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Hertfordshire (/ ˈ h ɑːr t f ər d ʃ ɪ ər / (); often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England.It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west.
Hertfordshire / ˈhɑːfətʲˌʃə / (abreviado como Herts) es uno de los cuarenta y siete condados de Inglaterra, Reino Unido, con capital en Hertford. Ubicado en la región Este limita al norte con Bedfordshire y Cambridgeshire , al este con Essex , al sur con Gran Londres y al oeste con Buckinghamshire .
- Early History
- Early Middle Ages
- High Middle Ages
- Late Middle Ages
- Modern Era
- Twentieth Century
- Crime and Criminals
- Authors of Hertfordshire
The earliest evidence of human occupation in Hertfordshire come from a gravel pit in Rickmansworth. The finds (of flint tools) date back 350,000 years,long before Britain became an island. People have probably lived in the land now called Hertfordshire for about 12,000 years, since the Mesolithic period in Ware (making Ware one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe). Settlement continued through the Neolithic period, with evidence of occupation sites, enclosures, long barrows and even an unusual dog cemetery in the region. Although occupied, the area had a relatively low population in the Neolithic and early Bronze Age, perhaps because of its heavy, relatively poorly drained soil. Nevertheless, just south of present-day Ware and Hertford there is some evidence of an increase in the population, with typical round huts and farming activity having been found at a site called Foxholes Farm. There is no evidence of settlement at Hertford itself from this period,although War...
Alfred died in 899, and his son Edward the Elder worked with Alfred's son-in-law, Æthelred, and daughter, Æthelflæd, to re-take parts of southern England from the Norse. During these campaigns he built the two burhs of Hertford as already noted. Their sites have not been found, and probably lie beneath the streets of Hertford itself. From Hertford, together with Stafford, Tamworth and Witham, Edward and Æthelflæd pushed the Danes back to Northumbria in a series of battles. Anglo-Saxon Hertford is an example of town planningas demonstrated by its organised rectangular grid street pattern. There is considerable evidence of a mint in Hertford at this period. Edward the Martyr (from 975 to 978), Æthelred the Unready (from 978 to 1016) and Knut the Great (from 1016 to 1035) all had coins struck there. The mint itself has not been found, but many coins exist. Over 90% of these coins were found on the Continent or in Scandinavia, which may suggest they were used for payment of Danegeld. Th...
After the Norman Invasion, Edgar the Ætheling (the successor to Harold Godwinson) surrendered to William the Conqueror at Berkhamsted.[Notes 4] William created the manor of Berkhamsted, and bestowed it on Robert, Count of Mortain, who was his half-brother. From Robert's son William de Mortain it passed to King Henry I, and is still owned by the Royal Family.Henry held court there in 1123. The Domesday Book, completed in 1086, lists 168 settlements in Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire's population grew quickly from then until the Black Death reached the county in 1349. The Norman church at St Albans Abbeywas finished in 1088. Hertfordshire had a conflicted relationship with the King during the High Middle Ages. Like most counties in the south-east, most of Hertfordshire was in private (i.e. non-royal) ownership during the High Middle Ages. Royal land comprised about 7% of the county's area. The first Earl of Hertford, Gilbert de Clare, was so titled in 1138. He bore one of the first two s...
In 1302, King Edward I granted Kings Langley to the Prince of Wales. King Edward II's "favourite", Piers Gaveston, loved the palace at Kings Langley and he was buried there after his death in 1312. Edmund of Langley, the first Duke of York and founder of the House of York, was born in Kings Langley on 5 June 1341 and died there on 1 August 1402. Richard of Wallingford, the mathematician and astronomer, became Abbot of St Albans in 1326.He is regarded as the father of modern trigonometry. Hertford Castle was used as a gaol for a series of important captives during the Hundred Years' War. This was actually a series of separate wars that lasted a total of 116 years, between 1337 and 1453. The Plantagenet Kings of England fought the Valois Kings of France, almost entirely on French soil. Queen Isabella was imprisoned by her son, the King, in Hertford Castle in 1330,[Notes 7] as were King David II of Scotland and his queen in 1346, after the Battle of Neville's Cross. King John II of Fra...
The long Elizabethan peace, and turmoil in Europe, conspired to raise English commercial power during the Renaissance. European refugees also contributed to English wealth. London was the centre of this new power,and Hertfordshire's commerce benefited accordingly. In November 1524, Catherine of Aragon held court at Hertford Castle. On 3 May 1547, King Edward VI granted his sister Marythe manor and castle of Hertford, tolls from the bridge at Ware, and the manor of Hertingfordbury. Under Mary, who as Queen earned the sobriquet "Bloody Mary", three "heretics" (that is, protestants who refused to become catholic) were burnt at the stake in Hertfordshire. William Hale, Thomas Fust, and George Tankerville, were executed at Barnet, Ware, and St Albans respectively. In 1554, Queen Mary granted the town of Hertford its first charter for a fee of thirteen shillings and fourpence, due annually at Michaelmas. Queen Elizabeth I lived at Hatfield Palace near Hatfield as a girl. When plague ravag...
