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  1. Hereditary (en Hispanoamérica, El legado del diablo) es una película de terror y suspense psicológico estadounidense de 2018, escrita y dirigida por Ari Aster en su debut como director.

    • Kevin Frakes, Lars Knudsen, Buddy Patrick
    • El legado del diablo (Hispanoamérica), Hereditary (España)
  2. Hereditary is a 2018 American psychological horror film written and directed by Ari Aster, in his feature film directorial debut. It stars Toni Collette , Alex Wolff , Milly Shapiro , and Gabriel Byrne as a family haunted by a mysterious presence after the death of their secretive grandmother.

  3. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › HeredityHeredity - Wikipedia

    • Summary
    • Overview
    • Relation to theory of evolution
    • History
    • Types

    Heredity, also called inheritance or biological inheritance, is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring; either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Through heredity, variations between individuals can accumulate and cause species to evolve by natural selection. The study of heredity in biology is genetics.

    In humans, eye color is an example of an inherited characteristic: an individual might inherit the "brown-eye trait" from one of the parents. Inherited traits are controlled by genes and the complete set of genes within an organism's genome is called its genotype. The complete set of observable traits of the structure and behavior of an organism is called its phenotype. These traits arise from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. As a result, many aspects of an organism's phenot

    When Charles Darwin proposed his theory of evolution in 1859, one of its major problems was the lack of an underlying mechanism for heredity. Darwin believed in a mix of blending inheritance and the inheritance of acquired traits. Blending inheritance would lead to uniformity across populations in only a few generations and then would remove variation from a population on which natural selection could act. This led to Darwin adopting some Lamarckian ideas in later editions of On the Origin of Sp

    Scientists in Antiquity had a variety of ideas about heredity: Theophrastus proposed that male flowers caused female flowers to ripen; Hippocrates speculated that "seeds" were produced by various body parts and transmitted to offspring at the time of conception; and Aristotle thought that male and female fluids mixed at conception. Aeschylus, in 458 BC, proposed the male as the parent, with the female as a "nurse for the young life sown within her". Ancient understandings of heredity transitione

    The description of a mode of biological inheritance consists of three main categories: 1. Number of involved loci Monogenetic – one locus Oligogenic – few loci Polygenetic – many loci

  4. A hereditary carrier ( genetic carrier or just carrier ), is a person or other organism that has inherited a recessive allele for a genetic trait or mutation but usually does not display that trait or show symptoms of the disease. Carriers are, however, able to pass the allele onto their offspring, who may then express the genetic trait.

  5. In set theory, a hereditary set (or pure set) is a set whose elements are all hereditary sets. That is, all elements of the set are themselves sets, as are all elements of the elements, and so on. Contents

    • Signs and Symptoms
    • Genetics
    • Pathophysiology
    • Diagnosis
    • Screening
    • Treatment
    • Prognosis
    • Epidemiology
    • Terminology
    • History

    Haemochromatosis is protean in its manifestations, i.e., often presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of other diagnoses that affect specific organ systems. Many of the signs and symptoms below are uncommon, and most patients with the hereditary form of haemochromatosis do not show any overt signs of disease nor do they suffer premature morbidity, if they are diagnosed early, but, more often than not, the condition is diagnosed only at autopsy. Presently, the classic triad of cirrhosis, bronze skin, and diabetes is less common because of earlier diagnosis. The more common clinical manifestations include: 1. Fatigue 2. Malaise 3. Joint pain(mainly knee and hand) 4. Abdominal pain 5. Bronze or gray skin color (for this the illness was named "bronze diabetes" when it was first described by Armand Trousseauin 1865) 6. Liver fibrosis or cirrhosis (with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma): Liver disease is always preceded by evidence of liver dysfunction, including elevat...

