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Albert Einstein: Publica la Teoría de la relatividad especial, el efecto fotoeléctrico ,y el movimiento browniano, teorías tan importantes que causan que 1905 se considere su año milagroso. Ramón y Cajal: textura del sistema nervioso. Matschie describe por primera vez la foca monje de Hawái (Mónachus schauinslandi).
1905 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1905th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 905th year of the 2nd millennium, the 5th year of the 20th century, and the 6th year of the 1900s decade.
- Desarrollo de La Revolución
- Enlaces Externos
La emancipación fue solo una parte de un conjunto de cambios políticos, legales, sociales y económicos que comenzaron en la década de 1860 mientras el imperio se desplazaba lentamente desde el absolutismo feudal hacia el capitalismo, bajo el régimen de la autocracia zarista. Mientras estas reformas habían liberalizado las estructuras económicas, sociales y culturales, el sistema político permaneció prácticamente inalterado. Diversos intentos de reforma fueron duramente rechazados por la monarquía y la burocracia. Incluso los cambios consensuados tuvieron un alcance relativo; por ejemplo, menos de cuarenta provincias tenían zemstvo (consejos rurales), cincuenta años después de su introducción legislativa. Las expectativas, contrarrestadas por el limitado progreso reformador, produjo frustración que llegado el momento desembocó en rebeliones. La sensación entre aquellos que se rebelaron fue que la demanda de «tierra y libertad» solo podía satisfacerse mediante la revolución. Los revol...
El 9 de enerojul./ 22 de enero de 1905greg., día conocido como «Domingo Sangriento», hubo una marcha pacífica de protesta de obreros en San Petersburgo. El objetivo de la marcha era entregar al zar una petición de mejoras laborales, y la formaban familias trabajadoras enteras. Iba encabezada por un sacerdote, el clérigo Gueorgui Gapón y no respondía a ninguna consigna política: era fundamentalmente obrera y campesina, al punto que numerosos obreros avanzaban llevando íconosreligiosos y cruces, sin armas. La manifestación fue salvajemente aplastada por soldados de infantería y tropas cosacas, apostados enfrente del Palacio de Invierno, que dispararon sucesivas descargas de fusilería contra la multitud desarmada y luego persiguieron por calles y avenidas a los supervivientes, disparando durante horas, cobrándose un número de víctimas que aún hoy se discute; los periódicos del momento hablaron de al menos 2000 muertos, entre hombres, mujeres, y niños, más un número impreciso de heridos...
El gobierno respondió rápidamente. El zar había tenido la esperanza de evitar cualquier cambio importante; como medio de evitar mayor animadversión del pueblo hacia la corona destituyó a su ministro del Interior Sviatopolk-Mirski, responsabilizándolo de la masacre del Domingo Sangriento. Tras el asesinato de su pariente, el gran duque Serguéi Aleksándrovich el 4 de febrero (C.J.), acordó la realización de diversas concesiones. El 18 de febrero (C.J.) firmaría tres declaraciones, en la más importante de las cuales anunciaría la creación de una asamblea consultiva, la Duma Imperial de Rusia. El 6 de agosto (C.J.) se promulgó una ley electoral, la Constitución de Bullyng. Cuando se dieron a conocer los escasos poderes de la Duma y las limitaciones al censo electoral, la impaciencia se incrementaría, dando lugar a una huelga general en octubre. El 14 de octubre (C.J.) se entregó al zar el Manifiesto de Octubre, escrito por Witte y Alekséi Obolenski. En él se indicaban la mayoría de las...
Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (1981). The February revolution, Petrograd, 1917 (en inglés). University of Washington Press. p. 652. ISBN 9780295957654.Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre la Revolución rusa de 1905.The Mass Strike, artículo de Rosa Luxemburgo, 1906.The Year 1905 por León Trotsky
Japanese film 1905 Directed byKiyoshi Kurosawa StarringTony Leung Chiu Wai Shota Matsuda Atsuko Maeda Distributed byPrenom H Shochiku Release date Production cancelled CountryJapan LanguageMandarin Budget$10 million 1905 was a Japanese film to be directed by Kiyoshi Kurosawa and starring Tony Leung Chiu Wai, Shota Matsuda, and Atsuko Maeda. Originally scheduled to be released in late 2013, on 25 February 2013, it was announced that production of the film had been cancelled before filming could s
In 1905, during the waning years of the Qing Dynasty, at a time when numerous Chinese revolutionaries traveled to Japan as students to study modernization, Yan Yunlong, a loan shark, travels to Japan to collect overdue debts from five men. Meanwhile, Tamotsu Kato is a member of Houkokukai, an ultra-nationalist group, who is also searching for the same five men.
