Charles I of England From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
- Early Life
- Charles' Religion
Charles was born at Dunfermline Palace in Fife, Scotland, before his father James VI and I came to the throneof England. Charles was came to England in 1604. When Charles's older brother Henry Frederick died in 1612, Charles became the Prince of Wales and the heir apparent to his father's kingdoms. He had an elder brother, Henry, who was clever, handsome, popular, and rich, and next in line for the throne. Henry died suddenly in 1612, and then his brother Charles was made Prince of Walesin his place, showing that he was now the heir to the throne. Charles was less suited to be king than Henry had been, because he was small and weak and not as clever. After his brother died, the person Charles was closest to was George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was also his father's best friend. The Duke of Buckingham was very powerful and rich, but was not popular with most common people. He took Charles to Spain in the hope of finding him a Spanish princess as a bride, but they had a lot of...
His religious policies, and his marriage to a Roman Catholic, made him mistrusted by Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported "high church" Anglican ecclesiastics, and failed to help Protestant forces enough in the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliamentsand were a cause of his downfall.
Charles, now the king, convened the parliament again in 1625. The parliament did not give the king what the king wanted. The men in parliament did not like Charles's friend George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. Buckingham had gone with Charles to Spain and later helped him to marry Henrietta Maria. When Buckingham led the Royal Navy to attack Cadiz in Spain, the campaign was a failure, and the Parliament of England impeached him. Because of this, Charles stopped (dissolved) the parliament. He also wanted to send soldiers to help Protestants in the Kingdom of France, and made demands for more money as payment for the army. This campaign was also a failure, and the king had to agree to the Petition of Rightin 1628. An army officer assassinated Buckingham that summer. The Parliament of England convened again in 1629. There were many disagreements about religion and the organization of the Church of England. Charles gave support to the "High Church" group, but the parliament gave the...
At the trial he was found guilty. He was decapitated in a public execution outside the Banqueting House of the palace at Whitehall. Some of the members of Parliament who were opposed to killing king Charles were purged, and from this time on, what was left of the Long Parliament became known as the Rump Parliament. This Parliament took complete power in England, and there was not a new king at all until 1660.
Carlos I de Inglaterra y de Escocia (en inglés, Charles I of England and Scotland; Dunfermline, Escocia, 19 de noviembre de 1600 - Palacio de Whitehall, Londres, 30 de enero de 1649) fue rey de Inglaterra, Escocia e Irlanda, desde el 27 de marzo de 1625 hasta su ejecución en 1649
Charles I of England was the second King of the then newly enthroned House of Stuart and had many descendants. He was the second surviving son of King James I of England . He became heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones on the death of his elder brother in 1612.
Charles was the only member of the royal family to have a civil rather than a church wedding in England. Government documents from the 1950s and 1960s, published by the BBC, stated that such a marriage was illegal,  though these were dismissed by Charles's spokesman,  and explained to be obsolete by the sitting government.
- Early Life, Civil War and Exile
- Foreign Policy and Marriage
- Conflict with Parliament
- Later Years
- Titles, Styles, Honours and Arms
Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. Charles was their second child. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. England, Scotland, and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian, and Catholic. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. At birth, Charles automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay, along with several other associated titles. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested. During th...
After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. The Long Parliament dissolved itself and there was a general election for the first time in almost 20 years.The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a Presbyterian majority. The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted...
Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. Negotiations with Portugal for Charles's marriage to Catherine of Braganza began during his father's reign and upon the restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, reopened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance. On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and libert...
Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Catholics and other religious dissenters. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War. The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England, but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicid...
In Charles II's early childhood, William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle was governor of the royal household and Brian Duppa, the Dean of Christchurch, was his tutor. Neither man thought that the study of science subjects was appropriate for a future king,:220 and Newcastle even advised against studying any subject too seriously. However, as Charles grew older, the renowned surgeon William Harvey was appointed his tutor. He was famous for his work on blood circulation in the human body and already held the position of physician to Charles I; his studies were to influence Charles's own attitude to science. As the king's chief physician, Harvey accompanied Charles I to the Battle of Edgehill. There, in the morning, he was placed in charge of the two princes, Charles and his brother James,but the boys were back with their father for the start of the battle. In exile, Charles continued his education in physics, chemistry and the mathematics of navigation as well as the classics. His tutors...
