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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_IIIGeorge III - Wikipedia

    George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two kingdoms on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.

  2. King George III (born George William Frederick 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 to 1 January 1801, when he became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. He was also Elector of Hanover, which made him a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

    • 22 September 1761
    • George II
    • 25 October 1760 - 29 January 1820
    • George IV
    • Primeros años de Vida
    • Matrimonio Y Descendencia
    • Revolución Norteamericana
    • Guerra de Independencia de Los Estados Unidos
    • Ministerio de William Pitt Y Locura Del Rey
    • Guerras Napoleónicas
    • Últimos años de Vida
    • Títulos
    • Véase también
    • Referencias

    Jorge Guillermo Federico (George William Frederick) nació prematuramente en Norfolk House, en Londres, a las 07:45 del 4 de junio de 1738, siendo el segundo hijo y primogénito varón de los nueve descendientes del príncipe Federico Luis de Gales y de Augusta de Sajonia-Gotha. Como el príncipe Jorge había sido prematuro, fue bautizado inmediatamente después de nacer en Norfolk House por el obispo de Oxford, Thomas Secker. El bautismo público sería oficiado nuevamente en Norfolk House por el obispo Secker, el 4 de julio de 1738. Sus padrinos fueron el rey Federico I de Suecia (representado por Lord Baltimore), su tío materno, el duque Federico III de Sajonia-Gotha (representado por el duque de Chandos) y su tía-abuela, Sofía Dorotea de Hannover, reina de Prusia (representada por Lady Carlota Edwin, hija del duque de Hamilton). Jorge II y su hijo el príncipe de Gales tenían una relación muy difícil. Jorge y sus hermanos fueron desterrados de la Corte en sus primeros años. En 1751, Feder...

    Jorge, príncipe de Gales, heredó la corona cuando murió su abuelo, Jorge II, el 25 de octubre de 1760. Entonces, se organizó la búsqueda por toda Europa de una esposa conveniente. El 8 de septiembre de 1761, en la Capilla Real del palacio de St James, Jorge se casó con Carlota de Mecklemburgo-Strelitz. Dos semanas después, ambos fueron coronados en la abadía de Westminster. Se dice que Jorge estuvo locamente enamorado de Lady Sarah Lennox, hija de Charles Lennox, II duque de Richmond, y realmente se estremeció cuando vio por primera vez a la poco agraciada Carlota, que conoció el mismo día de su boda. Sin embargo, siguió adelante con sus votos matrimoniales y, notablemente, nunca tomó una amante (en contraste con sus dos antecesores). Con el tiempo, la pareja real llegó a gozar de una auténtica felicidad doméstica. De esta unión nacieron 15 hijos: 1. Jorge IV(palacio de St James, 12 de agosto de 1762 - castillo de Windsor, 26 de junio de 1830), sucesor de su padre en el trono. 2. Fe...

    La década de 1760 estuvo marcada por la inestabilidad burocrática, que condujo a que los Whigs acusaran a Jorge III de ser un autócrata a la manera de Carlos I. El incompetente lord Bute dimitió en 1763, permitiendo a los Whigs volver al poder. Más tarde ese año, el gobierno británico publicó la Proclamación Real de 1763 que colocó un límite sobre la expansión al oeste de las colonias norteamericanas. El objetivo de la Proclamación era obligar a los colonos a negociar con los indios norteamericanos la compra legal de la tierra y, por lo tanto, reducir la costosa guerra fronteriza que había surgido por conflictos de territorios. La Línea de Proclamación, como sería conocida, fue increíblemente impopular entre los norteamericanos y al final se volvió otro obstáculo en la relación entre los colonos y el gobierno británico, que conduciría finalmente a la guerra. Con los colonos norteamericanos cada vez más reticentes en pagar los impuestos británicos, se hacía difícil para la Corona cos...