Plans for the film were made in 2009. Although the film was a Japanese production, approximately 90% of dialogue was to be in Chinese. Filming was scheduled to start in November 2012, in various locations in Japan and Taiwan. The film was scheduled to be released in Fall 2013. During the filming process, the set in Taiwan was to recreate Yokohama as it appeared in 1905. The film was backed by Hong Kong-based film studio Sil-Metropole, and was to be co-distributed by Shochiku and Prenom H. The pr
- Rise of The Opposition
- Start of The Revolution
- Height of The Revolution
- Rise of Political Violence
- Ivanovo Soviet
According to Sidney Harcave, four problems in Russian society contributed to the revolution. Newly emancipated peasants earned too little and were not allowed to sell or mortgage their allotted land. Ethnic and national minorities resented the government because of its "Russification" of the Empire: it practised discrimination and repression against national minorities, such as banning them from voting; serving in the Imperial Guard or Navy; and limiting their attendance in schools. A nascent industrial working class resented the government for doing too little to protect them, as it banned strikes and organizing into labor unions. Finally, university students developed a new consciousness, after discipline was relaxed in the institutions, and they were fascinated by increasingly radical ideas, which spread among them. Also, disaffected soldiers returning from a bloody and disgraceful defeat with Japan, who found inadequate factory pay, shortages, and general disarray, organized in...
The events of 1905 came after progressive and academic agitation for more political democracy and limits to Tsarist rule in Russia, and an increase in strikes by workers against employers for radical economic demands and union recognition, (especially in southern Russia). Many[quantify] socialists view this as a period when the rising revolutionary movement was met with rising reactionary movements. As Rosa Luxemburg stated in 1906 in The Mass Strike, when collective strike activity was met with what is perceived as repression from an autocratic state, economic and political demands grew into and reinforced each other. Russian progressives formed the Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists in 1903 and the Union of Liberation in 1904, which called for a constitutional monarchy. Russian socialists formed two major groups: the Socialist Revolutionary Party (founded in 1902), which followed the Russian populist tradition, and the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party(founded in 189...
In December 1904, a strike occurred at the Putilov plant (a railway and artillery supplier) in St. Petersburg. Sympathy strikes in other parts of the city raised the number of strikers to 150,000 workers in 382 factories. By 21 January [O.S.8 January] 1905, the city had no electricity and newspaper distribution was halted. All public areas were declared closed. Controversial Orthodox priest Georgy Gapon, who headed a police-sponsored workers' association, led a huge workers' procession to the Winter Palace to deliver a petition to the Tsar on Sunday, 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905. The troops guarding the Palace were ordered to tell the demonstrators not to pass a certain point, according to Sergei Witte, and at some point, troops opened fire on the demonstrators, causing between 200 (according to Witte) and 1,000 deaths. The event became known as Bloody Sunday, and is considered by many scholars as the start of the active phase of the revolution. The events in St. Petersburg prov...
Tsar Nicholas II agreed on 2 March [O.S. 18 February] to the creation of a State Duma of the Russian Empire but with consultative powers only. When its slight powers and limits on the electorate were revealed, unrest redoubled. The Saint Petersburg Sovietwas formed and called for a general strike in October, refusal to pay taxes, and the en masse withdrawal of bank deposits. In June and July 1905, there were many peasant uprisings in which peasants seized land and tools. Disturbances in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland culminated in June 1905 in the Łódź insurrection. Surprisingly, only one landlord was recorded as killed.Far more violence was inflicted on peasants outside the commune: 50 deaths were recorded. The October Manifesto, written by Sergei Witte and Alexis Obolenskii, was presented to the Tsar on 14 October [O.S. 1 October]. It closely followed the demands of the Zemstvo Congress in September, granting basic civil rights, allowing the formation of political parties,...
Following the Revolution of 1905, the Tsar made last attempts to save his regime, and offered reforms similar to most rulers when pressured by a revolutionary movement. The military remained loyal throughout the Revolution of 1905, as shown by their shooting of revolutionaries when ordered by the Tsar, making overthrow difficult. These reforms were outlined in a precursor to the Constitution of 1906 known as the October Manifesto which created the Imperial Duma. The Russian Constitution of 1906, also known as the Fundamental Laws, set up a multiparty system and a limited constitutional monarchy. The revolutionaries were quelled and satisfied with the reforms, but it was not enough to prevent the 1917 revolutionthat would later topple the Tsar's regime.
