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  1. La Monarquía de Julio (en francés, Monarchie de Juillet) es el nombre con el que la historiografía contemporánea suele designar al periodo histórico que se desarrolló en Francia desde 1830 a 1848, entre dos de los principales procesos revolucionarios considerados ciclos de la revolución liberal o burguesa: la denominada Revolución de 1830, también llamada «Revolución de Julio», y ...

  2. Categoría:Monarquía de Julio. Los artículos principales de esta categoría son: Luis Felipe I de Francia y Monarquía de Julio. Wikimedia Commons alberga una categoría multimedia sobre Monarquía de Julio.

  3. La Monarquía de Julio (en francés, Monarchie de Juillet) es el nombre con el que la historiografía contemporánea suele designar al periodo histórico que se desarrolló en Francia desde 1830 a 1848, entre dos de los principales procesos revolucionarios considerados ciclos de la revolución liberal o burguesa

    • Overview
    • Background
    • Initial Period
    • The Laffitte Government
    • The Casimir Perier Government
    • The Consolidation of The Regime
    • Evolution Towards Parliamentarianism
    • The Guizot Government
    • End of The Monarchy
    • See Also

    Louis Phillipe was pushed to the throne by an alliance between the people of Paris; the republicans, who had set up barricades in the capital; and the liberal bourgeoisie. However, at the end of his reign, the so-called "Citizen King" was overthrown by similar citizen uprisings and use of barricades during the February Revolution of 1848. This resulted in the proclamation of the Second Republic. After Louis-Philippe's ousting and subsequent exile to Britain, the liberal Orleanist faction (opposed by the counter-revolutionary Legitimists) continued to support a return of the House of Orléans to the throne. But the July Monarchy proved to be the last Bourbon-Orleans monarchy of France (although monarchy was re-established under Napoleon Bonaparte's nephew, who reigned as Napoleon IIIfrom 1852 to 1870). The Legitimists withdrew from politics to their castles, leaving the way open for the struggle between the Orleanists and the Republicans. The July Monarchy (1830–1848) is generally see...

    Following the ouster of Napoléon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. The ensuing period, the Bourbon Restoration, was characterized by conservative reaction and the re-establishment of the Roman Catholic Church as a power in French politics. The relatively moderate Comte de Provence, brother of the deposed-and-executed Louis XVI, ruled as Louis XVIII from 1814 to 1824 and was succeeded by his more conservative younger brother, the former Comte d'Artois, ruling as Charles Xfrom 1824. Despite the return of the House of Bourbon to power, France was much changed from the era of the ancien régime. The egalitarianism and liberalism of the revolutionaries remained an important force and the autocracy and hierarchy of the earlier era could not be fully restored. Economic changes, which had been underway long before the revolution, had progressed further during the years of turmoil and were firmly entrenched by 1815. These changes had seen power s...

    The symbolic establishment of the new regime

    On 7 August 1830, the 1814 Charter was revised. The preamble reviving the Ancien Régime was suppressed, and the King of France became the "King of the French", (also known as the "Citizen King") establishing the principle of national sovereignty over the principle of the divine right. The new Charter was a compromise between the Doctrinaires opposition to Charles X and the Republicans. Laws enforcing Catholicism and censorship were repealed and the revolutionary tricolor flagre-established. L...

    A permanent disorder

    Civil unrest continued for three months, supported by the left-wing press. Louis-Philippe's government was not able to put an end to it, mostly because the National Guard was headed by one of the Republican leaders, the marquis de La Fayette, who advocated a "popular throne surrounded by Republican institutions." The Republicans then gathered themselves in popular clubs, in the tradition established by the 1789 Revolution. Some of those were fronts for secret societies (for example, the Blanq...

    Purge of the Legitimists

    Meanwhile, the government expelled from the administration all Legitimist supporters who refused to pledge allegiance to the new regime, leading to the return to political affairs of most of the personnel of the First Empire, who had themselves been expelled during the Second Restoration. This renewal of political and administrative staff was humorously illustrated by a vaudeville of Jean-François Bayard. The Minister of the Interior, Guizot, re-appointed the entire prefectoral administration...

    Although Louis-Philippe strongly disagreed with the banker Laffitteand secretly pledged to the duke of Broglie that he would not support him at all, the new President of the Council was tricked into trusting his king. The trial of Charles X's former ministers took place from 15 to 21 December 1830 before the Chamber of Peers, surrounded by rioters demanding their death. They were finally sentenced to life detention, accompanied by civil death for Polignac. La Fayette's National Guard maintained public order in Paris, affirming itself as the bourgeois watchdog of the new regime, while the new Interior Minister, Camille de Montalivet, kept the ministers safe by detaining them in the fort of Vincennes. But by demonstrating the National Guard's importance, La Fayette had made his position delicate, and he was quickly forced to resign. This led to the Minister of Justice Dupont de l'Eure's resignation. In order to avoid exclusive dependence on the National Guard, the "Citizen King" charg...