    El conflicto armado estalló en América en 1775. Algunos delegados del Segundo Congreso Continental redactaron una oferta de paz conocida como la Petición del Ramo de Olivo, pero los enfrentamientos ya habían surgido cuando el documento llegó a Inglaterra. El 4 de julio de 1776 (Día de la Independencia de Estados Unidos), las colonias declararon su independencia de la Corona. La Declaración de Independencia de los Estados Unidoshizo varios cargos políticos contra el rey, la legislatura y el pueblo. Entre otras ofensas dirigidas a Jorge III, la Declaración lo culpa: «Ha abandonado nuestro Gobierno... Ha asolado nuestros mares, devastado nuestras costas, quemado nuestras ciudades y destruido nuestras vidas». Jorge III se indignó cuando se enteró de las opiniones de los colonos. Aunque la guerra contra los colonos le fue favorable a Gran Bretaña en un comienzo, la situación cambió completamente después de la rendición del teniente-general británico John Burgoyne en la batalla de Saratog...

    Para Jorge III, la elección de William Pitt el Joven fue una gran victoria. El rey sentía que el panorama probaba que él todavía tenía el poder de designar a los Primeros Ministros sin tener que apoyarse en ningún grupo parlamentario. A lo largo del ministerio de Pitt, Jorge III apoyó con entusiasmo muchas de sus políticas. Para ayudar a Pitt, Jorge III creó nuevos títulos nobles en un tiempo récord. Los nuevos pares llenaron la Cámara de los Lores, permitiendo que Pitt conservara una firme mayoría. Durante el ministerio de Pitt, Jorge III fue extremadamente popular. El público apoyó los viajes exploratorios al océano Pacífico. Jorge III también ayudó a la Royal Academy con grandes concesiones económicas de sus fondos privados. Además, los británicos admiraban la fidelidad que el rey profesaba a su esposa, al contrario de sus dos antecesores. Se hicieron también grandes avances en diversos campos, tales como la ciencia y la industria. La salud personal de Jorge III, sin embargo, est...

    Después de que Jorge III se recuperara de su enfermedad, su prestigio aumentó considerablemente. La Revolución francesa, en la cual la monarquía francesa había sido derrocada, preocupó a muchos terratenientes británicos. Francia declaró posteriormente la guerra a Gran Bretaña en 1793, y Jorge III pronto representó la resistencia británica. El rey permitió que Pitt aumentara los impuestos, formara ejércitos y suspendiera el privilegio de la escritura de los habeas corpuspor el inicio de la guerra. Por bien preparada que Gran Bretaña estuviese, Francia era más fuerte. La Primera Coalición (que incluía a Austria, Prusia y España) fue derrotada en 1798. La Segunda Coalición (que comprendía a Austria, Rusia y el Imperio otomano) fue vencida en 1800. Al final, Gran Bretaña tuvo que luchar sola contra Napoleón Bonaparte. En aquel mismo año de 1800, una breve tregua permitió a Pitt centrar sus esfuerzos en Irlanda, donde había habido un levantamiento popular en 1798 con colaboración y desem...

    En 1810, Jorge III se puso peligrosamente enfermo, siendo la causa posible de esta brusca recaída la muerte de su adorada hija menor, la princesa Amelia, víctima de erisipela o de porfiria. El envenenamiento por arsénico es también una causa verosímil de su muerte. Para 1811, Jorge III había quedado permanentemente loco y se decidió confinarlo en el castillo de Windsor hasta su muerte. Algunas veces hablaba sin pausa durante horas, decía que conversaba con los ángeles y saludó una vez a un roble que según él era el rey Federico Guillermo III de Prusia. Sus doctores le administraron el "Polvo de James" (una combinación de calomel y emético tártaro) y lo sangraron regularmente. También aconsejaron que se bañara en el mar, lo cual llegó a hacer delante de su pueblo. El Parlamento aprobó en 1811 el Acta de Regencia, en la cual el asentimiento real fue concedido por los Lores Comisionados (quienes fueron designados bajo el mismo procedimiento irregular que fue adoptado en 1788). El prínc...

