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  1. en.wikipedia.org › wiki › AstronomyAstronomy - Wikipedia

    Astronomy (from the Greek ἀστρονομία from ἄστρον astron, "star" and -νομία -nomia from νόμος nomos, "law" or "culture") means "law of the stars" (or "culture of the stars" depending on the translation). Astronomy should not be confused with astrology, the belief system which claims that human affairs are correlated ...

  2. es la ciencia natural que estudia los cuerpos celestes del universo, incluidos las estrellas, los planetas, sus satélites naturales, los asteroides, cometas y meteoroides, la materia interestelar, las nebulosas, la materia oscura, las galaxias y demás; por lo que también estudia los fenómenos astronómicos ligados a ellos, como las supernovas, los …

    • History of Astronomy
    • Discoveries
    • Methods
    • Subfields of Astronomy
    • Other Websites

    Ancient

    Early astronomers used only their eyes to look at the stars. They made maps of the constellations and stars for religious reasons and calendars to work out the time of year. Early civilisations such as the Maya people and the Ancient Egyptians built simple observatories and drew maps of the stars positions. They also began to think about the place of Earth in the universe. For a long time people thought Earth was the center of the universe, and that the planets, the stars and the sun went aro...

    Renaissance to modern era

    During the renaissance a priest named Nicolaus Copernicus thought, from looking at the way the planets moved, that the Earth was not the center of everything. Based on previous works, he said that the Earth was a planet and all the planets moved around the sun. This brought back the old idea of heliocentrism. A physicist called Galileo Galilei built his own telescopes, and used them to look more closely at the stars and planets for the first time. He agreed with Copernicus. The Catholic Churc...

    Modern era

    The 20th century after 1920 saw important changes in astronomy. In the early 1920s it began to be accepted that the galaxy in which we live, the Milky Way, is not the only galaxy. The existence of other galaxies was settled by Edwin Hubble, who identified the Andromeda nebulaas a different galaxy. It was also Hubble who proved that the universe was expanding. There were many other galaxies at large distances and they are receding, moving away from our galaxy. That was completely unexpected. I...

    Discoveries broadly come in two types: bodies and phenomena. Bodies are things in the Universe, whether it is a planet like our Earth or a galaxy like our Milky Way. Phenomena are events and happenings in the Universe.

    Instruments

    1. Telescopesare the main tool of observing. They take all the light in a big area and put in into a small area. This is like making your eyes very big and powerful. Astronomers use telescopes to look at things that are far away and dim. Telescopes make objects look bigger, closer, brighter. 2. Spectrometers study the different wavelengthsof light. This shows what something is made of. 3. Many telescopes are in satellites. They are space observatories. The Earth’s atmosphere blocks some parts...

    Techniques

    There are way astronomers can get better pictures of the heavens. Light from a distant source reaches a sensor and gets measured, normally by a human eye or a camera. For very dim sources, there may not be enough light particles coming from the source for it to be seen. One technique that astronomers have for making it visible is using integration (which is like longer exposures in photography).

    Data analysis

    Data analysis is the process of getting more information out of an astronomical observation than by simply looking at it. The observation is first stored as data. This data will then have various techniques used to analyseit.

    Pulsars pulse regularly in radio waves. These turned out to be similar to some (but not all) of a type of bright source in X-rays called a Low-mass X-ray binary. It turned out that all pulsars and some LMXBs are neutron stars and that the differences were due to the environment in which the neutron star was found. Those LMXBs that were not neutron ...

    Astronomy Picture of the Day Archived 2011-01-26 at the Wayback Machine
    • Early History
    • Ancient Times
    • Middle Ages
    • Renaissance and Early Modern Europe
    • Modern Astronomy
    • Historians of Astronomy
    • References
    • Further Reading
    • Refereed Journals
    • External Links

    Early cultures identified celestial objects with gods and spirits. They related these objects (and their movements) to phenomena such as rain, drought, seasons, and tides. It is generally believed that the first astronomers were priests, and that they understood celestial objects and events to be manifestations of the divine, hence early astronomy'...

    Mesopotamia

    The origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, the "land between the rivers" Tigris and Euphrates, where the ancient kingdoms of Sumer, Assyria, and Babylonia were located. A form of writing known as cuneiform emerged among the Sumerians around 3500–3000 BC. Our knowledge of Sumerian astronomy is indirect, via the earliest Babylonian star catalogues dating from about 1200 BC. The fact that many star names appear in Sumerian suggests a continuity reaching into the Early Bronze A...

    India

    Astronomy in the Indian subcontinent dates back to the period of Indus Valley Civilization during 3rd millennium BCE, when it was used to create calendars. As the Indus Valley civilization did not leave behind written documents, the oldest extant Indian astronomical text is the Vedanga Jyotisha, dating from the Vedic period.The Vedanga Jyotisha is attributed to Lagadha and has an internal date of approximately 1350 b.c, and describes rules for tracking the motions of the Sun and the Moon for...