In the last two centuries, Hertfordshire's population has multiplied tenfold. Around the end of the 18th century, its population was around 95,000. In 1821, it was just under 130,000. In 1881 it was just over 203,000, and by 1921 it was just over 333,000. By the 2001 census, it was 1,033,977.During the 18th century brewing became an important industry in Hertfordshire. Smallpox broke out in Hertford gaol in 1729, and spread into the town. The next year, smallpox hit Hitchin, killing 158 people. The River Lea Navigation Act of 1739 led to the river being improved, becoming navigable as far as Ware. Locks were built in Ware, Broxbourne, and "Stanstead" (presumably Stanstead Abbotts rather than Stansted Mountfitchet, which is not on the Lea). By 1797, the Grand Junction Canal (now called the Grand Union Canal) was being cut. Its highest point is the Tring Summit in Hertfordshire, which was formed in 1799.Because a canal barge can hold so much more than a wagon, the waterways expansions...
Pre World War II
The two flagship garden cities of Letchworth and Welwyn were central to the development of town planning in England. The first Garden City Company formed in 1903, with £300,000 of capital, and by 1914, Letchworth had a population of around 10,000. Ebenezer Howard bought nearly 1,500 acres (6.1 km2) in 1919, and the first house in Welwyn Garden City was occupied in 1920.The town's official date of founding was 29 April. In the First World War, the Hertfordshire Yeomanry mobilised in September...
After the war, Stevenage was the first town to be redeveloped under the New Towns Act 1946. Hatfield remained closely connected with the aircraft industry, and about 10% of the aircraft workers in England worked in Hertfordshire in the 1960s. The de Havilland Comet was developed in the town. The London Government Act 1963 created an enlarged Greater London in 1965 which took Barnet from Hertfordshire, but in exchange, the county gained Potters Bar and South Mimms from Middlesex. The county's...
Hertfordshire has a larger number of listed buildings and village greens pre-dating 1700 than Greater London, see for example Grade II* listed buildings in Hertfordshire which tend to be in this category. All 10 District (or Borough) Councils have designated conservation areas.
King Stephen held court at St Albans in 1143. He arrested Geoffrey de Mandeville, who held shrievalty of London, Middlesex and Hertfordshire from the pretender Empress Matilda. De Mandeville surrendered his castles, including the one he had recently built at South Mimms,and went on to become a noted outlaw and bandit. A seventeenth-century highwaywoman, called the "Wicked Lady", preyed on travellers on Nomansland Common along Watling Street to the far end of Wales. This may have been Lady Katherine Ferrers of Markyate Cell 1634-1660 who was married to a detached husband Thomas Fanshaw(e) and whose body was carried across the county to be buried at Ware. By the time of an 1840 fire at the large house, a folklore rhyme had arisen: Near the cell there is a well Near the well there is a tree Near the tree the treasurebe In one of the last witch trials recorded, Jane Wenham, of Walkern, was convicted of witchcraft in 1712. The accused was over the age of 70 at the time. Queen Anne pardon...
Jane Austen (1775–1817) wrote about Hertfordshire. Pride and Prejudice is set in a fictionalised Hertfordshire. Sir Francis Bacon (1561–1626), writer and Lord Chancellor, lived at Gorhambury near St Albans and is buried at St Michael's. J. M. Barrie (1860–1937) based his character Peter Pan on Peter Llewelyn Davies, his friend's son, after visiting their family in Berkhamsted. Dame Juliana Berners (1388-?) was the author of the Boke of St Albans, a guide to hunting, hawking and heraldry, which was printed by Abbey Press in 1486. John Bunyan (1628–1688) was linked to Hitchin, and although he was gaoled outside the county in Bedford, he was a member of the Baptist Church at Kensworth (at that time in Hertfordshire, though now in Bedfordshire). He preached extensively in Hertfordshire. George Chapman (c. 1559 – 1634), a poet and playwright remembered for his translations of the Iliad and the Odyssey, was born in Hitchin and lived there. Geoffrey Chaucer(c. 1343 – 1400) was Clerk of the...
- Organisation and Administration
- University Symbols
- Academic Profile
- Student Life
- Partner Institutions
- Notable Alumni
The original campus for the university was at Roe Green in Hatfield, where it was founded as a technical college with a particular focus on training aerospace engineers for the aerospace industry that was then prevalent in Hatfield. The Gape family of St Michael's Manor in St Albans owned the land at Roe Green from the late 17th century. In the 1920s they sold it to Hill, a farmer, who then sold it to Alan Butler, chairman of the de Havilland Aircraft Company who lived at Beech Farm nearby. I...
