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  1. › wiki › 12th_century12th century - Wikipedia

    The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar.In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages and is sometimes called the Age of the Cistercians.

  2. The main article for this category is 12th century. Wikimedia Commons has media related to 12th century. The 12th century is the time from 1101 to 1200. (Note that some decade-based subcategories may overlap with the 11th century, in that they include the year 1100 .)

  3. The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages. It included social, political and economic transformations, and an intellectual revitalization of Western Europe with strong philosophical and scientific roots. These changes paved the way for later achievements such as the literary and ...

  4. The 12th century was the century from 1101 to 1200.. Decades and years. Note: years before or after the 12th century are in italics.

    • 11th century, 12th century, 13th century
    • 2nd millennium
    • Events
    • Histories
    • Philosophy/Theology
    • Biography/Hagiography
    • Epic/Saga/Chanson de Geste
    • Romance
    • Fable/Allegory
    • Drama
    • Lyric
    • Topography
    1104: September 3 – St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral (England) and the St. Cuthbert Gospel of St. Johnremoved from his tomb.
    1170: Poet, politician and historian Lu You (陸游) travels on the Grand Canal (China) from Shaoxing to the river Yangtze, recording his progress in a diary.
    Before 1173: Copenhagen Psalterproduced in northern England
    1170: 29 December – Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket is assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral, an event that inspires several plays, notably: Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Becket (1884), T. S. Eliot...
    Early 12th century
    By 1106 Lebor na hUidre by monks of Clonmacnoise
    1108 Dei gesta per Francos by Guibert of Nogent
    c. 1112–18 Gesta principum Polonorum by 'Gallus Anonymus'
    Early 12th century Rhinelandic Rhyming Bible
    c. 1120 Theologia 'Summi Boni' by Peter Abelard
    c. 1121 Sic et Non by Peter Abelard
    c. 1141–42 Historia Ecclesiastica by Orderic Vitalis
    11th or 12th century
    12th century
    By 1111 Deliverance From Error (المنقذ من الضلال, al-munqidh min al-ḍalāl) by Al-Ghazali(spiritual autobiography)
    c. 1111–1115 Vita Mathildis (Life of Mathilda of Tuscany)by Donizone
    Táin Bó Cúailnge (Old Irish version in Lebor na hUidre, by 1106; Middle Irish version in Book of Leinster, c. 1160)
    Ramavataram by Kambar
    Earliest texts of the Tristan and Iseult legend
    c. 1160 Roman d'Enéas
    c. 1100 Culhwch and Olwen
    c. 1155–60 Roman de Troie by Benoît de Sainte-Maure
    c. 1170 Érec et Énide by Chrétien de Troyes
    c. 1175–1200? Roman de toute chevalerie by Thomas de Kent
    Dolopathos, translation of the Seven Wise Masters made by Jean de Hauteseille(Joannes de Alta Silva)
    1121 Kalīleh o Demneh (Persian: کلیله و دمنه‎), translation of the Panchatantramade by Abu'l Ma'ali Nasr Allah Munshi
    c. 1184 Architrenius by John of Hauville
    c. 1119 Lyric poetry by William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, in Old Occitanknown
    c. 1124–27 Waka anthology Kin'yō Wakashū (Collection of Gold Leaves) compiled by Minamoto no Shunrai(源 俊頼)
    1140s–1150s Goliardic poetry by Hugh Primasof Orléans
    c. 1151–54 Waka anthology Shika Wakashū (Collection of Word Blossom) compiled by Fujiwara no Akisue(藤原 顕季)
    1191 Itinerarium Cambriae by Gerald of Wales
    1194 Descriptio Cambriaeby Gerald of Wales
    c. 1199? De laude Cestrie by Lucian of Chester
    • Overview
    • Investiture controversies
    • Medieval Inquisition
    • Rise of universities
    • Church architecture
    • Early scholasticism and its contemporaries

    Christianity in the 12th century was marked by scholastic development and monastic reforms in the western church and a continuation of the Crusades, namely with the Second Crusade in the Holy Land.

    Two investiture controversies ended in the 12th century, both concerning whether secular or religious authorities could appoint bishops. One was between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, which ran from 1076 until 1122, when Pope Callixtus II and Emperor Henry V agreed on the Concordat of Worms. The agreement differentiated between the royal and spiritual powers and gave the emperors a limited role in selecting bishops in Germany. The selection of bishops was granted to their cathedral canons.

    The Medieval Inquisition is a series of inquisitions from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition and later the Papal Inquisition. It was in response to movements within Europe considered apostate or heretical to Western Catholicism, in particular the Cathars and the Waldensians in southern France and northern Italy. These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow. The inquisitions in combination with the Albigensian Crusade were fairly successful in ending heresy.