    Greece and Hellenistic world

    The Ancient Greeks developed astronomy, which they treated as a branch of mathematics, to a highly sophisticated level. The first geometrical, three-dimensional models to explain the apparent motion of the planets were developed in the 4th century BC by Eudoxus of Cnidus and Callippus of Cyzicus. Their models were based on nested homocentric spheres centered upon the Earth. Their younger contemporary Heraclides Ponticusproposed that the Earth rotates around its axis. A different approach to c...

    Middle East

    The Arabic and the Persian world under Islam had become highly cultured, and many important works of knowledge from Greek astronomy and Indian astronomy and Persian astronomy were translated into Arabic, used and stored in libraries throughout the area. An important contribution by Islamic astronomers was their emphasis on observational astronomy. This led to the emergence of the first astronomical observatories in the Muslim world by the early 9th century. Zijstar catalogues were produced at...

    Western Europe

    After the significant contributions of Greek scholars to the development of astronomy, it entered a relatively static era in Western Europe from the Roman era through the 12th century. This lack of progress has led some astronomers to assert that nothing happened in Western European astronomy during the Middle Ages.Recent investigations, however, have revealed a more complex picture of the study and teaching of astronomy in the period from the 4th to the 16th centuries. Western Europe entered...

    Copernican Revolution

    During the renaissance period, astronomy began to undergo a revolution in thought known as the Copernican Revolution, which gets the name from the astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, who proposed a heliocentric system, in which the planets revolved around the Sun and not the Earth. His De revolutionibus orbium coelestium was published in 1543. While in the long term this was a very controversial claim, in the very beginning it only brought minor controversy. The theory became the dominant view be...

    Completing the Solar System

    Outside of England, Newton's theory took some time to become established. Descartes' theory of vortices held sway in France, and Huygens, Leibniz and Cassini accepted only parts of Newton's system, preferring their own philosophies. Voltaire published a popular account in 1738. In 1748, the French Academy of Sciences offered a reward for solving the perturbations of Jupiter and Saturn which was eventually solved by Euler and Lagrange. Laplace completed the theory of the planets, publishing fr...

    Stellar astronomy

    Cosmic pluralism is the name given to the idea that the stars are distant suns, perhaps with their own planetary systems.Ideas in this direction were expressed in antiquity, by Anaxagoras and by Aristarchus of Samos, but did not find mainstream acceptance. The first astronomer of the European Renaissance to suggest that the stars were distant suns was Giordano Bruno in his De l'infinito universo et mondi (1584). This idea was among the charges, albeit not in a prominent position, brought agai...

    19th century

    Pre-photography, data recording of astronomical data was limited by the human eye. In 1840, John W. Draper, a chemist, created the earliest known astronomical photograph of the Moon. And by the late 19th century thousands of photographic plates of images of planets, stars, and galaxies were created. Most photography had lower quantum efficiency (i.e. captured less of the incident photons) than human eyes but had the advantage of long integration times (100 ms for the human eye compared to hou...

    20th century

    With the accumulation of large sets of astronomical data, teams like the Harvard Computers rose in prominence which lead to many female astronomers, previously relegated as assistants to male astronomers, gaining recognition in the field. The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) and other astronomy research institutions hired human "computers", who performed the tedious calculations while scientists performed research requiring more background knowledge. A number of discoveries in this peri...

    Scholars Past. Willy Hartner, Otto Neugebauer, B. L. van der Waerden
    Scholars Present. Stephen G. Brush, Stephen J. Dick, Owen Gingerich, Bruce Stephenson, Michael Hoskin, Alexander R. Jones, Curtis A. Wilson
    Astronomer-historians. J. B. J. Delambre, J. L. E. Dreyer, Donald Osterbrock, Carl Sagan, F. Richard Stephenson
    Aaboe, Asger. Episodes from the Early History of Astronomy. Springer-Verlag 2001 ISBN 0-387-95136-9
    Aveni, Anthony F. Skywatchers of Ancient Mexico. University of Texas Press 1980 ISBN 0-292-77557-1
    Eastwood, Bruce. The Revival of Planetary Astronomy in Carolingian and Post-Carolingian Europe, Variorum Collected Studies Series CS 279 Ashgate 2002 ISBN 0-86078-868-7
    Neugebauer, Otto (1969) [1957], The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (2 ed.), Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-22332-2
    Revello, Manuela (2013). "Sole, luna ed eclissi in Omero", in TECHNAI 4, pp. 13-32. Pisa-Roma: Fabrizio Serra editore.
    Magli, Giulio. "On the possible discovery of precessional effects in ancient astronomy." arXiv preprint physics/0407108 (2004).
  3. sco.wikipedia.org › wiki › AstronomyAstronomy - Wikipedia

    Astronomy(frae Greek: αστρονομία) is a naitural sciencethat studies celestial objectsan phenomena. It applees mathematics, physics, an chemistry, in an effort tae expleen the oreegin o thae objects an phenomena an thair evolution.

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