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  1. The automotive industry began in the 1860s with hundreds of manufacturers that pioneered the horseless carriage. For many decades, the United States led the world in total automobile production. In 1929, before the Great Depression, the world had 32,028,500 automobiles in use, and the U.S. automobile industry produced over 90% of them.

  2. The automotive industry accounts for approximately 1.8 per cent of all Croatian exports, while 90 per cent of profits in the industry itself are derived from exports. Automotive parts manufacturers in Croatia are well-integrated into the global parts supply chain, such as AD Plastik, which produces for Volkswagen.

  3. The automotive industry refers to the design, manufacture, marketing and selling of motor vehicles. It is one of the world's biggest economic sectors in terms of the money it makes. The automotive industry began in the 1890s with hundreds of manufacturers making the " horseless carriage ". The Ford Model T was one of the first cars to be sold ...

    • Development History
    • The Big Three Automakers
    • Great Depression and World War II
    • Unionization of The Auto Manufacturers Workforce
    • Decline of The Independent Automakers
    • Post-War Years
    • 1960s
    • Federal Regulation of The Auto Industry
    • 1970s
    • 1980s

    Production

    The development of self-powered vehicles was accompanied by numerous technologies and components giving rise to numerous supplier firms and associated industries. Various types of energy sources were employed by early automobiles including steam, electric, and gasoline. Thousands of entrepreneurs were involved in developing, assembling, and marketing of early automobiles on a small and local scale. Increasing sales facilitated production on a larger scale in factories with broader market dist...

    American road system

    The practicality of the automobile was initially limited because of the lack of suitable roads. Travel between cities was mostly done by railroad, waterways, or carriages. Roads were mostly dirt and hard to travel, particularly in bad weather. The League of American Wheelmenmaintained and improved roads as it was viewed as a local responsibility with limited government assistance. During this time, there was an increase in production of automobiles coupled with a swell of auto dealerships, ma...

    About 3,000 automobile companies have existed in the United States. In the early 1900s, the U.S. saw the rise of the Big Three automakers; Ford, GM, and Chrysler. The industry became centered around Detroit, in Michigan, and adjacent states (and nearby Ontario, Canada). Historian John Rae summarizes the explanations provided by historians: a central geographic location, water access, and an established industrial base with many skilled engineers. The key factor was that Detroit was the base for highly talented entrepreneurs who saw the potential of the automobile: Henry Ford, Ransom E. Olds, Roy D. Chapin, Henry Joy, William C. Durant, Howard E. Coffin, John Dodge and Horace Dodge, and Benjamin Briscoe and Frank Briscoe. From 1900 to 1915 these men transformed the fledgling industry into an international business. Henry Ford began building cars in 1896 and started his own company in 1903. The Ford Motor Company improved mass-production with the first conveyor belt-based assembly lin...

    The 1930s saw the demise of many auto makers due to the economic effects of the Great Depression, stiff competition from the Big Three, and/or mismanagement. Luxury car makers were particularly affected by the economy, with companies like Stutz Motor Company, Pierce-Arrow Motor Car Company, Peerless Motor Company, Cunningham, and the Marmon Motor Car Company going out of business. The decade also saw several companies with innovative engineering, such as the Doble Steam Motors Corporation (advanced steam engines) and Franklin Automobile Company (air-cooled aluminium engines) going out of business. Errett Lobban Cord, who controlled the Auburn Automobile Company (which also sold the Cord) and the Duesenberg Motor Company, was under investigation by the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Internal Revenue Service. His auto empire collapsed in 1937 and production ceased. Major technological innovations were introduced or were widely adopted during the 1930s, such as synchromesh...

    Due to the difficult working conditions in the auto production plants, auto workers began to seek representation to help improve conditions and ensure fair pay. The United Automobile Workersunion won recognition from GM and Chrysler in 1937, and Ford in 1941. In 1950, the automakers granted workers a company-paid pension to those 65 years old and with 30 years seniority. In the mid-1950s, the automakers agreed to set up a trust fund for unemployed auto workers. In 1973, the automakers agreed to offer pensions to any worker with 30 years seniority, regardless of age. By then the automakers had also agreed to cover the entire health insurance bill for its employees, survivors, and retirees.