    4 de junio de 1738 – 31 de marzo de 1751: Su Alteza Real Príncipe Jorge
    31 de marzo de 1751 – 20 de abril de 1751: Su Alteza Real el Duque de Edimburgo
    20 de abril de 1751 – 25 de octubre de 1760: Su Alteza Real el Príncipe de Gales
    25 de octubre de 1760 – 29 de enero de 1820: Su Majestad el Rey

    Este artículo incorpora texto de una publicación sin restricciones conocidas de derecho de autor:  Varios autores (1910-1911). «Encyclopædia Britannica». En Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Encyclopædia Britann...

    • Se convierte en rey del Reino Unido
    • Jorge II
  3. The main article for this category is George III of the United Kingdom. See also the preceding Category:George II of Great Britain and the succeeding Category:George IV of the United Kingdom. Wikimedia Commons has media related to George III of the United Kingdom.

  4. George III's papers do not include a diary. The TV series The X-Files uses a fictional anecdote that George III's diary entry on July 4, 1776 read: "Nothing important happened today", as a plot device and as the title of the ninth-season premiere. (In fact, George could anyway not have been notified of transatlantic events until weeks later).

  5. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › George_IVGeorge IV - Wikipedia

    • Early Life
    • Regency Crisis of 1788
    • Marriage and Mistresses
    • Regency
    • Reign
    • Declining Health and Death
    • Legacy
    • Titles, Styles, Honours, and Arms
    • References and Further Reading

    George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. As the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth; he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester a few days later. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Thomas Secker, Archbishop of Canterbury. His godparents were his uncle Adolphus Frederick IV, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (for whom the Lord Chamberlain, William Cavendish, 4th Duke of Devonshire, stood proxy); his paternal great-uncle Prince William, Duke of Cumberland; and his grandmother, the Dowager Princess of Wales.George was a talented student, and quickly learned to speak French, German and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 the Prince of Wales was given a separate establishment, and in dramatic contrast to his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into...

    In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated, possibly as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria. He was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, and when Parliament reconvened in November, the King could not deliver the customary speech from the throne during the State Opening of Parliament. Parliament found itself in an untenable position: according to long-established law it could not proceed to any business until the delivery of the King's Speech at a State Opening. Although arguably barred from doing so, Parliament began debating a regency. In the House of Commons, Charles James Fox declared his opinion that the Prince of Wales was automatically entitled to exercise sovereignty during the King's incapacity. A contrasting opinion was held by the prime minister, William Pitt the Younger, who argued that, i...

    The Prince of Wales's debts continued to climb, and his father refused to aid him unless he married his cousin Princess Caroline of Brunswick. In 1795, the prince acquiesced; and they were married on 8 April 1795 at the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace. The marriage, however, was disastrous; each party was unsuited to the other. The two were formally separated after the birth of their only child, Princess Charlotte, in 1796, and remained separated thereafter. The Prince remained attached to Maria Fitzherbert for the rest of his life, despite several periods of estrangement. George's mistresses included Mary Robinson, an actress whom he paid to leave the stage; Grace Elliott, the divorced wife of a physician; and Frances Villiers, Countess of Jersey, who dominated his life for some years. In later life, George's mistresses were the Marchioness of Hertford and the Marchioness Conyngham. George was rumoured to have fathered several illegitimate children. James Ord (born 1786)—who moved...

    In late 1810, the King's mental health once again broke down, following the death of his youngest daughter, Princess Amelia. Parliament agreed to follow the precedent of 1788; without the King's consent, the Lord Chancellor affixed the Great Seal of the Realm to letters patent naming Lords Commissioners. The letters patent lacked the Royal Sign Manual, but were sealed by request of resolutions passed by both Houses of Parliament. The Lords Commissioners appointed by the letters patent, in the name of the King, then signified the granting of Royal Assent to a bill that became the Regency Act 1811. Parliament restricted some of the powers of the Prince Regent (as the Prince of Wales became known). The constraints expired one year after the passage of the Act.The Prince of Wales became Prince Regent on 5 February 1811. The Regent let his ministers take full charge of government affairs, playing a far smaller role than his father. The principle that the prime minister was the person sup...

