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  1. The Canadian dollar fell considerably after 1960, and this contributed to Prime Minister John Diefenbaker's defeat in the 1963 election. The Canadian dollar returned to a fixed exchange rate regime in 1962 when its value was set at US$0.925, where it remained until 1970.

  2. El dólar canadiense (en inglés: Canadian dollar, en francés: dollar canadien; en el uso habitual, simplemente dollar) es la unidad monetaria oficial de Canadá. Se subdivide en 100 cents (centavos). Su código ISO 4217 es CAD. El dólar ha estado en vigor durante gran parte de la historia de Canadá.

    • CAD
    • C$
    • Cents
    • Canadá Canadá
    • Indigenous Peoples and Trade
    • New France: 1608–1763
    • British Colonial Rule: 1760–1825
    • from The British Pound to The Canadian Dollar: 1825–1867
    • Province of Canada Government Notes
    • Confederation, 1867
    • Establishment of The Royal Canadian Mint
    • Relationship to The Gold Standard
    • Establishment of The Bank of Canada
    • Fixed and Floating Exchange Rates

    The original inhabitants of Canada were the First Nations and Inuit who traded in goods on a bartering basis. Various items played the role of currency, such as copper, wampum and beaver pelts. Wampum belts, made of numerous tiny shells, were used by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada to measure wealth and as gifts.Wampum belts were also used as currency during the early colonial period, and were recognised as legal tender in the early Dutch and British colonies. Indigenous peoples also traded furs with European traders for trade goods such as weapons, cloth, food, silver items, and tobacco. During the long period of the fur trade, the beaver pelt was universally accepted as a medium of exchange by indigenous peoples and European traders alike, to the point that beaver pelts, called "Made Beavers", were used as a unit of account by the Hudson Bay Company, to establish consistent pricing of all its trade goods. The Ojibwe in eastern Canada were noted for mining and trade in copper....

    Chronic shortage of coins

    With the foundation of Quebec in 1608, French settlement and trade began. The early French colonists bartered goods and also used French coins. The basic unit of currency was the denier or penny. Twelve deniers made a sol or sou, and twenty sols made a livre of New France. However, there was a recurring problem: there was never enough hard currency. Even though the French government sent silver coins from France, such as the "double tournois", the coins tended to be taken out of circulation b...

    Playing card money

    By 1685, the coin shortage had grown so severe that colonial authorities resorted to using playing cardsas currency. The first issue of playing card money was by Intendant Jacques de Meulles. In 1685, he needed to pay soldiers for their services in a recent campaign. His funds, both government and personal, were exhausted, and he did not want to borrow money at the rate offered by merchants. Instead, he issued three denominations of playing card money (15 sols, 40 sols, and 4 livres). Playing...

    French coinage

    The French government continued to ship coinage to the colonies in the 18th century, such as the gold Louis d'or. Although in short supply, French coinage continued to circulate in the 18th century, such as the 15- and 30-deniers. These gold coins, known as the mousquetaire, were meant to pay soldiers and civil servants but did not stay in circulation very long. The name is believed to have come from the cross on the reverse of the coins, which resembled the crosses on the cloaks of the legen...

    Shortage of currency

    The shortage of currency continued under British rule. Although historical economists disagree on the reasons for the shortage, the effect was that a wide variety of foreign coinage and paper instruments, such as colonial Treasury bills and notes from different merchants, were used in commercial transactions.One account from Nova Scotia in 1820 illustrates the confusion caused by the lack of unified currency: a customer in a market bought vegetables costing six pence, and paid with a £1 Nova...

    Units of account and rating systems

    Because of the variety of currencies that were used, two measures were needed for order and consistency in financial accounting: units of account and "ratings" system. By general agreement, all accounts were usually kept in one currency, and coins and bills from other systems were notionally converted to that system for bookkeeping purposes. That step required a generally accepted conversion system, or "rating" of other currencies, typically based on their weight and the value of the precious...

    Government treasury bills

    Colonial governments began to experiment in paper treasury bills, often when needed to finance government expenses. The first Canadian colony to do so was Prince Edward Island (at that time known as the Island of St. John). In 1790, the colonial government issued £500 in treasury notes, in values up to £2. New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island all issued treasury bills in the early years of the 19th century. During the War of 1812, the British Army issued a series...

