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  1. Marzo. 1 de marzo: Promulgación de la Constitución neogranadina de 1832, en donde la Gran Colombia cambia de nombre a República de la Nueva Granada. 22 de marzo: en París se desata la epidemia de cólera, que ocasiona un gran número de víctimas.

  2. › wiki › 18321832 - Wikipedia

    1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1832nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 832nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1830s decade.

    • Incumbents
    • Events
    • Births
    • Deaths

    Federal Government

    1. President: Andrew Jackson (D-Tennessee) 2. Vice President: John C. Calhoun (D-South Carolina) (until December 28), vacant(starting December 28) 3. Chief Justice: John Marshall (Virginia) 4. Speaker of the House of Representatives: Andrew Stevenson (D-Virginia) 5. Congress: 22nd

    February 9 – The city of Jacksonville, Florida receives its town charter from the legislative council of Florida Territory.
    March 3 – In Worcester v. Georgia, the United States Supreme Court holds that CherokeeIndians are entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments.
    March 24 – In Hiram, Ohio a group of men beat, tar and feather Latter Day Saint movement founder Joseph Smith.
    April 6 – The Black Hawk Warbegins.
    January 1 – Charles N. Felton, U.S. Senator from California from 1891 to 1893 (died 1914)
    January 13 – Horatio Alger, Jr., Unitarian minister and author (died 1899)
    January 26 – George Shiras Jr., Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (died 1924)
    February 3 – Abram Williams, U.S. Senator from California from 1886 to 1887 (died 1911)
    February 1 – Archibald Murphey, North Carolina politician (born c. 1777)
    February 2 – Amos Doolittle, engraver (born 1754)
    April 12 – Shadrach Bond, 1st governor of Illinois (born. 1773)
    June 10 – Joseph Hiester, politician (born 1752)
    • Unreformed House of Commons
    • Movement For Reform
    • Passage of The Reform Act
    • Results
    • Assessment
    • See Also
    • External Links


    After the Acts of Union 1800became law on 1 January 1801, the unreformed House of Commons was composed of 658 members, of whom 513 represented England and Wales. There were two types of constituencies: counties and boroughs. County members were supposed to represent landholders, while borough members were supposed to represent the mercantile and trading interests of the kingdom.

    The franchise

    Statutes passed in 1430 and 1432, during the reign of Henry VI, standardised property qualifications for county voters. Under these Acts, all owners of freehold property or land worth at least forty shillings in a particular county were entitled to vote in that county. This requirement, known as the forty shilling freehold, was never adjusted for inflation of land value; thus the amount of land one had to own in order to vote gradually diminished over time.[a] The franchise was restricted to...

    Pocket boroughs, bribery

    Many constituencies, especially those with small electorates, were under the control of rich landowners, and were known as nomination boroughs or pocket boroughs, because they were said to be in the pockets of their patrons. Most patrons were noblemen or landed gentry who could use their local influence, prestige, and wealth to sway the voters. This was particularly true in rural counties, and in small boroughs situated near a large landed estate. Some noblemen even controlled multiple consti...

    Early attempts at reform

    During the 1640s, England endured a civil war that pitted King Charles I and the Royalists against the Parliamentarians. In 1647, different factions of the victorious parliamentary army held a series of discussions, the Putney Debates, on reforming the structure of English government. The most radical elements proposed universal manhood suffrage and the reorganisation of parliamentary constituencies. Their leader Thomas Rainsboroughdeclared, "I think it's clear, that every man that is to live...

    Aftermath of the French Revolution

    Support for parliamentary reform plummeted after the launch of the French Revolution in 1789. Many English politicians became steadfastly opposed to any major political change. Despite this reaction, several Radical Movement groups were established to agitate for reform. A group of Whigs led by James Maitland, 8th Earl of Lauderdale, and Charles Grey founded an organisation advocating parliamentary reform in 1792. This group, known as the Society of the Friends of the People, included 28 MPs....

    Reform during the 1820s

    Since the House of Commons regularly rejected direct challenges to the system of representation by large majorities, supporters of reform had to content themselves with more modest measures. The Whig Lord John Russell brought forward one such measure in 1820, proposing the disfranchisement of the notoriously corrupt borough of Grampound in Cornwall. He suggested that the borough's two seats be transferred to the city of Leeds. Tories in the House of Lords agreed to the disfranchisement of the...

    First Reform Bill

    The death of King George IV on 26 June 1830 dissolved Parliament by law, and a general election was held. Electoral reform, which had been frequently discussed during the preceding parliamentary session, became a major campaign issue. Across the country, several pro-reform "political unions" were formed, made up of both middle and working class individuals. The most influential of these was the Birmingham Political Union, led by Thomas Attwood. These groups confined themselves to lawful means...

