The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain.The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family scion Walter fitz Alan (c. 1150).
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The House of Stewart, or Stuart, is a royal house of Scotland and England. The Tudor dynasty ended when Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603. She named her cousin James I as heir.NameFromUntilRelationship with predecessorJames VI of ScotlandandJames I of ...24 July 1567and24 March 160327 March 1625son of Mary, Queen of Scots and Henry ...27 March 162530 January 1649 (executed)son of James VI of Scotland & I of ...30 January 16496 February 1685son of Charles I of England, Scotland & ...James VII of ScotlandandJames II of ...6 February 168513 February 1689brother of Charles II of England, ...
Category:House of Stuart From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to House of Stuart. The House of Stuart — a Scottish royal house, and later English and British royal house.
- Origen E Historia
- Reyes de Escocia
- Reyes de Inglaterra
El más antiguo miembro conocido de la Casa de Estuardo fue Flaad I («el Senescal», «steward» en inglés), noble bretón del siglo XI perteneciente al séquito del señor de Dol y Combourgo. Flaad y sus inmediatos descendientes ostentaron el cargo honorario y hereditario de Dapifer ("el portador de alimentos") del señor de Dol. Su nieto Flaad II entró al servicio de Enrique I de Inglaterra, protagonizando el "paso" de la dinastía de Bretaña a Gran Bretaña, que fue donde se fraguó su destino. Walter FitzAlan (1106-1177), nieto de Flaad II e hijo de Alan fitz Flaad, nació en Oswestry (Shropshire). Con su hermano Guillermo, antepasado de la familia de los condes de Arundel, apoyó a la Emperatriz Matilde de Inglaterra contra su primo Esteban I de Blois, durante el período conocido como la Anarquía. Otro de los aliados de Matilde fue su tío David I de Escocia, de la casa de Dunkeld. Después de que Matilde, habiendo básicamente fracasado en su intento de hacerse con el trono, tuviera que refug...Roberto II, 1316–1390, Rey de Escocia de 1371 a 1390Roberto III, 1337–1406, Rey de Escocia de 1390 a 1406Jacobo I, 1394–1437, Rey de Escocia de 1406 a 1437Jacobo II, 1430–1460, Rey de Escocia de 1437 a 1460Jacobo VI de Escocia y I de Inglaterra, Rey de Inglaterra de 1603 a 1625Carlos I de Inglaterra y Escocia, Rey de Inglaterra y Escocia de 1625 a 1649Carlos II de Inglaterra y Escocia, Rey de Inglaterra y Escocia de 1660 a 1685Jacobo VII de Escocia y II de Inglaterra, Rey de Inglaterra y Escocia de 1685 a 1688, el cual continuó reclamando los tronos inglés y escocés tras su deposición en 1688Jacobo Francisco Estuardo, conocido como el Viejo Pretendiente, reclamó el trono como Jacobo VIII de Escocia y Jacobo III de Inglaterra (1701–1766)Carlos Eduardo Estuardo, el Joven Pretendiente, reclamó el trono como Carlos III (1766–1788)Enrique Benedicto Estuardo, que reclamó el trono como Enrique IX de Inglaterra (1766–1807). A su muerte los derechos dinásticos pasaron al exrey Carlos Manuel IV de Cerdeña, pretendiente con el nom...
The House of Stuart is a noble family of Scottish origin that eventually became monarchs of Scotland, England, Ireland, and Great Britain.
Pages in category "House of Stuart" The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total.
- Political History
- Social and Economic History
- Foreign Policy
- Further Reading
Charles I: 1625–1649
King James was failing in physical and mental strength, because of this he was often mocked by his family and his own father would throw objects at him when he would try to stand up, and decision-making was increasingly in the hands of Charles and especially George Villiers (1592–1628), (he was Earl of Buckingham from 1617 and Duke from 1623). Buckingham showed a very high degree of energy and application, as well as a huge appetite for rewards and riches. By 1624 he was effectively the ruler...
Civil War and Interregnum: 1642–1660
The First English Civil War of 1642–1645 ended in victory for the Parliamentarians over the Royalists (often called "Cavaliers"). The Parliamentarians were often called "Roundheads" because of their short practical haircuts. The Second English Civil War was fought in 1648–1649; Charles lost and the execution of Charles Itook place in January 1649. The monarchy was temporarily displaced by the Commonwealth of England from 1649 to 1660. Oliver Cromwell ruled directly from 1653 to his death in 1...
Restoration and Charles II: 1660–1685
Widespread dissatisfaction with the lack of the king led to the Restoration in 1660, which was based on strong support for inviting Charles II to take the throne. The restoration settlement of 1660 reestablished the monarchy, and incorporated the lessons learned in the previous half century. The first basic lesson was that the king and the parliament were both needed, for troubles cumulated when the king attempted to rule alone (1629–1640), when Parliament ruled without a king (1642–1653) or...
The total population of England grew steadily in the 17th century, from 1600 to about 1660, then declined slightly and stagnated between 1649 and 1714. The population was about 4.2 million in 1603, 5.2 million in 1649, 5.1 million in 1660, 4.9 million in 1688, and 5.3 million in 1714. By 1714 the Greater London area held about 674,000 people, or one in nine of England's population. The next cities in size were Norwich and Bristol(with a population of about 30,000 each). About 90% of the peopl...