    During the mid-19th century, there was a policy disagreement between the British and the colonial governments. The British wanted all the colonies to continue to use sterling, to facilitate trade within the Empire. The Canadian colonies, both in the east and British Columbia, increasingly favoured linking their currencies to the US dollar, given the strong local trade links.Eventually, the local trade won out and the Canadian colonies migrated to currencies linked to the US dollar. One feature of the regulation of coinage at this time was fixed exchange rates. The colonial and imperial legislation set fixed exchange rates for coins, often based on their weight as bullion.

    Proposal for a central bank, 1841

    In 1841, the first Governor General of the new Province of Canada, Lord Sydenham, proposed the creation of a provincial central bank. He suggested that the province establish a bank which would have exclusive power to issue bank notes. The first issue would be for £1 million in provincial notes, but denominated in dollars. The notes would be backed by a combination of gold held by the province (25% of the value of the notes issued) and provincial government securities. The private banks would...

    Province of Canada notes

    In the 1850s, there were several bank failures which shook confidence in the security of banknotes in the Province of Canada: first the Colonial Bank and the International Bank in 1859, followed soon afterwards by the collapse of the Bank of Clifton and the Bank of Western Canada. The bank failures made their notes worthless, and the resulting scandal increased pressure on the government for greater bank regulation. In 1860, the provincial Minister of Finance, Alexander Tilloch Galt, proposed...

    Canada was created in 1867 by the British North America Act, 1867 (now the Constitution Act, 1867). A federation, it originally had four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The federal Parliament was assigned exclusive jurisdiction over "Coins and Currency", as well as "Banking, Incorporation of Banks, and the Issue of Paper Money".This resulted in major changes to the monetary system in the new country, with control over coinage and bank notes centralised in Ottawa.

    During the British colonial period, the colonies were generally prohibited from minting their own coins.They obtained them by purchase from the Royal Mint in London. After Confederation, the first Canadian coins were also minted in London, but the possibility of a Canadian mint began to be raised in public debates. Under the British Coinage Act, 1870, the British government could establish branches of the Royal Mint in overseas British possessions. In 1901, the Canadian Parliament passed an Act to pay for the expenses of a local branch of the Royal Mint, up to $75,000 annually, upon the establishment of a branch by the British government. In 1907, the British government established a branch of the Royal Mint at Ottawa, to be operated at the expense of the Canadian government, by means of a royal proclamation under the Coinage Act, 1870. At the formal opening of the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint on January 2, 1908, the Governor General, Earl Grey, struck the first coin minted in Ca...

    When first created in 1868, the Canadian dollar was partially backed by gold. Under the Dominion Notes Act, the government was required to have gold reserves of up to twenty per cent of the value of the first five million dollars of notes issued, rising to twenty-five per cent of the value of the next three million dollars issued.This followed the similar requirement which had been in place for the Province of Canada dollar since 1854. The combination of the gold standard, the fixed value of the Canadian dollar to both the pound sterling and the US dollar, and the lack of any controls on the export of gold meant that the federal government did not have much ability to implement monetary policy. As a result, Canada experienced several periods of rapid economic contraction and expansion in the period between the establishment of Canadian currency and the outbreak of World War I. In the days immediately prior to the outbreak of the war in August 1914, withdrawals from banks increased d...

    Creation and functions of the Bank

    As the Depression continued in Canada, pressure grew on the federal government to take greater control over the economy, including monetary policy. Criticisms were levelled at the federal Treasury Board and Deputy Minister of Finance, who administered the Finance Act, suggesting that they were not sufficiently skilled in monetary policy. In response, the federal government in 1933 set up the Royal Commission on Banking and Currency to study the functioning of the Finance Act and to make recom...

    First issue of Bank of Canada notes

    On March 11, 1935, the first day of its operation, the Bank issued its first series of notes. There were ten notes in the 1935 series, primarily featuring members of the Royal Family: 1. a one-dollar note, featuring King George V; 2. a two-dollar note, featuring Queen Mary; 3. a five-dollar note, featuring Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII); 4. a ten-dollar note, featuring Mary, Princess Royal; 5. a twenty-dollar note, featuring Princess Elizabeth (now Queen Elizabeth II); 6. a...

    Gradual elimination of chartered bank notes

    As the Bank of Canada became established, the federal government gradually reduced the power of the chartered banks to issue their own bank notes. In 1935, the banks were given ten years to reduce their notes in circulation to twenty-five per cent of their paid-up capital. A revision to the Bank Act in 1944 provided that the banks could not issue or reissue notes after the end of 1944, except outside Canada. The last note issued by a chartered bank for use in Canada was a five-dollar note iss...

    Since Canada has gone off the gold standard, it has fluctuated between fixed and floating exchange rates. The Canadian dollar currently has a floating exchange rate, since 1970.