    The only major auto companies to survive the Great Depression were General Motors Corporation, Ford Motor Company, Chrysler Corporation, Hudson Motor Car Company, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation, Packard Motor Car Company, Studebaker Corporation, and Crosley Motors. The former three companies, known as the Big Three, enjoyed significant advantages over the smaller independent auto companies due to their financial strength, which gave them a big edge in marketing, production, and technological innovation. Most of the Big Three's competitors ended production by the 1960s, and their last major domestic competitor was acquired in the 1980s. Crosley Motors ceased auto production in 1952. Packard and Studebaker merged in 1954, but ended production of Packard-branded cars in 1958 and ceased all auto production in 1966. Kaiser-Frazer Corporation was started in 1945 and acquired Willys-Overland Motors (maker of the Jeep) in 1953. Production of passenger cars was discontinued in 1955. In 1970, th...

    Initial auto production after World War II was slowed by the retooling process, shortages of materials, and labor unrest. However, the American auto industry reflected the post-war prosperity of the late-1940s and the 1950s. Cars grew in overall size, as well as engine size during the 1950s. The Overhead valve V-8 engine developed by GM in the late-1940s proved to be very successful and helped ignite the horsepower race, the second salvo of which was Chrysler's 1951 Hemi engine. Longer, lower, and wider tended to be the general trend. Exterior styling was influenced by jets and rockets as the space-age dawned. Rear fins were popular and continued to grow larger, and front bumpers and taillights were sometimes designed in the shape of rockets. Chrome plating was very popular, as was two-tone paint. The most extreme version of these styling trends were found in the 1959 Cadillac Eldorado and Chrysler Corporation's 1957 Imperial. The Chevrolet Corvette and the Ford Thunderbird, introdu...

    Big changes were taking place in automobile development in the 1960s, with the Big Three dominating the industry. Meanwhile, with the passage of the $33 billion Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, a network of regional and interstate roads continued to enhance transportation. As urban areas became more congested, more families migrated to the suburbs. Between 1960 and 1970, 70 percent of the population's growth occurred in the suburbs. Imported vehicles grew during the 1950s and 1960s – from a very low base. In 1966, the Big Three (GM, Ford, Chrysler) had market share of 89.6% (44.5% in 2014). From 1966 to 1969, net imports increased at an average annual rate of 84%. The Volkswagen Beetlewas the biggest seller. The compact Nash Rambler had been around since 1950, and American Motors Corporation (AMC) expanded into a range of smaller cars than were offered by the Big Three. By 1960, Rambler was the third most popular brand of automobile in the United States, behind Ford and Chevrolet. I...

    Safety and environmental issues during the 1960s led to stricter government regulation of the auto industry, spurred in part by Ralph Nader and his book: Unsafe at Any Speed: The Designed-in Dangers of the American Automobile. This resulted in higher costs and eventually to weaker performance for cars in the 1970s, a period known as the Malaise Era of auto design during which American cars suffered from very poor performance. Seat lap belts were mandated by many states effective in 1962. Under the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standardsrequired shoulder belts for front passengers, front head restraints, energy-absorbing steering columns, ignition-key warning systems, anti-theft steering column/transmission locks, side marker lights and padded interiors starting in 1968. Beginning in 1972, bumperswere required to be reinforced to meet 5-mph impact standards, a decision that was revised in 1982. With the Clean Air Act (United State...

    As bold and confident as the Big Three automakers were in the 1950s and 1960s, the American auto makers in the 1970s and 1980s stumbled badly, going from one engineering, manufacturing, or marketing disaster to another, and this time is often referred to as the Malaise eraof American auto design. By 1969, imports had increased their share of the U.S. auto market with smaller, inexpensive vehicles. Volkswagen sold over 500,000 vehicles, followed by Toyota with over 100,000. In 1986 South Korea entered the American market. In response to this, the domestic auto makers introduced new compact and sub-compact cars, such as the Ford Pinto and Maverick, the Chevrolet Vega, and the AMC Gremlin, Hornet and Pacer. (Chrysler had to make do with importing the Dodge Colt from Mitsubishi Motors and the Plymouth Cricket from their affiliated Rootes Group.) However, design and manufacturing problems plagued a number of these cars, leading to unfavorable consumer perceptions. GM had a string of misc...

    In 1981, Japanese automakers entered into the "voluntary export restraint" limiting the number of autos that they could export to the U.S. to 1.68 million per year. One side effect of this quota was that Japanese car companies opened new divisions through which they began developing luxury cars that had higher profit margins, such as with Toyota's Lexus, Honda's Acura, and Nissan's Infiniti. Another consequence was that the Japanese car makers began opening auto production plants in the U.S., with the three largest Japanese auto manufacturers all opening production facilities by 1985. These facilities were opened primarily in the southern states because of financial incentives offered by state governments, access to the nation via the interstate highways, the availability of a large pool of cheaper labor, and the weakness of unions. The Southern states passed right-to-work lawsand the UAW failed in its repeated union-organizing efforts at these plants. The Big Three began investing...