    The regulation of dietary iron absorption is complex and understanding is incomplete. One of the better-characterized genes responsible for hereditary haemochromatosis is HFE on chromosome 6, which codes for a protein that participates in the regulation of iron absorption. The HFEgene has three often observed genetic variants: 1. rs1799945, c.187C>G, p.His63Asp (H63D); 2. rs1800562, c.845G>A, p.Cys282Tyr (C282Y); 3. rs1800730, c.193A>T, p.Ser65Cys (S65C). The worldwide prevalence rates for H63D, C282Y and S65C (minor allele frequencies) are 10%, 3% and 1% respectively. The C282Y allele is a transition point mutation from guanine to adenine at nucleotide 845 in HFE, resulting in a missense mutation that replaces the cysteine residue at position 282 with a tyrosine amino acid. Heterozygotes for either allele can manifest clinical iron overload, if they have two of any alleles. This makes them compound heterozygous for haemochromatosis and puts them greatly at risk of storing excess ir...

    Since the regulation of iron metabolism is still poorly understood, a clear model of how haemochromatosis operates is still not available. A working model describes the defect in the HFE gene, where a mutation puts the intestinal absorption of iron into overdrive. Normally, HFE facilitates the binding of transferrin, which is iron's carrier protein in the blood. Transferrin levels are typically elevated at times of iron depletion (low ferritin stimulates the release of transferrin from the liver). When transferrin is high, HFE works to increase the intestinal release of iron into the blood. When HFE is mutated, the intestines perpetually interpret a strong transferrin signal as if the body were deficient in iron. This leads to maximal iron absorption from ingested foods and iron overload in the tissues. However, HFE is only part of the story, since many patients with mutated HFE do not manifest clinical iron overload, and some patients with iron overload have a normal HFE genotype....

    The diagnosis of haemochromatosis is often made following the incidental finding on routine blood screening of elevated serum liver enzymes or elevation of the transferrin saturationor elevated serum ferritin.. Arthropathy with stiff joints, diabetes, or fatigue, may be the presenting complaint.

    Standard diagnostic measures for haemochromatosis, transferrin saturation and ferritin tests, are not a part of routine medical testing. Screeningfor haemochromatosis is recommended if the patient has a parent, child, or sibling with the disease. Routine screening of the general population for hereditary haemochromatosis is generally not done. Mass genetic screening has been evaluated by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, among other groups, which recommended against genetic screening of the general population for hereditary haemochromatosis because the likelihood of discovering an undiagnosed patient with clinically relevant iron overload is less than one in 1,000. Although strong evidence shows that treatment of iron overload can save lives in patients with transfusional iron overload, no clinical study has shown that for asymptomatic carriers of hereditary haemochromatosis treatment with venesection (phlebotomy) provides any clinical benefit.Recently, patients are suggested...

    Phlebotomy

    Early diagnosis is vital, as the late effects of iron accumulation can be wholly prevented by periodic phlebotomies (by venesection) comparable in volume to blood donations. Phlebotomy (or bloodletting) is usually done at a weekly or each two weeks interval until ferritin levels are 50 μg/l or less. To prevent iron reaccumulation, subsequent phlebotomies are normally carried out about once every three to four months for males, and twice a year for females to keep the serum ferritin between 50...

    Iron chelation therapy

    Where venesection is not possible, long-term administration of an iron chelator as Deferoxamine (or Desferrioxamine), Deferasirox and Deferiprone is useful. Deferoxamine is an iron-chelating compound, and excretion induced by deferoxamine is enhanced by administration of vitamin C. It cannot be used during pregnancy or breast-feeding due to risk of defects in the child.[citation needed]

    Organ damage

    1. Treatment of organ damage (heart failure with diuretics and ACE inhibitor therapy)[citation needed]. Hepatic transplantationin patients with liver failure.

    Persons with symptomatic haemochromatosis have somewhat reduced life expectancy compared to the general population, mainly due to excess mortality from cirrhosis and liver cancer. Patients who were treated with phlebotomy lived longer than those who were not.Patients without liver disease or diabetes had similar survival rate to the general population.