The years 1904 and 1907 saw a decline of mass movements, strikes and protests, and a rise of overt political violence. Combat groups such as the SR Combat Organization carried out many assassinations targeting civil servants and police, and robberies. Between 1906 and 1909, revolutionaries killed 7,293 people, of whom 2,640 were officials, and wounded 8,061.Notable victims included: 1. Nikolai Bobrikov – Governor-General of Finland. Killed 30 June [O.S. 17 June] 1904 in Helsinki. 2. Vyacheslav von Plehve – Minister of Interior. Killed 10 August [O.S. 28 July] 1904 in Saint Petersburg. 3. Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich of Russia – Killed 17 February [O.S.4 February] 1905 in Moscow. 4. Eliel Soisalon-Soininen – Procurator of Justice of Finland. Killed 19 February [O.S. 6 February] 1905 in Helsinki. 5. Viktor Sakharov – former war minister. Killed 5 December [O.S.22 November] 1905. 6. Admiral Chukhnin – the commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Killed 24 July [O.S.11 July] 1906. 7. Alekse...
The years of revolution were marked by a dramatic rise in the numbers of death sentences and executions. Different figures on the number of executions were compared by Senator Nikolai Tagantsev,and are listed in the table. These numbers reflect only executions of civilians, and do not include a large number of summary executions by punitive army detachments and executions of military mutineers. Peter Kropotkin, an anarchist, noted that official statistics excluded executions conducted during punitive expeditions, especially in Siberia, Caucasus and the Baltic provinces.By 1906 some 4,509 political prisoners were incarcerated in Russian Poland, 20 percent of the empire's total.
Ivanovo Voznesensk was known as the 'Russian Manchester' for its textile mills. In 1905, its local revolutionaries were overwhelmingly Bolshevik. It was the first Bolshevik branch in which workers outnumbered intellectuals. 1. 11 May 1905: The 'Group', the revolutionary leadership, called for the workers at all the textile mills to strike. 2. 12 May: The strike begins. Strike leaders meet in the local woods. 3. 13 May: 40,000 workers assemble before the Administration Building to give Svirskii, the regional factory inspector, a list of demands. 4. 14 May: Workers' delegates are elected. Svirskii had suggested they do so, as he wanted people to negotiate with.A mass meeting is held in Administration Square. Svirskii tells them the mill owners will not meet their demands but will negotiate with elected mill delegates, who will be immune to prosecution, according to the governor. 5. 15 May: Svirskii tells the strikers they can negotiate only about each factory in turn, but they can hol...
The 1905-1907 revolution was at the time the largest wave of strikes and widest emancipatory movement Poland had ever seen, and it would remain so until the 1970s and 1980s. In 1905, 93.2% of Congress Poland's industrial workers went on strike.The first phase of the revolution consisted primarily of mass strikes, rallies, demonstrations – later this evolved into street skirmishes with the police and army as well as bomb assassinations and robberies of transports carrying money to tsarist financial institutions. One of the major events of that period was the insurrection in Łódź in June 1905, but unrest happened in many other areas too. Warsaw was also an active centre of resistance, particularly in terms of strikes, whereas further south the Republika Ostrowiecka and Republika Zagłębiowska were proclaimed (tsarist control was later restored in these areas when martial law was introduced).Until November 1905, Poland was at the vanguard of the revolutionary movement in the Russian Emp...
In the Grand Duchy of Finland, the Social Democrats organised the general strike of 1905 (12–19 November [O.S. 30 October – 6 November]). The Red Guards were formed, led by captain Johan Kock. During the general strike, the Red Declaration, written by Finnish politician and journalist Yrjö Mäkelin, was published in Tampere, demanding dissolution of the Senate of Finland, universal suffrage, political freedoms, and abolition of censorship. Leo Mechelin, leader of the constitutionalists, crafted the November Manifesto: the revolution resulted in the abolition of the Diet of Finland and of the four Estates, and to the creation of the modern Parliament of Finland. It also resulted in a temporary halt to the Russification policythat Russia had started in 1899. On 12 August [O.S. 30 July] 1906, Russian artillerymen and military engineers rose in revolt in the fortress of Sveaborg (later called Suomenlinna), Helsinki. The Finnish Red Guards supported the Sveaborg Rebellion with a general s...
La Serie Mundial de 1905 de béisbol fue disputada entre New York Giants y Philadelphia Athletics.Los Giants, ganadores de la Liga Nacional por segunda vez consecutiva, habían rechazado jugar el clásico de otoño en 1904 frente a Boston Americans por decisión de su presidente John T. Brush.
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