    • Early History
    • Postwar Era
    • 1970s
    • 1980s and 1990s
    • 21st Century

    Motor-car pioneers Karl Benz (who later went on to start Mercedes-Benz) and Nicolaus Otto developed four-stroke internal combustion engines in the late 1870s; Benz fitted his design to a coach in 1887, which led to the modern-day motor car. By 1901, Germany was producing about 900 cars a year. In 1926 Daimler-Benz formed from the predecessor companies of Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler; it produced cars under the marque of Mercedes-Benz. BMW, though founded in 1916, didn't start auto production until 1928. American economist Robert A. Brady extensively documented the rationalization movement that shaped German industry in the 1920s, and although his general model of the movement applied to the automotive industry, the sector was in poor health in the later years of the 1918-1933 Weimar Republic. The slow development of the German automotive industry left the German market open for major American auto-manufacturers such as General Motors (which took over German company Opel in 1929) a...

    By the end of World War II, most of the auto factories had been destroyed or badly damaged. Germany needed debt relief. The London Agreement on German External Debts of 1953 provided that repayments were only due while West Germany ran a trade surplus, and that repayments were limited to 3% of export earnings. This gave Germany’s creditors a powerful incentive to import German goods, assisting reconstruction of the Car Industry. In addition, the eastern part of Germany was under control of the Soviet Union, which dismantled much of the machinery that was left and sent it back to the Soviet Union as war reparations. Some manufacturers, such as Maybach and Adler (automobile), started up again, but did not continue making passenger cars. The Volkswagen production facility in Wolfsburg continued making the Volkswagen Beetle (Type 1) in 1945, a car which it had intended to make prior to the war (under the name of KdF-Wagen), except that the factory was converted to military truck product...

    Volkswagen was faced with major financial difficulties in the early 1970s; with its aging Beetle still selling strongly all over the world but its newer models had been less successful. However, the company then enjoyed a revival with the arrival of the popular Passat in 1973, Golf in 1974 and Polo in 1975 - all of these cars featured the new front-wheel drive hatchback layout which was enjoying a rise in popularity across Europe after first being patented by Renault of France with the R16 in 1965. The Polo was Volkswagen's new entry-level model, and was aimed directly at modern small hatchbacks like the Fiat 127 and Renault 5. The mid-range Golf was seen as the car to eventually replace the Beetle, and was easily the first popular hatchback of this size in Europe, leading to most leading carmakers having a similar-sized hatchback by the early 1980s. Production of the Beetle finished in Germany in 1978, although it continued to be produced in Mexico and Brazil until 2003, with a sma...

    The final version of the Opel Kadett was voted European Car of the Year on its launch in 1984, as was the Opel Rekord's successor – the Omega – two years afterwards. The Ascona's successor, the Vectra (still the Vauxhall Cavalier in Britain), was launched in 1988, but missed out of the European Car of the Year accolade to the Fiat Tipo. With the radical changes in car design that took place throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s, Ford responded by substantially altering its model line-up. After launching the Fiesta supermini in 1976, it switched to front-wheel drive and a hatchback on the MK3 Escort on its launch in 1980, and opted to replace the Taunus/Cortina with the Sierra in 1982 - abandoning the hugely popular saloon format for an aerodynamic hatchback, although a saloon version was added in 1987. In 1983, Ford had also responded to the continuing demand for family saloons by launching the Orion, the saloon version of the Escort. The Scorpio replaced the Granada as Ford's Eur...

    BMW acquired the British Rover Group in 1994, but large losses led to its sale in 2000. However, BMW retained the Mini (marque) name for a line of new cars, all built in Britain from 2001. During the 1990s, BMW opened a production facility for SUVs in Spartanburg County, South Carolina. BMW also acquired the Rolls-Royce Motor Cars name, effective as of 2003, and in the same year established a joint venture in China named BMW Brilliance. Daimler-Benz entered into what was initially called a "merger of equals" with Chrysler Corporation in 1998. However, cultural differences and operating losses led to its dissolution in 2007, although Daimler-Benz kept Chrysler's Chinese joint venture, renamed Beijing Benz. The company also launched the Smart in 1998 and relaunched the Maybach brand in 2002. In addition, during the 1990s they opened a production facility for SUVs in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. On 5 July 2012, Volkswagen AG announced a deal with Porsche resulting in VW's full ownership...