    Haemochromatosis is one of the most common heritable genetic conditions in people of Northern Europe, with a prevalence of 1:200. The disease has a variable penetration, and about one in 10 people of this demographic carry a mutation in one of the genes regulating iron metabolism. In the U.S., the frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations is 5.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Whereas, the worldwide frequency of the C282Y and H63D mutations is about 1.9% and 8.1%, respectively, so mutation in H63D allele are more than C282Y allele. The prevalence of mutations in iron-metabolism genes varies in different populations. A study of 3,011 unrelated white Australians found that 14% were heterozygous carriers of an HFE mutation, 0.5% were homozygous for an HFE mutation, and only 0.25% of the study population had clinically relevant iron overload. Most patients who are homozygous for HFE mutations do not manifest clinically relevant haemochromatosis (see Genetics above). Other populations have a l...

    The term "haemochromatosis" is used by different sources in many different ways. It is often used to imply an association with the HFE gene. For many years, HFE was the only known gene associated with haemochromatosis, and the term "hereditary haemochromatosis" was used to describe haemochromatosis type 1. However, many different genetic associations with this condition are now known. The older the text, or the more general the audience, the more likely that HFE is implied."Haemochromatosis" has also been used in contexts where a genetic cause for iron accumulation had not been known. In some cases, however, a condition that was thought to be due to diet or environment was later linked to a genetic polymorphism, as in African iron overload.[citation needed]

    In 1847, Virchow described a golden brown granular pigment that was soluble in sulfuric acid and produced red ash on ignition. The disease was first described in 1865 by Armand Trousseau in a report on diabetes in patients presenting with a bronze pigmentation of their skin. Two years later, Perls developed the first practical method for the analysis of iron in tissue. Despite Trousseau did not associate diabetes with iron accumulation, the recognition that infiltration of the pancreas with iron might disrupt endocrine function resulting in diabetes was made by Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen in 1890.In 1935, English gerontologist Joseph Sheldon described the cases of haemochromatosis. He established this as the name of the disorder and his detailed monograph. Despite lacking the modern molecular techniques accessible today, he came to accurate conclusions that describe haemochromatosis disease as an inborn error of metabolism where this inherited disorder can increase the absor...

    • HFE hereditary haemochromatosis HFE-related hereditary haemochromatosis
    • Endocrinology, hepatology
    • Handlung
    • Produktion
    • Rezeption
    • Weblinks

    Es war der 3. April 2018, als Ellen Taper Leigh im Alter von 78 Jahren starb. Ihre Tochter Annie beschreibt sie bei der Trauerfeier als verschwiegen und als eine Person, die nichts von ihrem Innenleben oder ihren Ängsten preisgegeben habe. Annie ist verheiratet, und gemeinsam mit ihrem Mann Steve und den Kindern Peter und Charlie bewohnt sie ein Holzhaus am Waldrand. Nach der Trauerfeier bringt Annie ihre Tochter Charlie ins Bett, die um ihre Großmutter trauert. Annie erinnert sich, dass Charlie Ellens Liebling gewesen sei und früher, als Charlie noch klein gewesen sei, immer darauf bestanden habe, sie zu füttern, was Annie manchmal richtig wahnsinnig gemacht habe. Charlie verbringt ihre Zeit am liebsten in einem großen Baumhaus auf dem Grundstück der Familie. Dort fertigt die 13-Jährige Figuren aus Plastikabfällen und schläft auch gerne dort. Mutter Annie hingegen ist unterdessen damit beschäftigt, Modelle für ihre geplante Ausstellung „Small World“ zu fertigen. In den Miniaturarbe...