    Having succeeded in outdoing the Parti du Mouvement, the "Citizen King" called to power the Parti de la Résistance. However, Louis-Philippe was not really much more comfortable with one side than with the other, being closer to the center. Furthermore, he felt no sympathy for its leader, the banker Casimir Perier, who replaced Laffitte on 13 March 1831 as head of the government. His aim was more to re-establish order in the country, letting the Parti de la Résistanceassume responsibility for unpopular measures. Perier, however, managed to impose his conditions on the king, including the pre-eminence of the President of the Council over other ministers, and his right to call cabinet councils outside of the actual presence of the king. Furthermore, Casimir Perier secured agreement that the liberal Prince Royal, Ferdinand-Philippe d'Orléans, would cease to participate to the Council of Ministers. Despite this, Perier valued the king's prestige, calling on him, on 21 September 1831, to...

    King Louis-Philippe was not unhappy to see Casimir Perier withdraw from the political scene, as he complained that Perier took all the credit for the government's policy successes, while he himself had to assume all the criticism for its failures.The "Citizen King" was therefore not in any hurry to find a new President of the Council, all the more since the Parliament was in recess and that the troubled situation demanded swift and energetic measures. Indeed, the regime was being attacked on all sides. The Legitimist duchess of Berry attempted an uprising in spring 1832 in Provence and Vendée, a stronghold of the ultra-royalists, while the Republicans headed an insurrection in Paris on 5 June 1832, on the occasion of the funeral of one of their leaders, General Lamarque, also struck dead by the cholera. General Mouton crushed the rebellion. The scene was later depicted by Victor Hugo in Les Misérables. This double victory, over both the Carlists Legitimists and the Republicans, was...

    The polemics which led to Marshal Mortier's resignation, fueled by monarchists such as Baron Massias and the Count of Roederer, all turned around the question of parliamentary prerogative. On the one hand, Louis-Philippe wanted to be able to follow his own policy, in particular in "reserved domains" such as military affairs or diplomacy. As the head of state, he also wanted to be able to lead the government, if need be by bypassing the President of the Council. On the other hand, a number of the deputies stated that the ministers needed a leader commanding a parliamentary majority, and thus wanted to continue the evolution towards parliamentarism which had only been sketched out in the Charter of 1830. The Charter did not include any mechanism for the political accountability of ministers towards the Chamber (confidence motions or for censorship motions). Furthermore, the function of the President of the Council itself was not even set out in the Charter.

    When Louis-Philippe called to power Guizot and the Doctrinaires, representatives of the center-right, after the center-left Thiers, he surely imagined that this would be only temporary, and that he would soon be able to call back Molé. But the new cabinet formed by Guizot would remain closely knit, and finally win the king's trust, with Guizotbecoming his favorite president of the Council. On 26 October 1840, Guizot arrived to Paris from London. He took for himself the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and let Soult assume the nominal presidency. This satisfied the king and the royal family, while Guizot himself was sure of his ability to manipulate the old Marshal Soult as he wished. As the center-left had refused to remain in the government, Guizot's cabinet included only conservatives, ranging from the ministerial center to the center-right Doctrinaires. The July Column was erected in honor of the 1830 Revolution. The Middle East Question was settled by the London Straits Convention of...

    After some unrest, the king replaced Guizot by Thiers who advocated repression. Greeted with hostility by the troops in the Place du Carrousel, in front of the Tuileries Palace, the king finally decided to abdicate in favor of his grandson, Philippe d'Orléans, entrusting the regency to his daughter-in-law, Hélène de Mecklembourg-Schwerin. His gesture was in vain as the Second Republic was proclaimed on 26 February 1848, on the Place de la Bastille, before the July Column. Louis-Philippe, who claimed to be the "Citizen King" linked to the country by a popular sovereignty contract on which he founded his legitimacy, did not see that the French people were advocating an enlargement of the electorate, either by a decrease of the electoral tax threshold, or by the establishment of universal suffrage[citation needed]. Although the end of the July Monarchy brought France to the brink of civil war, the period was also characterized by an effervescence of artistic and intellectual creation.

  4. La Monarquía de Julio ( francés: Monarchie de juillet, oficialmente el Reino de Francia, francés: Royaume de France) fue una monarquía constitucional liberal en Francia bajo Luis Felipe I, comenzando el 26 de julio de 1830, con la Revolución de julio de 1830, y terminando el 23 de julio.

  5. Monarquía de Julio es el nombre con el que la historiografía contemporánea suele designar al periodo histórico que se desarrolló en Francia desde 1830 a 1848, entre dos de los principales procesos revolucionarios considerados ciclos de la revolución liberal o burguesa: la denominada Revolución de 1830, también llamada «Revolución de Julio», y la otra que estuviera formada, además ...

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