    Second Reform Bill

    The political and popular pressure for reform had grown so great that pro-reform Whigs won an overwhelming House of Commons majority in the general election of 1831. The Whig party won almost all constituencies with genuine electorates, leaving the Tories with little more than the rotten boroughs. The Reform Bill was again brought before the House of Commons, which agreed to the second reading by a large majority in July. During the committee stage, opponents of the bill slowed its progress t...

    Third Reform Bill

    After the Reform Bill was rejected in the Lords, the House of Commons immediately passed a motion of confidence affirming their support for Lord Grey's administration. Because parliamentary rules prohibited the introduction of the same bill twice during the same session, the ministry advised the new king, William IV, to prorogueParliament. As soon as the new session began in December 1831, the Third Reform Bill was brought forward. The bill was in a few respects different from its predecessor...


    Between 1835 and 1841, local Conservative Associations began to educate citizens about the party's platform and encouraged them to register to vote annually, as required by the Act. Coverage of national politics in the local press was joined by in-depth reports on provincial politics in the national press. Grassroots Conservatives therefore saw themselves as part of a national political movement during the 1830s. The size of the pre-Reform electorate is difficult to estimate. Voter registrati...

    Tenant voters

    Most of the pocket boroughs abolished by the Reform Act belonged to the Tory party. These losses were somewhat offset by the extension of the vote to tenants-at-will paying an annual rent of £50.[j] This clause, proposed by the Tory Marquess of Chandos, was adopted in the House of Commons despite opposition from the Government. The tenants-at-will thereby enfranchised typically voted as instructed by their landlords, who in turn normally supported the Tory party. This concession, together wit...


    The Reform Act did not enfranchise the working class since voters were required to possess property worth £10, a substantial sum at the time. This split the alliance between the working class and the middle class, giving rise to the Chartist Movement.[citation needed] Although it did disenfranchise most rotten boroughs, a few remained, such as Totnes in Devon and Midhurst in Sussex. Also, bribery of voters remained a problem. As Sir Thomas Erskine Mayobserved, "it was too soon evident, that a...

    Many historians credit the Reform Act 1832 with launching modern democracy in the United Kingdom. G. M. Trevelyan hails 1832 as the watershed moment at which "'the sovereignty of the people' had been established in fact, if not in law". Sir Erskine May notes that the "reformed Parliament was, unquestionably, more liberal and progressive in its policy than the Parliaments of old; more vigorous and active; more susceptible to the influence of public opinion; and more secure in the confidence of the people", but admitted that "grave defects still remained to be considered". Other historians have argued that genuine democracy began to arise only with the Second Reform Act in 1867, or perhaps even later. Norman Gashstates that "it would be wrong to assume that the political scene in the succeeding generation differed essentially from that of the preceding one". Much of the support for passage in Parliament came from conservatives hoping to head off even more radical changes. Earl Grey ar...

    Full original text of the Act as passed: "Cap. XLV: An Act to amend the Representation of the People in England and Wales.". The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 2 & 3 W...
    Bloy, Marjie. The Reform Act Crisis
    Spartacus. 1832 Reform Act
    • 2 & 3 Wm. IV, c. 45
    • 7 June 1832
    • An Act to amend the representation of the people in England and Wales
    • Lord Grey, Prime Minister
    • Historia
    • Véase también
    • Bibliografía
    • Enlaces Externos

    Las demandas de reformas se remontaban a mucho antes de 1832, pero siempre sin éxito. La ley que finalmente logró imponerse fue propuesta por los Whigs, liderados por el Primer Ministro Lord Grey. La iniciativa encontró bastante resistencia por parte de fracciones pro Pitt en el Parlamento que habían gobernado el país durante tanto tiempo (la oposición fue especialmente virulenta en la Cámara de los Lores). Sin embargo, a causa de la presión del público, el proyecto fue finalmente aprobado. La ley le otorgaba bancas en la Cámara de los Comunes a las ciudades grandes que habían surgido durante la Revolución Industrial, y le quitaba bancas a los denominados "rotten boroughs" ("burgos podridos", ciudades despobladas que continuaban teniendo su representación de origen medieval). La ley también aumentó el número de individuos habilitados para votar, aumentando la masa del electorado desde unos 500 000 a 813 000, y permitiendo así que uno de cada seis hombres adultos votaran, en una pobl...

    Lady Holland and Sarah Austin. (1855). A Memoir of the Reverend Sydney Smith by his daughter, Lady Holland, with a Selection from his Letters edited by Mrs Sarah Austin.2 vols. London: Brown, Green...
    Marcus, Jane (ed.). (2001). Women's Source LibraryVol.VIII: Suffrage and the Pankhursts. London: Routledge.
    Texto completo original aprobado dla ley: «Cap. XLV: An Act to amend the Representation of the People in England and Wales.». The statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 2 & 3...
    Bloy, Marjie. The Reform Act Crisis
    Spartacus. 1832 Reform Act
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