Witchcraft and magic
Historians have recently placed stress on how people at the time dealt with the supernatural, not just in formal religious practice and theology, but in everyday life through magic and witchcraft. The persecution of witches began in England in 1563, and hundreds were executed. England was spared the frenzy on Continental Europe; with over 5% of Europe's population in 1600, England executed only 1% of the 40,000 witches killed in the period 1400–1800. The government made witchcraft a capital c...
There was no free schooling for ordinary children, but in the towns and cities small local private schools were opened for the benefit of the boys of the middle classes, and a few were opened for girls. The rich and the nobility relied on private tutors. Private schools were starting to open for young men of the upper classes, and universities operated in Scotland and England. The University of Oxford and the University of Cambridgeprovided some education for prospective Anglican ministers, b...
Stuart England was primarily consumed with internal affairs. King James I (reigned 1603–25) was sincerely devoted to peace, not just for his three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, but for Europe as a whole. He disliked Puritans and Jesuits alike, because of their eagerness for warfare. He called himself "Rex Pacificus" ("King of peace.") At the time, Europe was deeply polarised, and on the verge of the massive Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), with the smaller established Protestant states facing the aggression of the larger Catholic empires. On assuming the throne, James made peace with Catholic Spain, and made it his policy to marry his son to the Spanish Infanta (princess) Maria Anna in the "Spanish Match". The marriage of James' daughter Princess Elizabeth to Frederick V, Elector Palatine on 14 February 1613 was more than the social event of the era; the couple's union had important political and military implications. Across Europe, the German princes were banding togeth...
The Stuart period began in 1603 with the death of Queen Elizabeth I and the accession of King James I. There was a break in the middle but the Stuarts were restored to the throne in 1660. It ended in 1714 (after 111 years) with the death of Queen Anne and the accession of King George I, the first king of the House of Hanover. The yellow bars show Stuart rule.
The House of Stuartproduced six monarchs who ruled during this period. 1. James I (1603–1625) 2. Charles I (1625–1649) 3. Charles II (1660–1685) 4. James II (1685–1688) 5. William III (1689–1702) 6. Mary II (1689–1694) 7. Anne (1702–1714)Bucholz, Robert, and Newton Key. Early modern England 1485–1714: A narrative history(2009); university textbook.Burke, Peter "Popular culture in seventeenth-century London." The London Journal 3.2 (1977): 143–162. onlineCampbell, Mildred. English yeoman under Elizabeth and the early Stuarts(1942), rich coverage of rural lifeClark, George, The Later Stuarts, 1660–1714(Oxford History of England) (2nd ed. 1956), a wide-ranging standard scholarly survey.
- Present Day
- List of Monarchs
The name Stewart derives from the political position of office similar to a governor, known as a steward. It originally was adopted as the family surname by Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland, who was the third member of the family to hold the position. Previously, family names were not used, but instead they had patronyms defined through the father; for example the first two High Stewards were known as FitzAlan and FitzWalter respectively. The g...
The ancestral origins of the Stuart family are obscure—their probable ancestry is traced back to Alan FitzFlaad, a Breton who came over to Great Britain not long after the Norman conquest. Alan had been the hereditary steward of the Bishop of Dol in the Duchy of Brittany; Alan had a good relationship with Henry I of England who awarded him with lands in Shropshire. The FitzAlan family quickly established themselves as a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house, with so...
The sixth High Steward of Scotland, Walter Stewart (1293–1326), married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce, and also played an important part in the Battle of Bannockburn gaining further favour. Their son Robert was heir to the House of Bruce, the Lordship of Cunningham and the Bruce lands of Bourtreehill; he eventually inherited the Scottish throne when his uncle David IIdied childless in 1371. In 1503, James IV attempted to secure peace with England by marrying King Henry VII's daughter, Margaret Tudor. The birth of their son, later James V, brought the House of Stewart into the line of descent of the House of Tudor, and the English throne. Margaret Tudor later married Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus, and their daughter, Margaret Douglas, was the mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. In 1565, Darnley married his half-cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, the daughter of James V. Darnley's father was Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lenno...
The Royal House of Stuart became extinct with the death of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart, brother of Charles Edward Stuart, in 1807. Duke Francis of Bavaria is the current senior heir. However, Charles II had a number of illegitimate sons whose surviving descendants in the male line include Charles Gordon-Lennox, 11th Duke of Richmond; Henry FitzRoy, 12th Duke of Grafton; Murray Beauclerk, 14th Duke of St Albans; and Richard Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch. In addition, James II's illegitimate son, James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, founded the House of FitzJamescomprising two branches, one in France and one in Spain. The last of the French branch died in 1967; the senior heir of James II's male-line descendants is Jacobo Hernando Fitz-James Stuart, 20th Duke of Peñaranda de Duero.
Monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland
From the Acts of Union 1707, which came into effect on 1 May 1707, the last Stuart monarch, Anne, became Queen of Great Britain and Ireland.