In 1969 Hatfield College of Technology became Hatfield Polytechnic, offering honours degree courses in engineering and technology. In 1970 an observatory was built on the Bayfordbury Campus. Wall Hall and Balls Park Teacher Training Colleges merged in 1976 to become Hertfordshire College of Higher Education. In the same year Hatfield Polytechnic took over Balls Park. By 1977 more than ten per cent of the 4000 came from more than forty different countries. The Students' Union Social Centre ope...
In 2000, Olivia de Havilland, cousin of Sir Geoffrey de Havilland, visited the university to mark the inauguration of a project to build a new campus named after her cousin. The university's 50th anniversary was celebrated in 2002, by which time it had 21,695 students. In 2003 Tim Wilson succeeded Neil Buxton as vice-chancellor and the de Havilland campus opened. Hertfordshire Sports Village also opened in 2003. In 2005 the university launched the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Postgraduate M...
The University of Hertfordshire was established as an independent Higher Education Corporation in 1989 under the terms of the Education Reform Act (1989). The institution is an exempt charity. The board of governors has responsibility for running the university, while the academic board is responsible for academic quality and standards, academic policies, research and scholarship. The vice-chancellor oversees its day-to-day running. The current chancellor is Robert Gascoyne-Cecil and the current vice-chancellor is Quintin McKellar. In October 2019, the current deputy vice-chancellor, Professor Ian Campbell, is leaving to become vice-chancellor of Liverpool John Moores University. The following people have been vice-chancellors of the university. 1. Neil Buxton (1987-2003) 2. Tim Wilson (2003–2010) 3. Quintin McKellar(2011–present) The university runs on a three-term calendar in which the academic year is divided into three terms: Autumn (September–December), Spring (January–April),...
The university is primarily based on two campuses, College Lane and de Havilland. It owns a BioPark facility, which is a science park managed by Exemplas on behalf of the university. It also provides 6,000 square metres of laboratory and office space to life science and health technology businesses. As of 2014, there are currently 27 permanent and virtual tenants. Additionally, a pool and climbing wall are among its sports facilities. It has also the Weston auditorium, for arts events, two art galleries and owns one of the highly recognised teaching observatories in the United Kingdom. With over 25,130 students, including more than 5,200 international studentsthat together represent 100 countries, Hertfordshire has a global alumni of over 165,000.
The University of Hertfordshire prescribes academic dress for its members. In accordance with tradition, Hertfordshire's academic dress consists of a gown, a cap and a hood. The black gown and square cap familiar to all readers of the Beano had evolved into their present form in England by the end of the Reformation. The hood, which is now the distinctive mark of a university-level qualification, is medieval in origin, and was originally functional.
The ceremonial mace was produced in 1999 by craftsman Martyn Pugh, a Freeman of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, member of the British Jewellers Association and a Founder Member of the Association of British Designer Silversmiths. Its design symbolises the university's origins, expertise and associations. Its shape is inspired by the shape of an aeroplane wing symbolising the university's origin in the aviation industry. The head of the mace is engraved with zodiac symbolsrepresenting th...
Coat of arms
The university's coat of arms was granted in 1992. The shield is charged with an oak tree taken from the coat of arms of the former Hatfield Rural District, the constellation Perseus (containing the binary star Algol) and a representation of the letter "H" recalling the emblem of the former Hatfield Polytechnic. The crest, a Phoenix rising from an astral crown, represents the university's evolution from a technical college training apprentices for the aviation industry. The two harts supporti...
The university's School of Pharmacy has been awarded full Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain accreditation.The University of Hertfordshire is recognised as one of the top twenty universities in the world to study animation. According to Destination of Leavers from Higher Education 2012–13 93.2 per cent of its full-time, first degree UK graduates are in work or further study within six months of graduating. Four of the university's schools achieved scores of 98 per...
University of Hertfordshire ranks 601–800 among world universities in Times Higher Education World University Rankings in 2019.It comes under the ranking of 101-150 under Young University Rankings 2018. In subject specific rankings, it has an overall world ranking between 301-400 in Arts and Humanities in 2019. It had a subject specific world ranking between 150-200 in European Teaching in 2018. The Complete University Guideranked UH courses in Food Science, Social Work, Optometry Ophthalmolo...
QAA and OIA
The last Quality Assurance Agencyinstitutional audit for the university was in March 2009. The outcome was that 'confidence can reasonably be placed in the soundness of the institution's present and likely future management of the academic standards of the awards that it offers'. According to the complaint statistics, from the Office of the Independent Adjudicator, the university issued 69 completion ofprocedures letters in relation to student complaints, in 2013. This is below the band mediu...
