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James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He was the first monarch to be called the king of Great Britain.
Jacobo Carlos Estuardo 1 (en inglés James VI of Scotland and I of England; Edimburgo, 19 de junio de 1566 -Theobalds House, 27 de marzo de 1625) fue rey de Escocia como Jacobo VI desde el 24 de julio de 1567 y rey de Inglaterra e Irlanda como Jacobo I desde el 24 de marzo de 1603 hasta su muerte.
- Puritans and other Dissenters
- Scottish church
James VI and I, King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland, faced many complicated religious challenges during his reigns in Scotland and England. In Scotland, he inherited a reformed church, the Kirk, which was attempting to rid the country of bishops, dioceses, and parishes and establish a fully Presbyterian system, run by ministers and elders. However, James saw the bishops as the natural allies of the monarchy and frequently came into conflict with the Kirk in his sustained effort t
On James's arrival in London, the Puritan clergy presented him with the Millenary Petition, allegedly signed by a thousand English clergy, requesting reforms in the church, particularly the abolition of confirmation, wedding rings, and the term "priest", and that the wearing of cap and surplice, which they regarded as "outward badges of Popish errours", be made optional. James, however, equated English Puritans with Scottish Presbyterians and, after banning religious petitions, told the Hampton
After the Gunpowder Plot in November 1605, the third Catholic conspiracy against his person in three years, James sanctioned stricter measures to suppress them. In May 1606, Parliament passed an act which could require any citizen to take an Oath of Allegiance, entailing a denial of the pope's authority over the king. James believed that the Oath was merely concerned with civil obedience, a secular transaction between king and subject; but it provoked opposition among Catholics, as it did not ex
In Basilikon Doron, James called the Scottish Reformation "inordinate" and "not proceeding from the prince's order". He therefore attempted to bring the Scottish kirk "so neir as can be" to the English church and reestablish the episcopacy in Scotland, a policy which met with opposition from the Scottish Parliament and General Assembly. In 1610, the boundaries of pre-Reformation dioceses were re-established, and in 1618, James's bishops forced his Five Articles of Perth through a General Assembl
- Esmé Stewart, 1st Duke of Lennox
- Anne of Denmark
- Anne Murray
- Robert Carr, 1st Earl of Somerset
The personal relationships of James VI and I included relationships with his male courtiers and his marriage to Anne of Denmark, with whom he fathered children. The influence his favourites had on politics, and the resentment at the wealth they acquired, became major political issues during the reign of James VI and I. James did not know his parents — his father, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, was murdered in 1567, and his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, was forced to flee when she married the...
At the age of 13, James made his formal entry into Edinburgh. Upon arriving he met the 37-year-old, married, father of 5 children, Franco-Scottish lord Esmé Stewart, 6th Lord d'Aubigny, whom the Puritan leader Sir James Melville described as "of nature, upright, just, and gentle". Having arrived from France, Stewart was an exotic visitor who fascinated the young James. The two became extremely close and it was said by an English observer that "from the time he was 14 years old and no more, that
Following Esme's death James married Anne of Denmark in 1589 to establish a strong Protestant alliance in Continental Europe, a policy he continued by marrying his daughter to the future King of Bohemia. James was initially said to be infatuated with his wife and gallantly crossed the North Sea with a royal retinue to collect her after Anne's initial efforts to sail to England were thwarted by storms. The king, however, was unfaithful to her with Anne Murray and the relationship later cooled and
Between 1593 and 1595, James was romantically linked with Anne Murray, later Lady Glamis, whom he addressed in verse as "my mistress and my love" in a poem he wrote called Ane dreame on his Mistris the Lady Glammis. She was the daughter of John Murray, 1st Earl of Tullibardine, master of the king's household. Anne also had different names, particularly in official documents such as those that discussed her marriage to Lord Glamis. She was referred to as Agnes and Annas Murray of Tullibardine.
Three of James's children grew to adulthood: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, Elizabeth of Bohemia and Charles I of England. Henry died from typhoid fever at the age of 18. Elizabeth, at the age of 16, married Frederick V, then Elector of the Electorate of the Palatinate, and took up her place in the court at Heidelberg. Charles grew up in the shadow of his elder brother, but following Henry's death he became heir to the throne, and succeeded his father in 1625.
