the Empire and a few Allies, was the climax of Churchill's career and his inside story of those days is unique and invaluable. American historian Raymond Callahan, reviewing In Command of History by David Reyno

    The Second World War has been issued in editions of six, twelve and four volumes, as well as a single-volume abridgment. Some volumes in these editions share names, such as Triumph and Tragedy but the contents of the volumes differ, covering varying portions of the book. The country of first publication was the United States, preceding publication in the United Kingdom by six months. This was a consequence of the many last minute changes which Churchill insisted be made to the London Cassell edi

    • Winston Churchill
    • United Kingdom
    • 1948
    • 1948–1953
    • Overview
    • Synopsis
    • Reviews
    • Opinions

    The Second World War is a narrative history of World War II by the British historian Antony Beevor. The book starts with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931, and covers the entire Second World War ending with the final surrender of Axis forces.

    In the introduction, Beevor discusses Yang Kyoungjong, a Korean soldier forcibly conscripted by the Kwantung Army, then in turn taken prisoner by the Red Army and the Wehrmacht, eventually being captured by American troops. He also discusses the background of the war, including the rise of Nazism in post-World War I Germany, and the formation of alliances with Italy and Japan. Throughout the bulk of the book, Beevor jumps back and forth throughout the different theaters of war. He begins by deta

    As one of Beevor's culminating works, The Second World War received mostly positive reviews. The Guardian praised his account of the Eastern Front, but criticised his depiction of the Second Sino-Japanese War and its rapid pace. Other reviews lauded the global scale of the book and its gripping narrative, and the attention it gives to lesser-known areas of the war.

    Beevor's central theme in The Second World War is the ongoing conflict between the left and the right. Nazi Germany and its allies represent the far right, while the Soviet Union and Communist China represent the far left. Beevor does not take a side in this conflict; he views bo

    Beevor takes a highly critical view of Communist China and Mao Zedong. He believes that Nationalist China, under Chiang Kai-shek, undertook most of the effort in fighting the Japanese despite being seriously undersupplied, while the Communists participated little in the fighting.

    Beevor also disagrees with some long-held views about certain generals in the war; in particular, he writes that the reputations of Bernard Montgomery and Erwin Rommel are far overblown.

    • Antony Beevor
    • 863
    • 2012
    • 2012
  4. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › Second_WorldSecond World - Wikipedia

    • Overview
    • Concept
    • Human development
    • Examples and decline in usage of term

    The Second World is a term used during the Cold War for the industrial socialist states that were under the influence of the Soviet Union. In the first two decades following World War II, 19 communist states emerged; all of these were at least originally within the Soviet sphere of influence, though some broke with Moscow and developed their own path of socialism while retaining Communist governments. Most communist states remained part of this bloc until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991; af

    The concept of "Second World" was a construct of the Cold War and the term is still largely used to describe former communist countries that are between poverty and prosperity, many of which are now capitalist states, such as Eastern Europe. Subsequently, the actual meaning of the terms "First World", "Second World," and "Third World" changed from being based on political ideology to an economic definition. The three-world theory has been criticized as crude and relatively outdated for its nomin

    The Three Worlds Model was used to rank the development of countries and their economies during the Cold War. First World countries were capitalist and industrial; they shared similar political and economic institutions, and retained influence over parts of the former colonial world. Second World countries advocated socialism and shared certain characteristics such as centrally planned economic systems, single-party states, and mainly medium income levels. The First World and the Second World we

    Some examples of Cold-War definition Second World countries were Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Mongolia, North Korea, Poland, Romania, the Soviet Union, and the German Democratic Republic. In a socio-economic sense, similar to those assumed by the terms First and Third world in the post-Cold War environment, the clearest definition for the Second World would be newly industrialized countries such as Thailand, India, Malaysia, Turkey, and Brazil. Second World countries are countries that are

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