    Modern western universities have their origins directly in the Medieval Church. They began as cathedral schools, and all students were considered clerics. This was a benefit as it placed the students under ecclesiastical jurisdiction and thus imparted certain legal immunities and protections. The cathedral schools eventually became partially detached from the cathedrals and formed their own institutions, the earliest being the University of Paris, the University of Bologna, and the University of

    Two new orders of architecture emerged from the Church of this era. The earlier Romanesque style combined massive walls, rounded arches and ceilings of masonry. To compensate for the absence of large windows, interiors were brightly painted with scenes from the Bible and the lives of the saints. Later, the Basilique Saint-Denis marked a new trend in cathedral building when it utilized Gothic architecture. This style, with its large windows and high, pointed arches, improved lighting and geometri

    Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus meaning "that belongs to the school"; it was a method of learning taught by the academics of medieval universities c.1100–1500. Scholasticism originally began to reconcile the philosophy of the ancient classical philosophers with medieval Christian theology. It is not a philosophy or theology in itself but a tool and method for learning which puts emphasis on dialectical reasoning. The primary purpose of scholasticism was to find the ...

    • Europe
    • Middle East
    • Persia
    • China
    • Japan
    • South Asia


    1. Emergence of the troubadour, trouvère and minnesänger traditions, in the Occitan, Langues d'oïl and Middle High Germanvernaculars respectively

    Major works

    1. 1180 to 1210 - Nibelungenlied 2. Aiol and Mirabel in Old French 3. The Tale of Igor's Campaign in Old East Slavic, dated near the end of the century 4. Durham in Old English 5. Ormulum in Middle English 6. Chanson d'Antiocheand other crusader tales at the beginning of the century.


    1. Chakhrukhadze poet, author of Tamariani 2. Shota Rustaveli poet of the 12th century, author of "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" 3. Chrétien de Troyesflourishes in the 1170s and 1180s 4. Marie de France flourishes from approximately 1170 through 1205/1210, author of lais in Anglo-Norman 5. Jean Bodel 6. Undated troubadors 6.1. Bernart de Ventadorn(c. 1130s - c. 1190s) 6.2. Cercamon (fl.1130s and 1140s) 6.3. Marcabru(fl. 1140s and 1150s) 6.4. Arnaut de Mareuil(fl. late 12th century) 7. Gol...


    1. Emergence of Turkicpoetry

    Byzantine poets

    1. Michael Glykas 2. Theodore Prodromos 3. Nicholas Kallikles 4. John Tzetzes 5. Constantine Manasses 6. Manganeios Prodromos 7. Constantine Stilbes 8. Niketas Eugenianos

    Arab world poets

    1. Ibn al-Farid (1181–1235) 2. Muhyi al-din ibn al-'Arabi, (died 1240) 3. Ahmad al-Tifashi (died 1253)

    Persian poets

    1. Adib Sabirادیب صابر 2. Am'aqعمعق بخارائی 3. Anvariانوری ابیوردی 4. Nasrullah Monshi 5. Farid al-Din Attar, poet (about 1130-about 1220) فریدالدین عطار نیشاپوری 6. Omar Khayyám, poet (1048-1131) عمر خیام 7. Nizami Ganjavi, poet (about 1141-1209) نظامی 8. Nizami Aruzi 9. Saadi, poet (1184-1283/1291?) سعدی 10. Sheikh Ruzbehanشیخ روزبهان 11. Abdul Qadir Jilaniعبدالقادر گیلانی 12. Khaqani Shirvaniخاقانی شروانی 13. Sanaayiسنایی 14. Zhende pil 15. Muhammad Aufi 16. Masudi Ghaznavi 17. Jmaluddin A...

    Chinese poets

    1. Lu You 陸游 (1125–1209), Southern Song dynasty poet in the shi and ci forms, born on a boat on the Wei Riverearly on a rainy morning, October 17; known for the poem 示儿 ("To my son")

    Japanese works

    Imperial poetry anthologies: 1. Kin'yō Wakashū 10 scrolls, 716 poems, ordered by former Emperor Shirakawa, drafts completed 1124–1127, compiled by Minamoto no Shunrai (Toshiyori) 2. Shika Wakashū 10 scrolls, 411 poems, ordered in 1144 by former Emperor Sutoku, completed c. 1151–1154, compiled by Fujiwara Akisuke 3. Senzai Wakashū 20 scrolls, 1,285 poems, ordered by former Emperor Shirakawa, probably completed in 1188, compiled by Fujiwara no Shunzei (also known as Toshinari)

    Japanese poets

    1. Fujiwara no Akisue 藤原顕季 (1055–1123), late Heian period poet and nobleman, member of the Fujiwarapoetic and aristocratic clan 2. Fujiwara no Ietaka 藤原家隆 (1158–1237), early Kamakura period waka poet; has several poems in the Shin Kokin Wakashū anthology; related by marriage to Jakuren; pupil of Fujiwara no Shunzei's 3. Fujiwara no Shunzei 藤原俊成, also known as "Fujiwara no Toshinari", "Shakua" 釈阿, "Akihiro" 顕広 (1114–1204), poet and nobleman, noted for his innovations in the waka poetic form an...


    1. Jayadeva, Gita Govinda, in Sanskrit 2. Akka Mahadevi, in Kannada 3. Allama Prabhu, in Kannada 4. Nagavarma II, in Kannada 5. Rudrabhatta, in Kannada 6. Chand Bardai, in Hindi 7. Fariduddin Ganjshakar, in Punjabi

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