    • Overview
    • Denominations
    • Developments in coinage
    • Production
    • Coins of the Colonies
    • Coins of Canada

    The coins of Canada are produced by the Royal Canadian Mint and denominated in Canadian dollars and the subunit of dollars, cents. An effigy of the reigning monarch always appears on the obverse of all coins. There are standard images which appear on the reverse, but there are also commemorative and numismatic issues with different images on the reverse.

    There are six denominations of Canadian circulation coinage in production: 5¢, 10¢, 25¢, 50¢, $1, and $2. Officially they are each named according to their value, but in practice only the 50-cent piece is known by that name. The three smallest coins are known by the traditional names "nickel", "dime", and "quarter", and the one-dollar and two-dollar coins are called the "loonie" and the "toonie" respectively. The production of the Canadian 1-cent piece was discontinued in 2012, as ...

    The most significant recent developments in Canadian coinage were the introduction of $1 and $2 coins and the withdrawal of the one cent piece. The $1 coin was released in 1987. The $1 banknote remained in issue and in circulation alongside the one dollar coin for the next two years, until it was withdrawn in 1989. The coin was to be the voyageur-design silver dollar coins that had previously been in limited circulation. The dies were lost or stolen in November 1986, requiring a redesign. The ne

    Canadian coins are issued by the Royal Canadian Mint and struck at their facilities in Winnipeg. All special wording on commemorative coins appears in both of Canada's languages, English and French. All of the standard wording on the reverse sides of non-commemorative coins is identical in both languages. On the obverse sides, the name and title of the Canadian Monarch appear in an abbreviated-Latin circumscription. Currently, this reads "ELIZABETH II D. G. REGINA". The initials stand for "Dei G

    Beginning in 1858, various colonies of British North America started issuing their own coins denominated in cents, featuring the likeness of Queen Victoria on the obverse. These replaced the sterling coins previously in circulation. The Province of Canada was the first to issue decimal coins. They were based on the value of the American dollar, due to an influx of American silver. Denominations issued were 1¢, 5¢, 10¢, and 20¢. The 1¢ coin was issued again in 1859, but it was very ...

    In 1867, the British parliament passed The British North America Act, 1867, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into a single country. Coins of the three former colonies continued to circulate until 1870, with all being legal tender throughout the country. As other colonies subsequently entered confederation, they dropped their colonial coinage and adopted the national Canadian currency.

    • Overview
    • History
    • Counterfeiting
    • Withdrawn denominations
    • List of Bank of Canada banknote series

    Banknotes of the Canadian dollar are the banknotes or bills of Canada, denominated in Canadian dollars. Currently, they are issued in $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100 denominations. All current notes are issued by the Bank of Canada, which released its first series of notes in 1935. The Bank of Canada has contracted the Canadian Bank Note Company to produce the Canadian notes since then. The current series of polymer banknotes were introduced into circulation between November 2011 and November 2013.

    The first paper money issued in Canada denominated in dollars were British Army notes, issued between 1813 and 1815 in denominations between $1 and $400. These were emergency issues due to the War of 1812. The first banknotes were issued in 1817 by the Montreal Bank.

    Efforts to reduce counterfeiting in recent years have sharply reduced the number of counterfeit notes in circulation. The number of counterfeit notes passed annually in Canada peaked in 2004, when 553,000 counterfeit notes were passed. Counterfeiting has decreased annually since that peak, with only 53,536 notes passed in 2010. The new Frontier series of banknotes significantly improves security primarily by using a polymer substrate to make up the note instead of the previously used fabric. Eve

    The 1935 series was the only series to have included $25 and $500 denominations. Both denominations were short lived. The $25 note was withdrawn on 18 May 1937. Stacks of unissued 1935 $500 notes were destroyed in February 1938, and issued $500 notes were recalled and withdrawn from circulation five months later. Some of the most significant recent developments in Canadian currency were the withdrawal of the $1, $2, and $1,000 notes in 1989, 1996, and 2000 respectively. The $1 and $2 denominatio

  3. › wiki › LoonieLoonie - Wikipedia

    The loonie (French: huard), formally the Canadian one-dollar coin, is a gold-coloured Canadian coin that was introduced in 1987 and is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg. The most prevalent versions of the coin show a common loon , a bird found throughout Canada, on the reverse and Queen Elizabeth II , the nation's head of state, on the obverse .

    • 26.5 mm
    • 1.95 mm
    • 6.27 g
    • 1 CAD
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