  4. The automotive industry in India is the fifth-largest in the world as per 2020 statistics. Auto Expo 2014, Noida. Interior of Tata ConnectNext EV concept car at 2015 Geneva Motor Show. Tata Prima T1 truck at Buddh International Circuit. Isuzu's newly inaugurated manufacturing plant in 2016 at Sri City, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    • Manufacturers and Brands
    • Foreign Manufacturer Joint Ventures
    • History
    • Controversies
    • Alternative Fuel Vehicles
    • Sales
    • See Also
    • External Links

    Companies from other countries with joint manufacturing ventures in China include Daimler-Benz, General Motors. The latter makes numerous cars in China in four factories, especially Buick, but also some Chevrolet and Cadillac models, in a 50/50 joint-venture with SAIC Motor, formerly known as Shanghai General Motors Company Ltd.In November 2018, the company announced new Chevrolet models for the Chinese market, including an extended-wheelbase Malibu XL, a new Chevy SUV concept a new Monza. Beijing Benz Automotive Co., Ltd is a joint venture between BAIC Motor and Daimler AG. As of 22 November 2018, a full two million Mercedes-Benz vehicles had been built in China by this alliance. At about the same time, the company announced the final development of a new Mercedes-Benz A-Class L sedan for China, in five variants, to "rival the China-made Audi A3 sedan and the BMW Series 1 sedan". Daimler and another partner, BYD Auto (backed by Warren Buffett), were already manufacturing an electri...

    The first automobile in China was purchased from Hong Kong in 1902 by Yuan Shikai and gifted to Empress Dowager Cixi. It was later put on display in the Summer Palace Museum. During the early twentieth century, major western automobile manufacturers such as the Ford Motor Company, General Motors, and Mercedes-Benzhad plants operating in Shanghai. China's automobile industry had mainly Soviet origins (plants and licensed auto design were founded in the 1950s, with the help of the USSR) and had small volumes for the first 30 years of the republic, not exceeding 100–200 thousands per year. Since the early 1990s, it has developed rapidly. China's annual automobile production capacity first exceeded one million in 1992. By 2000, China was producing over two million vehicles. After China's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001, the development of the automobile market accelerated further. Between 2002 and 2007, China's national automobile market grew by an average 21 perce...

    Copying claims controversy

    Several Chinese car makers have been accused[according to whom?] of copying designs of other established[which?]companies.

    Threats to disclose industry secrets

    The Wall Street Journal reported that the government of China will be forcing foreign carmakers to disclose their electric vehicletechnology secrets before the vehicles are allowed to be sold in China. The current Chinese automotive policy states that a foreign carmaker must form a joint-venture with a Chinese carmaker if the former plans to sell its electric vehicles there, with the Chinese carmaker owning 51% of the joint venture. Due to this supposed threat by the Chinese government, Toyot...

    China encourages the development of clean and fuel efficient vehicles in an effort to sustain continued growth of the country's automobile industry (see Fuel economy in automobiles). By the end of 2007, China plans to reduce the average fuel consumption per 100 km for all types of vehicles by 10%. The proportion of vehicles burning alternate fuel will be increased to help optimize the country's energy consumption. Priority will be given to facilitating the research and development of electric and hybrid vehicles as well as alternate fuel vehicles, especially CNG/LNG. Major cities like Beijing and Shanghai already require Euro-3 emission standards. On March 10, 2008, Beijing became the first city to require light-duty vehicles to meet China-4 emission standard, which was equivalent to Euro-4. Beijing shifted its emission standards to the fifth-stage standards for light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles in January 2013 and August 2015, respectively. On 12 April 2016, the Ministry of Enviro...

    In China, authorized car dealership are called 4S car shops. The 4S represents Sales (整車销售 ), Spare parts (零配件), Service (售後服务) and Survey (信息反馈). In most cases, brand-name new cars can only be purchased from 4S shops. For new cars in high demand, a high premium is added for instant delivery or just placing an order. The profit of car dealers in Chinais quite high compared to the rest of the world, in most cases 10%. This is supposedly due to the 'non-transparent invoice price' as announced by manufactures and to the premiums they charge for quick delivery. Due to the lack of knowledge for most customers, dealers can sell add-ons at much higher prices than the aftermarket. There is no regulation by either the government or associations but some retailers are members of the China Automobile Dealers Association (CADA).

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