Charles faced a political storm over his brother James, a Catholic, being next in line to the throne. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs(after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians).
The escapades of Charles after his defeat at the Battle of Worcester remained important to him throughout his life. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. Ironic and cynical, Charles took pleasure in retailing stories which demonstrated the undetectable nature of any inherent majesty he possessed. Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses, including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of P...
Titles and styles
The official style of Charles II was "Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc." The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.
1. KG: Knight of the Garter, 21 May 1638
Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).
By Lucy Walter(c. 1630 – 1658): 1. James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch(1663) in Scotland. Monmouth was born nine months after Walter and Charles II first met, and was acknowledged as his son by Charles II, but James II suggested that he was the son of another of her lovers, Colonel Robert Sidney, rather than Charles. Lucy Walter had a daughter, Mary Crofts, born after James in 1651, but Charles II was not the father, since he and Walter parted in September 1649. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon, in 1660: 1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684), married firstly James Howard and secondly William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth By Catherine Pegge: 1. Charles FitzCharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth(1675) 2. Catherine FitzCharles(born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk) By Barb...BBC staff (October 2003), Charles II and the women who bore his children (PDF), BBC"Nova et Vetera", British Medical Journal, 2 (4064): 1089, 1938, doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4064.1089, JSTOR 20301497, PMC 2210948, PMID 20781915
- Early Life
- The King's Escape
- The Restoration
Prince Charles was the king's eldest son. As a little boy, he was made Prince of Walesas a sign that he would one day be king. By the time he grew into a young man, his father was already at war with Parliament in the English Civil War. Prince Charles did not take much part in the fighting. His mother, Henrietta Maria, was French, and she took her children to France when the war broke out, to keep them safe. Prince Charles was only eighteen when he heard that his father was dead. This made him King, and he started calling himself King Charles II immediately. However, Parliament was still in control of Britain and would not let him take his throne because after Charles I's execution, Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protectorof Britain from 1653-1658.
In 1651, Charles II returned to Britain and fought Parliament at the Battle of Worcester. He was defeated, but is supposed to have escaped by hiding in an oak tree. Later, he was forced to disguise himself as a servant. A young lady called Jane Lanehelped him to escape, and he sailed to the Netherlands to re-join his supporters. He kept his own royal court there until 1660.
While Charles was in Holland, Britain was being ruled by Oliver Cromwell, an extraordinary man who had no title, but many followers. He was chosen as leader of the country by Parliament. When Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard was chosen to be the next leader. Richard Cromwell was not the man his father had been. Charles II was asked to come back and rule Britain. In 1660, Charles II was brought back to Britain and took his throne. This was the English Restoration. Many of his enemies were punished for having executed his father and fought against him, but Richard Cromwell was allowed to go and live quietly away from London. Charles was popular and was called "The Merry Monarch" because he changed many laws that Cromwell had made and allowed people more freedom to enjoy themselves. He liked to go to the theatre, play cards, and enjoy sports such as horse racing. Some people thought that a king should be more serious and not spend so much time and money on fun. There were also so...
By Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret 1. Letters claiming that she bore Charles a son named James de la Clochein 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries. By Lucy Walter(c.1630–1658) 1. James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch (1663) in Scotland. Ancestor of Sarah, Duchess of York. Lucy Walter had a daughter, Mary Crofts, born after James, but Charles II was not the father. By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannonin 1660 1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684), married the 2nd Earl of Yarmouth By Catherine Pegge 1. Charles FitzCharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth(1675) 2. Catherine FitzCharles (born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk) By Barbara Villiers Palmer (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine created Duchess of Clevelandin her own right 1. Anne Palmer...
I of England , 그리고 그녀가 1603 년 3 월에 아이없이 죽었을 때, 그는 James I. Charles가 약하고 병약 한 아기 였기 때문에 영국의 왕 이 그의 부모와 형은 597 년 동안 떠났습니다.>영국 그해 4 월과 6 월 초, 그는 허약 한 때문에 아버지의 친구와 함께 건강에 머물 렀습니다.
Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. He was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603 (as James I), he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life.