    Stab, Besetzung und Synchronisation

    Der Film wurde von A24 produziert. Als Produzenten fungierten Kevin Scott Frakes und Lars Knudsen. Letzterer hatte für A24 bereits The Witch produziert. Es handelt sich bei Hereditary um das Langspielfilmdebüt von Regisseur Ari Aster, der auch das Drehbuch schrieb. Nina Rehfeld von Spiegel Online erklärt, Motor der Story sei die Unauslöschlichkeit sowohl von banalen als auch von katastrophalen Ereignissen, die eine Familienkonstellation strukturieren oder, wie hier, sprengen. Vielfach ziehe A...

    Dreharbeiten und Ausstattung

    Die Dreharbeiten fanden in Utah statt, so in Salt Lake City und den Utah Film Studios in Park City. Als Kameramann fungierte Pawel Pogorzelski. Mit seiner Kameraarbeit und der Beleuchtung näherte sich Pogorzelski nach eigenen Aussagen Hereditarywie einem Filmdrama. Im dritten Akt des Films arbeitete er mit härteren Lichtern und etwas mehr Ausdruck, um so dem Umstand Rechnung zu tragen, dass sich der Film erst dann zunehmend in einen Horrorfilm wandelt. Während die Außenaufnahmen des Hauses vo...

    Filmmusik und Veröffentlichung

    Die Filmmusik komponierte Colin Stetson. Der Soundtrack zum Film, der 23 Musikstücke umfasst, wurde am 8. Juni 2018 von Milan Records auf CD und als Download veröffentlicht. Vorab hatte Stetson die auf dem Soundtrack enthaltenen Stücke Funeral, Charlie, Dreaming und Mothers & Daughters veröffentlicht. Das 22. Musikstück Reborn ist in weiten Teilen an das Vorspiel des Rheingoldes von Richard Wagnerangelehnt. Marcus Stiglegger erklärte gegenüber Deutschlandfunk Kultur: „In der Komposition von S...

    Altersfreigabe

    In den USA erhielt der Film von der MPAA ein R-Rating, was einer Freigabe ab 17 Jahren entspricht. In Deutschland erhielt der Film eine Freigabe ab 16 Jahren. In der Freigabebegründung heißt es: „Der Film ist detailreich gestaltet, rekurriert auf typische Stilmittel und Motive des Mystery- und Horror-Genres und baut eine sehr beklemmende Atmosphäre auf. Gezielt werden Schockeffekte und überraschende Wendungen eingesetzt, die Kinder und Jugendliche unter 16 Jahren in ihrer Drastik und im Zusam...

    Filmgenre und Kritiken

    Patrick Wellinski von Deutschlandfunk Kultur ordnet Hereditary in einer Reihe mit Filmen wie Get Out, A Quiet Place und It Follows ein, die er als eine neue kleine Welle des amerikanischen Horrors beschreibt. Der Genreforscher und Filmwissenschaftler Marcus Stiglegger erklärte gegenüber Deutschlandfunk Kultur, diese Idee einer paranoiden Welt, die quasi um das Individuum herum aus den Fugen gerät, sei etwas, was man in diesen Filmen wirklich deutlich als Spiegelbild der gesellschaftlichen Ver...

    Einspielergebnis

    In den USA, wo der Film am 8. Juni 2018 in 2.964 Kinos startete, was der größten Zahl von Kinos für einen Film von A24 entsprach (The Witch startete in 2.046 Kinos), spielte er an seinem Startwochenende 13,6 Millionen US-Dollar ein und übertraf damit die Erwartungen von A24 und der Experten. In Deutschland verzeichnet der Film 120.290 Besucher. Die weltweiten Einnahmen des Films belaufen sich auf 79,3 Millionen US-Dollar, womit Hereditaryzum erfolgreichsten von A24 produzierten Film avancierte.

    Hereditary – Das Vermächtnis in der Internet Movie Database(englisch)
    Hereditary – Das Vermächtnis in der Deutschen Synchronkartei
    Hereditary – Official Trailer von A24bei YouTube (Video, englisch)
    Colin Stetson – Funeralvon Milan Records bei YouTube (Audio)
    • Hereditary – Das Vermächtnis
    • Englisch
    • Hereditary
    • USA
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