A few years later after the controversy over his relationship with Lennox faded away he began a relationship with Robert Carr. In 1607, at a royal jousting contest, the 17-year-old Carr, the son of Sir Thomas Carr or Kerr of Ferniehirst, was knocked from a horse and broke his leg. According to Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, James fell in love with the young man, and as the years progressed showered Carr with gifts. Carr was made a gentleman of the bedchamber and he was noted for his handsom
- Theory of Monarchy
- King and Parliament
- "The Great Contract"
- The Spanish Match
In 1597–8, James wrote two works, The Trew Law of Free Monarchies and Basilikon Doron (Royal Gift), in which he established an ideological base for monarchy. In the Trew Law, he sets out the divine right of kings, explaining that for Biblical reasons kings are higher beings than other men, though "the highest bench is the sliddriest to sit upon". The document proposes an absolutist theory of monarchy, by which a king may impose new laws by royal prerogative but must also pay heed to tradition and to God, who would "stirre up such scourges as pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings". Basilikon Doron, written as a book of instruction for the four-year-old Prince Henry, provides a more practical guide to kingship. Despite banalities and sanctimonious advice, the work is well written, perhaps the best example of James's prose. James's advice concerning parliaments, which he understood as merely the king's "head court", foreshadows his difficulties with the English Commons: "Hold no...
James's difficulties with his first parliament in 1604 ended the initial euphoria of his succession. On 7 July, he prorogued the parliament, having achieved his aims neither for the full union nor for the obtaining of funds. "I will not thank where I feel no thanks due," he remarked in his closing speech. "...I am not of such a stock as to praise fools...You see how many things you did not well...I wish you would make use of your liberty with more modesty in time to come". The parliament of 1604 may be seen as shaping the attitudes of both sides for the rest of the reign, though the difficulties owed more to mutual incomprehension than conscious enmity. On the eve of the state opening of the next parliamentary session on 5 November 1605, a soldier called Guy Fawkes was discovered in the cellars of the parliament buildings guarding a pile of slaves, not far from about twenty barrels of gunpowder with which he intended to blow up Parliament House the following day and cause the destru...
As James's reign progressed, his government faced growing financial pressures. Some of those resulted from creeping inflation and the decreasing purchasing power of the royal income, but James's profligacy and financial incompetence substantially contributed to the mounting debt. Salisbury took over the reins as Lord Treasurer himself in 1608 and, with the backing of the Privy Council, introduced a programme of economic reforms which steadily drove down the deficit. In an attempt to convince James to curb his extravagance, he wrote a series of frank tracts on the matter, and he tried to induce the king to grant limited pensions to his courtiers, rather than showering them with random gifts. A believer in the necessity of parliamentary contribution to government, Salisbury proposed to the Commons, in February 1610, an ambitious financial scheme, known as The Great Contract, whereby Parliament would grant a lump sum of £600,000 to pay off the king's debts in return for ten royal conce...
Another potential source of income was the prospect of a Spanish dowry from a marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, Maria. The policy of the Spanish Match, as it was called, was supported by the Howards and other Catholic-leaning ministers and diplomats—together known as the Spanish Party—but deeply distrusted in Protestant England, a sentiment voiced vociferously in the Commons when James finally called a parliament in 1621 to raise funds for a military expedition in support of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. By the 1620s, events on the continent had stirred up anti-Catholic feeling to a new pitch. A conflict had broken out between the Catholic Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant Bohemians, who had deposed the emperor as their king and elected James's son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, in his place, triggering the Thirty Years' War. James reluctantly summoned parliament as the only means to raise the funds necessary to assist his daughter Elizab...
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Wikimedia Commons has media related to James I of England. James VI and I (1566−1625) — as King James VI of the Kingdom of Scotland (1567−1625), and as King James I of the Kingdom of England and Ireland (1603−1625). For the preceding Scottish monarch, see Category: Mary, Queen of Scots.
- Theatrical depictions
- Film and television
James VI and I has been depicted a number of times in popular culture.
James was first depicted in depth for the modern stage in the four-act comedy Jamie the Saxt by Scottish playwright Robert McLellan. Set in Scotland in the years 1592-94, McLellan's play depicts the King's various conflicts with the Kirk and his Scottish nobles, most particularly with the outlawed Francis Stewart, 5th Earl of Bothwell, in the aftermath of the murder of James Stewart, 2nd Earl of Moray. The play The Burning by Stewart Conn deals similarly with events in the same period, but with
On screen, James has been portrayed by: 1. Lucien Littlefield in To Have and to Hold, a silent adaptation of the novel To Have and to Hold 2. Raymond Hatton in To Have and to Hold, another silent adaptation of To Have and to Hold 3. Jerrold Robertshaw in the British silent film Guy Fawkes, based on the novel by Harrison Ainsworth 4. Jean Kircher and Judith Kircher in Mary of Scotland 5. Manfred Mackeben as a young child in the German film Das Herz der Königin, about his mother Mary 6 ...
James VI and I → King James – King James is massively used due to the King James bible and thanks to the fact that both Scotland and England were Kingdoms. At no point in his life James was known as "James VI and I". He was known as James VI from 1567 to 1603 and as James I from 1603 to 1623 (because England had precedence in the styling of his ...