The university has three research institutes: Health and Human Sciences Research Institute; Science and Technology Research Institute; Social Sciences, Arts and Humanities Research Institute. Also an expanding research profile with key strengths in areas of nursing, psychology, history, philosophy, physics and computer science.
In 1992, it established University of Hertfordshire Press, whose first publication was a book celebrating the institution's change in status from polytechnic to university.
The main source of nightlife is the Forum, which houses three entertainment spaces, a restaurant, a café, multiple bars and onsite parking. Hertfordshire Students' Union (HSU) is the Students' Union of the University of Hertfordshire. The Students' Union Social Centre was opened in 1977. The Hatfield Technical College's management encouraged the establishment of a Student Representative Council (SRC) in 1982, to create a sense of unity and expand the social activities of its day students. The SRC was affiliated to the National Union of Students but initially restricted itself largely to social activities. After 1988 it began to campaign on issues such as improvements to the canteen, lifting the ban on religious or political activity within the then Hatfield Polytechnic, and for a formal students' union. The sectarian ban was finally lifted in 1992 and a Union granted in 1995. However, the canteen continued to be an issue throughout the 2000s. The Students' Union at the University of...
The university holds a number of formal links with top-ranking institutions from around the world to share teaching and research and facilitate staff and student exchanges. 1. Chulalongkorn University, Thailand 2. James Cook University, Australia 3. McGill University, Canada 4. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 5. Stony Brook University, US 6. University of Oklahoma, US 7. Yonsei University, Korea Aside from its international partners, the university has also strong regional agenda and a number of partner institutions in the region: Elstree Screen Arts Academy a university technical college located in Borehamwood; The Watford UTC, a University Technical College for the Watford area.The UTC specialises in Event Management and Computer Sciences.
The university has notable alumni and staff in a number of disciplines. Hertfordshire has more than 5,200 international students and a global network of more than 160,000 alumni.
Hertford ( / ˈhɑːrtfərd / HART-fərd, locally / ˈhɑːrfərd / HAR-fərd) is the county town of Hertfordshire, England, and is also a civil parish in the East Hertfordshire district of the county. The town has a population of approximately 26,000, according to the 2011 census.
- Belangrijkste Plaatsen
Het hoogste punt (245 meter boven de zeespiegel) van Hertfordshire ligt vlak bij het dorpje Hastoe, bij Tring.
Hertfordshire was aanvankelijk de naam voor het gebied rond het fort rond Hertford, ten tijde van de heerschappij van Eduard de Oudere aan het begin van de 10e eeuw. Het eerste geschreven gebruik van de naam dateert uit 1011,toen het gebruikt werd in de Angelsaksische Kroniek. Volgens het Domesday Book had het graafschap negen herred, te weten Tring en Danais (later samengevoegd), Braughing, Broadwater, Cashio, Edwinstree, Hertford, Hitchin en Odsey. In 1613 werd het graafschap het startpunt van de New River, een kanaal dat Londen van drinkwater moest voorzien. Delen van zuidelijk Hertfordshire werden in 1965 bij Greater London gevoegd, en vormen nu het bestuurlijk gebied Barnet. Tegelijkertijd verkreeg het graafschap dankzij de bestuurlijke vernieuwing een deel van Middlesex. Vanaf de jaren '20 tot eind jaren '80 stond in Borehamwood het grootste Britse filmstudiocomplex, waar ook MGM haar werk deed. In 2005 deden zich in Hemel Hempstead enkele grote explosies voor, met een kracht...
Zoals in de meeste geïndustrialiseerde landen is de dienstensector in Hertfordshire de grootste werkgever. In 2003 nam deze sector bijna tachtig procent van de bruto toegevoegde waarde voor zijn rekening. Landbouw en industriezorgden voor respectievelijk 0,4 en 21 procent. In Hertfordshire zijn de hoofdkwartieren van enkele grote Britse bedrijven gevestigd, zoals Tesco in Cheshunt, JD Wetherspoon in Watford en DSG International in Hemel Hempstead. Hatfield bezat vroeger een luchtvaartindustrie.
Vanwege Hertfordshire's strategische positie tussen Londen, het noordoosten, noordwesten en de Midlands is het graafschap ruim voorzien van verbindingen met snelwegen en het spoorwegnet.De M1, M11 en de M25 doorkruisen allen het graafschap, en de Metropolitan Line van de metro van Londen verbindt Watford met Londen. Het graafschap heeft daarnaast treinverbinden naar Yorkshire en Schotland (vanaf Stevenage) en naar de Midlands en Wales via Watford.
Van de bevolking is 15,1 % ouder dan 65 jaar. De werkloosheidbedraagt 2,1 % van de beroepsbevolking (cijfers volkstelling 2001). Het aantal inwoners steeg van ongeveer 984.300 in 1991 naar 1.033.977 in 2001.
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