    When George III died in 1820, the Prince Regent, then aged 57, ascended the throne as George IV, with no real change in his powers. By the time of his accession, he was obese and possibly addicted to laudanum. George IV's relationship with his wife Caroline had deteriorated by the time of his accession. They had lived separately since 1796, and both were having affairs. In 1814, Caroline left the United Kingdom for continental Europe, but she chose to return for her husband's coronation, and to publicly assert her rights as queen consort. However, he refused to recognise Caroline as Queen, and commanded British ambassadors to ensure that monarchs in foreign courts did the same. By royal command, Caroline's name was omitted from the Book of Common Prayer, the liturgy of the Church of England. The King sought a divorce, but his advisors suggested that any divorce proceedings might involve the publication of details relating to the King's own adulterous relationships. Therefore, he req...

    George's heavy drinking and indulgent lifestyle had taken their toll on his health by the late 1820s. While still Prince of Wales, he had become obese through his huge banquets and copious consumption of alcohol, making him the target of ridicule on the rare occasions that he appeared in public; by 1797 his weight had reached 17 stone 7 pounds (111 kg; 245 lb). By 1824, his corset was made for a waist of 50 inches (130 cm). He suffered from gout, arteriosclerosis, peripheral edema ("dropsy"), and possibly porphyria. In his last years, he spent whole days in bed and suffered spasms of breathlessness that would leave him half-asphyxiated. George's last years were marked by increasing physical and mental decay and withdrawal from public affairs. Privately, a senior aide to the King confided to his diary: "A more contemptible, cowardly, selfish, unfeeling dog does not exist ... There have been good and wise kings but not many of them ... and this I believe to be one of the worst." By De...

    George's only legitimate child, Charlotte, had died from post-partum complications in 1817, after delivering a stillborn son. George III's second son, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, had died childless in 1827, so the throne passed to the third son of George III, Prince William, Duke of Clarence, who reigned as William IV. George was described as the "First Gentleman of England" on account of his style and manners. He was bright, clever, and knowledgeable, but his laziness and gluttony led him to squander much of his talent. The Timeswrote that he would always prefer "a girl and a bottle to politics and a sermon". The Regency period saw a shift in fashion that was largely determined by George. After political opponents put a tax on wig powder, he abandoned wearing a powdered wig in favour of natural hair. He wore darker colours than had been previously fashionable as they helped to disguise his size, favoured pantaloons and trousers over knee breeches because they were lo...

    Titles and styles

    1. 12 August 1762 – 19 August 1762: His Royal HighnessThe Duke of Cornwall 2. 19 August 1762 – 5 February 1811: His Royal HighnessThe Prince of Wales 3. 5 February 1811 – 29 January 1820: His Royal HighnessThe Prince Regent 4. 29 January 1820 – 26 June 1830: His MajestyThe King At birth, he was also entitled to the dignities Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, Electoral Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Duke of Rothesay.Under the Act of Parliament that instituted the regency, the prince's for...

    Arms

    George's coat of arms as the Prince of Wales was the royal arms (with an inescutcheon of Gules plain in the Hanoverian quarter), differenced by a label of three points Argent. The arms included the royal crest and supporters but with the single arched coronet of his rank, all charged on the shoulder with a similar label. His arms followed the change in the royal arms in 1801, when the Hanoverian quarter became an inescutcheon and the French quarter was dropped altogether.The 1816 alteration d...

    Baker, Kenneth (2005). George IV: A Life in Caricature. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-25127-4.
    David, Saul (2000). Prince of Pleasure: The Prince of Wales and the Making of the Regency. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3703-2.
    De-la-Noy, Michael (1998). George IV. Stroud, Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1821-7.
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